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ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN ORGONE DEVICES (Part 2)


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?
Early and mid-term laboratory experiments
with orgone apparatus

Roberto Maglione – Dionisio Ferrari

Synopsis

In this paper, the second of a series of three papers on the orgone motor which will appear on the Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, early measurements of electrical parameters both on 10-fold orgone accumulators, and on 10-fold tube capacitors are reported. A subsequent 5-year (mid-term) investigation on two 10-fold tube capacitors, with the organic layer of each capacitor characterized by a different thickness of the organic material, is also described. Spontaneous formation of tension of some mVolt, not attributable to traditional models of physics, was found in all the investigated orgone apparatuses. In the mid-term investigation, a cyclical trend of the tension versus the years was also observed. Data analysis is also included in the paper. All the experimental investigations were performed in an in-house laboratory, Sassuolo (Mo), Italy.

To our best knowledge Reich never did publications in which he reported results of experiments aimed at verifying the formation of a tension and the production of electric currents inside orgone accumulators or orgone apparatus, in general. He found, by using an electroscope, that the measuring device behaved differently inside and outside an accumulator indicating that a difference of electrostatic charge could exist between the interior of the accumulator and the environment outside it. However, he never tried to quantify and measure the presence of an electric tension on two opposite metallic sides of the apparatuses by a voltmeter (1). Even in the years after Reich’s death no study was performed aimed at finding whether an orgone accumulator or any other orgone apparatus could produce an electric current. 
With this aim in mind, we carried out in the last years laboratory experiments with the purpose of determining the presence of a tension and of electric currents in orgone apparatus, and above all, in orgone accumulators and tube capacitors made of alternated layers of metallic and non-metallic materials. This arrangement is typical of a Reich orgone accumulator and blanket, but it resembles and displays also a marked similarity with those used by Zamboni, more than two centuries ago in his dry piles (2).
First investigations were conducted both inside and outside orgone accumulators built of different organic and inorganic materials. To measure the presence of a tension and of electric currents in an open 10-fold accumulator, made of alternated layers of steel wool (grade 0000) and plastic sheet, two grips each fixing a plate made of paper sheet, galvanized iron sheet, and wood were used. The plates were placed either on the internal side or on the external side of the accumulator. They were connected to a low capacity capacitor (4.7 mFarad) made of plastic film, which in turn was connected to a millivoltmeter. A JFET amplifier able to increase the input impedance to 50 MOhm was also used.  However, no tension was detected with this experimental arrangement in any of the tested orgone accumulators.
Figure 1 shows the experimental set-up with the grips and the plates used during the measurements placed either inside (figure on the left) or outside (figure on the right) of the orgone accumulator.

  

Figure 1 – Plates put either inside (left) or outside (right) the 10-fold orgone accumulator

The two plates were then placed both inside and outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (figure 2), and measurements were performed with no capacitor in the circuit. Tensions as high as 10 mVolt were observed in these last measurements.

Figure 2 – Plates on both the sides of the 10-fold orgone accumulator

In this latter case the measured tension could not sustain an electric current since the generated current was so low that could be read by the measuring device only after some hours of accumulation and was dissipated by a single application of the measuring device. Further experiments involved fixed tube capacitors made of alternated layers of paper sheet and aluminum foil. The number of paper sheets the fixed capacitors were constructed was higher than those of the aluminum foils since the structure started and ended with the paper. The paper used was of the 80 g/m2 type, while the aluminium foil had a thickness of 0.02 mm. Aluminum foils were connected in alternated parallel, and folded at both ends to allow electrical connection. Height of the two tube capacitors was 18 cm, and internal diameter was 7 cm. Figure 3 shows a scheme of the tube capacitor (left) and of the final unit (right).

  

Figure 3 – Tube capacitor. Scheme (left) and capacitor final view (right)

Two similar capacitors made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (with the paper at both ends) were put one inside a 10-fold orgone accumulator (constructed with alternated layers of plastic and steel wool), and the second one outside at a distance of around 3 metres from the accumulator. Both capacitors were kept at the same height from the floor. The average charge storage capacity of the capacitors was 150 nFarad. Figure 4 shows the scheme of the circuit used in the measurements, and the experimental set-up related to the capacitor inside the 10-fold accumulator.

  

Figure 4 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left) and capacitor inside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (right)

The circuit in figure 4 was equipped with a selector that alternately connected the two capacitors during the measurements. When no measure was performed it was set in the central position so as to disconnect the capacitors from the circuit, and thus enabling the charging of the plates. Measurements were carried out as follows:

  1. A capacitor was connected to the circuit via the selector, and a first reading of the tension was done. This value provided the maximum charge of the system;
  2. A second reading was made after 30 seconds which gave the tension related to the current continuously generated on the internal resistance of the instrument;
  3. A third reading was made after 3-5 minutes in order to verify the stability of the previous measurement made at 30 seconds;
  4. The procedure was then repeated on the other capacitor.

In a 12-day run, performed in December 2010, readings of the instantaneous tension, and that after 30 seconds, proved that the values measured inside the orgone accumulator were on average lower than those obtained for the capacitor that was located outside. The following figures 5 and 6 show the behaviour of the average hourly tension as measured at 30 seconds on the capacitors located either inside or outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator, as against the weather conditions (clear and bad weather).

Figure 5 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor inside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)
Figure 6 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor outside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)

From the above figures it can be noted that the behaviour of the average hourly tension after 30 seconds is smoother for the capacitor kept inside the orgone accumulator, with no appreciable change versus the variation of weather conditions. On the other hand the average hourly tension measured on the capacitor located outside the accumulator shows a more erratic behaviour for both clear and bad weather conditions, and in some cases with negative values when the tension was measured during bad weather. Average hourly tension for the capacitor located inside the accumulator was 0.51 mVolt and 0.37 mVolt for clear weather, and bad weather conditions, respectively; while for the capacitor located outside the orgone accumulator average tension was 1.28 mVolt and -0.18 mVolt, for clear weather and bad weather conditions, respectively. In case, we consider the module of the tension on the capacitor located outside the accumulator (no need to make this conversion for the capacitor inside the orgone accumulator) we obtain 1.30 mVolt, and 0.44 mVolt for clear weather and bad weather, respectively. A Student’s t-test, carried out on the values of the average hourly tension measured at the tube capacitors inside and outside the orgone accumulator during clear weather, showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of data (p-value = 0.0024). Because of the unequal size of the two samples, Welch’s t-test was instead used to analyse the two groups of values measured during bad weather. A statistically significant difference was also found for these two groups (p-value = 0.0456) (3). No relationship between tension and time of day was instead found, though an increase of the tension in the early morning and in the afternoon for the curve of the capacitor outside the orgone accumulator related to clear weather can be observed, completely resembling the curve obtained with the measurements carried out by Reich with the electroscope (4).

Mid-term laboratory experiments with fixed tube capacitors

In a further series of experiments different types of tube capacitors were tested. They were characterized by a different ratio of the organic/inorganic materials. Measurements were done on 10-fold capacitors where the ratio of the paper sheet to the aluminum foil was 1C/1A, 2C/1A, 3C/1A, 4C/1A, and 1C/2A, where C stands for paper sheet and A for aluminum foil, while the figure gives the number of sheets or foils used in each layer. Capacitors with charge storage capacity from 70 nFarad (4C/1A) to 182 nFarad (1C/1A) were tested. The capacitors were put in the laboratory where neither orgone devices nor electromagnetic appliances were present. They were located a few centimetres apart from each other so as to minimize any possible influences of electrostatic field variations due to air movements inside the laboratory, or electrostatic phenomena accidentally produced. Figure 7 shows the electrical circuit used in this first series of measurements (left), and a view of two of the tested capacitors connected by electrical wires to the measuring instrument (right).

  

Figure 7 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left), and view of the capacitors (right)

The resistance of 1 MOhm directly applied to the capacitors did not allow a charge build-up between the plates, whose variations against time could have been difficult to evaluate. This arrangement made the two capacitors behave as current generators. The measured tension corresponded therefore to the instantaneous power generated when the measurement was made. Figure 8 reports the behaviour of the average measured daily tension of two of the capacitors under study monitored for a period of 5 continuous years. One of the capacitors was made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (1C/1A), while the other capacitor consisted of 10 alternated layers of two paper sheets and one of aluminum foil (2C/1A). Storage capacity of the 2 capacitors was 182 nFarad and 103 nFarad for the 1C/1A, and 2C/1A, respectively. Measurements were made daily from June 21, 2011 to June 20, 2016 with at least one set of measures performed in the morning (around from 7 to 8). In many cases a measure in the afternoon was also performed. In this latter case values were averaged to obtain only one daily value. In addition, measurements of the tension in different times of the day were sometimes carried out on the two capacitors. It was observed the measurement carried out in the morning might be very well representative of the averaged values of the tension measured during the whole day, even though it was noted that the tension continuously varied during the day with an oscillation difficult to predict.

Figure 8 – Behaviour of average measured daily tension versus time (June 21, 2011-June 20, 2016)

From the results in the above figure it can be observed that the two capacitors were characterized by a cyclical behaviour, resembling a bell-shaped curve, where the average daily tension is increasing from zero to reach maximum values depending on the capacitor, and then decreasing again to zero. A period of some months in which they were dormant can also be observed for both the capacitors. An inversion of the polarity was also noticed, above all for the 1C/1A capacitor, and only occasionally for the other capacitor.

From the measured data we noted that the generation of current seemed not to be the consequence of capture of photon corpuscles of an electromagnetic nature. In addition, the tested capacitors did not produce any tension over a period of a few months, and then started up again, thus appearing to negate the hypothesis that the tension might be produced by electrochemical phenomena, or as a result of a capture of electrostatic nature. Data analysis was performed on the absolute values of the (average) daily tension. This was done since the target of the present study was to evaluate the production of electric current and power, and these physical parameters are not dependent on the type of the polarity of the tension the capacitors possessed. When the tension on the capacitors changes sign the electrons are changing or reversing direction of flow. In this way, the instrument does not measure a production of charges but only the flow of electrons that an external energy put in motion in producing an electric current. Accordingly, if we consider the generation of electric power or energy only, the polarity of the tension, and the resulting direction of flow of the electrons, is not a decisive parameter, and hence resorting to the module or the absolute value of the tension fits the purpose of our study. Since, from the measured data shown in figure 8, it was seen that a cyclical, bell-shaped trend characterized the behaviour of the data versus time, with a break of some months in which the two capacitors were dormant between each cycle, it was decided to analyse the data according to a cyclical period of 12 months, i.e. from June 21 of one year to June 20 of the next year. This was done to give continuity to the period in which the capacitors were producing a tension and generating an electric current, so as not to interrupt this trend at the end of the civil year, i.e. from January 1 to December 31. Accordingly, the results of the analysed data are reported in a five 12-month period format, each one starting on June 21 and ending on June 20 next year, and precisely 2011-2012; 2012-2013; 2013-2014; 2014-2015; and 2015-2016.

Following figure 9 shows the trend of the absolute value of the daily tension of both capacitors averaged for the 5-year period.

Figure 9 – Absolute daily tension averaged for the 5-year period

Figure 10 shows the behaviour of the total absolute tension accumulated in each monitored cyclical period, i.e. from June 21 to June 20 next year, for each capacitor. From this figure it can be observed the increasing value of the total tension against the time, mainly for the 1C/1A capacitor. Total tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 84.7 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 215.4 and 367.8 mVolt (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase, characterized by a more irregular trend, from 26.8 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 143.2 and 506.8 mV (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 10 – Behaviour of total absolute tension versus time

Figure 11 shows the behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus time as measured on both the capacitors. This value has been obtained by dividing the total absolute tension, for each cyclical period, to the corresponding number of days in which the tension was recorded. From the figure it can be seen the trend of the average daily absolute tension is similar to that of the total absolute tension (in figure 10), with a more constant and smoother behaviour for the 1C/1A capacitor. Average daily absolute tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 0.38 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 1.13 and 1.67 mVolt/day (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase from 0.18 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 0.76 and 2.41 mVolt/day (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 11 – Behaviour of average daily absolute tension versus time

Figure 12 shows the number of days where the capacitors were active and were producing a tension. It can be seen from the figure the trend is a little higher for the 1C/1A capacitor; and a slight increasing trend versus time can be observed for both the capacitors. Production time ranges from 191 to 269 days for the 1C/1A capacitor (average 226.8 days); and from 150 to 236 days for the 2C/1A capacitor (average 198.6 days).

Figure 12 – Behaviour of production days versus time

The increasing trend in the production days of the tension might be related to a saturation the capacitors were subjected, in the first period of functioning, to the orgone energy available in the outside atmospheric orgonomic field. Progression of the production days during the years might be due also to environmental causes or to the aging of the capacitors. Table 1 through 3 show the values of the total absolute tension, average daily absolute tension, and production days versus weather conditions during measurements, for each monitored cyclical period.

 

TOTAL ABSOLUTE TENSION [mVolt]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

84.7

26.8

42.1

13.5

32.8

10.6

9.8

2.7

2012-2013

348,0

143.2

79.1

51.2

246.6

82.3

22.3

9.7

2013-2014

215.4

375.8

118.0

232.2

94.7

138,0

2.7

5.6

2014-2015

367.8

507.8

190.3

219.4

166.4

281.8

11.1

6.6

2015-2016

349.8

179.3

168.7

85.9

178.1

90.9

3.0

1.3

Table 1 – Data related to the total absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

 

AVERAGE DAILY ABSOLUTE TENSION [mVolt/day]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

Snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

0.38

0.18

0.36

0.18

0.35

0.17

0.82

0.23

2012-2013

1.67

0.82

1.04

0.78

2.06

0.84

1.72

0.88

2013-2014

1.13

1.70

1.17

2.05

1.08

1.30

1.35

2.80

2014-2015

1.51

2.41

1.42

1.96

1.60

2.97

1.85

1.65

2015-2016

1.29

0.76

1.15

0.72

1.47

0.81

1.00

0.43

Table 2- Data related to the average daily absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

 

PRODUCTION DAYS [#]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

Snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

221

150

117

77

92

61

12

12

2012-2013

209

175

76

66

120

98

13

11

2013-2014

191

221

101

113

88

106

2

2

2014-2015

244

211

134

112

104

95

6

4

2015-2016

269

236

147

119

121

113

3

3

Table 3 – Data related to the production days versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

From an analysis of the above data versus weather conditions the following observations can be drawn.

  1. The total, and the average daily absolute tension during clear, overcast/rainy, and snowy weather for each cyclical period are following the same trend previously observed for the whole set of data, independently from the weather conditions. Following figure 13 shows the trend regarding the total absolute tension versus time recorded during clear weather for both capacitors.
  2. Figure 13 – Behaviour of the total absolute tension versus time during clear weather for both capacitors

  3. There is no substantial difference from the values recorded during different type of weather, as instead one might expect for orgone apparatus, mainly between clear weather and overcast/rainy weather, where the former values in general are higher. A statistical analysis performed by the Student’s t-test on the total absolute tension samples representing clear and overcast/rainy weather for the two tube capacitors confirmed this assumption, as no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of data, with p-value = 0.6137, and p-value = 0.9966 for the 1C/1A and 1C/2A capacitor, respectively. In some cases we also noticed that the values obtained during overcast/rainy weather were even higher than those recorded during clear weather. In addition, the difference in the construction characteristics of the two capacitors did not affect the data measured during different weather conditions, and no large differences were found between the performances of the two capacitors. Figure 14 shows the trend of the average daily absolute tension for the whole period of measurements, i.e. 2011-2016, for both the capacitors. From the figure a very small increase in the values related to overcast/rain, and snowy weather can be observed when compared to those related to clear weather for both capacitors.
Figure 14 – Behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus weather conditions for the whole period of monitoring

As we already described above, in our laboratory arrangements we measured a current of electrons, as well as the tension that produced such electric current, by making the electrons flow in a resistance. This in turn gave us a measure of the maximum instantaneous power provided by the tube capacitors. In other words, the tension (the polarity does not matter when making a determination of the generated power), that we read at the measuring instrument and that is shown on the graphs of figure 8, makes a current to flow inside a 1 MOhm resistance, to whom the capacitors are connected. The flow of electrons develops an instantaneous electric power or energy per unit of time that can be calculated by the following equation:

P = V∙I                                                                                                            (1)

Where has been set:

P       = electric power, in Watt or Joule∙second-1
V       = tension (module) at the capacitor, in Volt
I        = current intensity in the external circuit, in Ampere

The electric current generated is given by:

aa                                                                                                  (2)

Being the tube capacitors closed on a 1 MOhm resistance, and the tension 1.29 mV (the one that corresponds to the average daily value for the 1C/1A capacitor in the 2015-2016 period, see table 2), and substituting the above values in eq. (2), we have:

I = 1.29∙10-3/106 = 1.29∙10-9 Ampere

and hence the electric power from eq. (1) is:

P = 1.29∙10-3∙1.29∙10-9 = 1.66∙10-12 Watt,

Considering this value constant over 24 hours, the energy produced is given by:

E = P∙t                                                                                                 (3)

And substituting the numerical values in the above eq. (3), we have:  

E = 1.66∙10-12 ∙24 = 39.8∙10-12 Watt∙hour

Or,

E = 39.8∙10-12∙3,600 = 143.3∙10-9 Joule

Being the production of the energy extended to a period of 269 days (for the period 2015-2016 in table 3), the energy produced in this period of time (a cyclical year) is:

Etot = 39.8∙10-12∙269 days = 10.7∙10-9 Watt∙hour

or

Etot = 143.3∙10-9∙269 = 38.5∙10-6 Joule

If we consider a small led that requires 8∙10-3 Watt to run, we can calculate the time it is remaining lighted, as follows:

aaa

An energy, the one produced by the 1C/1A capacitor in the cyclical period 2015-2016, able to turn on a small led for about 0.005 seconds. Assumption done in making the above calculation is that the instantaneous measure carried out in the morning and (when available) in the afternoon (and then averaged) can correspond to the daily average value. A value, as we have already discussed, that is not dependent on the polarity of the tension on the tube capacitor.

Discussion

From the data reported in the previous section, obtained from daily measurements of the tension on two tube capacitors, built according to Reich and Zamboni standards (alternated layers of organic and inorganic materials), it can be observed the tension follows a cyclical bell-shaped trend with values generally less than 1 mVolt at the beginning and at the end periods of the bell-shaped curve, and of some mVolt at the top of the curve. This trend is practically constant versus time, i.e. the size and the peak values of the bell-shaped curve are quite similar from the first cyclical period (June 21, 2011 – June 20, 2012) to the last cyclical period monitored (June 21, 2015 – June 20, 2016), with the exception of that in the 2014-2015 period, where a little more pronounced curve was observed. The beginning of the bell-shaped curve tension for both capacitors occurs in late September/October, while the end occurs in May/July, as showed in table 4. The table shows also when the highest values (peaks) of the measured daily tension occurred in both the capacitors. In brackets the corresponding values of the measured tension in mVolt are also reported. In general, peaks of the tension were observed to occur in the period January/March.

 

DAILY TENSION BELL-SHAPED CURVE CHARACTERISTICS

 

ONSET

PEAK

END

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

Oct 25, 11
(0.1)

Oct 31, 11
(0.1)

Feb 24, 12
(1.2)

Feb 22, 12
(0.5)

Jun 03, 12
(0.1)

May 08, 12
(0.1)

2012-2013

Oct 03, 12
(0.1)

Oct 09, 12
(0.2)

Jan 11, 13
(22.5)

Mar 09, 13
(3.3)

Jun 21, 13
(0.2)

Jun 03, 13
(0.1)

2013-2014

Oct 05, 13
(0.1)

Sep 27, 13
(0.1)

Jan 22, 14
(9.1)

Mar 14 ,14
(8.6)

Jun 21, 14
(0.2)

Jun 22, 14
(0.3)

2014-2015

Oct 01, 14
(0.1)

Oct 01, 14
(0.2)

Feb 17, 15
(7.0)

Jan 16, 15
(15.9)

Jul 20, 15
(0.1)

Jun 28, 15
(0.1)

2015-2016

Sep 13, 15
(0.1)

Sep 13, 15
(0.1)

Mar 01, 16
(7.0)

Dec 25, 15
(4.3)

Jun 17, 16
(0.7)

Jun 17, 16
(0.1)

Table 4 – Main characteristics of the daily tension bell-shaped curve (onset, peak, and end) versus time. Values in brackets show the tension (in mVolt) at the onset, peak, and end days, respectively

Figure 15 shows the trend of the daily tension of the capacitors (for the whole monitored period, 2011-2016) at the start, peak, and end days. From the figure it can be clearly seen when the capacitors were active and where peaks or maximum values occurred.

Figure 15 – Trend of the daily tension on the two capacitors at the start (onset), peak, and end days

This cyclical or pulsatory behaviour of the capacitors, that starts in late September/October and ends in May/July (and peaking in January/March) might be correlated to the general pulsatory movement of the atmospheric orgone energy envelope, that is expanding and contracting during the year, and more specifically is contracting during the winter months, and expanding during the summer months. This behaviour in turn reflects in a more concentrated amount of orgone energy units at the Earth’s surface, with a higher orgonomic potential than that available in the summer months, where the concentration of orgone energy units at the surface, and the related orgonomic potential is lower.

The pulsatory phenomenon of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth was originally observed and hypothesized by Reich (5):

“The OR energy envelope expands and reaches far out into space in good weather; on the other hand, it withdraws and concentrates at the surface of the globe before the onset of bad weather.
………………………….
5. OR EXPANSION IN SPRING AND CONTRACTION IN AUTUMN
The total contraction and expansion of the atmospheric OR energy envelope in certain regions is best expressed in the functions of nature which we observe in spring and autumn. Most of the phenomena we encounter on our wanderings through the countryside during these two periods fall into a comprehensive setting if we see them in the light of a contracting and expanding OR energy envelope of the Earth. .. .. The OR energy contracts and expands as a total energy SYSTEM. …..

CONTRACTED OR

EXPANDED OR

Tendency toward:

Tendency toward:

Matter

Energy

Immobilization

Mobility

“cold,” freezing

“heat,” expansion

autumn, winter

spring, summer

strong potential differences

even distribution of OR energy”

The pulsatory movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth have been independently confirmed in the past by the studies carried out by Baker and Maglione. They observed an annual variation of the monthly average values of the final deflection of the electroscope leaf, and of the radioactivity (as measured by a Geiger-Muller counter) inside orgone accumulators, respectively.

Figure 16 shows the trend of the annual variation of the monthly average of the radioactivity readings (red square), as measured by Maglione inside a 5-fold orgone accumulator in the period from November 2007 and October 2011; and of the monthly average of the electroscope (final) deflection (blue square), as reported by Baker (figure 1 in the original paper (6) ), for a period extending from August 1975 to August 1976 (7).

Figure 16 – Annual variation of the radioactive (after Maglione), and electroscopic (after Baker) fields inside orgone accumulators

From the above figure it can be observed that the annual trend of the radioactive field, and of the electroscopic charge are strikingly parallel; with minimum values in the summer time (and both bottoming out in September), and both peaking in the winter months. This result might provide a direct indication of the response of orgone accumulators to the outside concentration of the atmospheric orgone energy, which is lower in the Summer, and higher during the Winter. This might be the consequence and a confirmation of the annual contraction/expansion movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth, which concentrates more orgone energy (units) on the Earth’s surface during the wintry contracted state, and less during the expanded state typical of the summer months, being electroscope charge activity and radioactivity secondary states or expressions of the same primary orgone energy field at the Earth’s surface, and hence direct indicators of the behaviour of the primary orgone energy field (8).

By comparing the average annual trend of the tension at the capacitors to the annual trends from the studies of Baker’s and Maglione’s, a striking similarity can be observed in that the peaks of the tube capacitors tensions occur (from January to March) approximatively in the same period of time of the maximum variation observed for the electroscope final leaf deflection (and hence of the electroscope charge) (from November to March), and for the radioactivity (from December to February).

We might therefore deduce that the tension (and hence the associated generation of electrical current) at the tube capacitors might be a function of the pulsatory behaviour of the local energy orgone field at the Earth’s surface, at least as far as the peak values of the tension is concerned. Indeed, we did not observe a minimum value or a bottoming out of the tension at the tube capacitors in the summer months, as instead was observed for the electroscope and the Geiger-Muller counter trends. In this spell there was no electric tension, and hence no electrical currents generated by the capacitors.

To explain this, we may resort to the orgasm formula Reich conceived when studying the behaviour of human beings, and subsequently when studying the natural phenomena. Reich saw the orgasm formula can be applied, not only to the behaviour of human beings, but also to any orgonotic system in nature. According to Reich, we have (9):

tension → charge → discharge → relaxation

During the tension and charge phases the orgonotic system undergoes a build-up and an increase of its orgonomic potential by accumulating orgone energy from the surrounding environment, until the system reaches the maximum orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity, or the maximum capacity to hold (or store) orgone energy units. When the system can no longer sustain a further accumulation of orgone energy units it discharges completely the orgone energy accumulated and its orgonomic potential comes back to that of the original conditions of the system. This phenomenon can occur during the orgasm, or in other instances such as during the formation of a cloud system through the local accumulation of the surrounding atmospheric orgone energy. When the cloud system reaches the maximum holding capacity, and can no longer sustain further accumulation of orgone energy it discharges the energy absorbed via rain and lightning (mechanical potential). In doing so, the cloud system disappears (relaxation phase) and the orgonomic potential of the system is back to the original atmospheric orgonomic potential. Thus, Reich found out that an orgone energy metabolism would exist and be at work in the living organism as well as in orgone apparatuses or in any other orgonotic system.

The following scheme in figure 17 represents the orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system.

Figure 17 – Orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system

The tube capacitors can be considered artificial orgonotic systems, characterized by a well-defined orgonotic capacity, or by a well-defined maximum capacity to hold or store orgone energy units. By its nature a tube capacitor accumulates and holds the orgone energy available in the environment in which it is located (in our case that of the Earth’s surface at a particular latitude and longitude) inside the alternated organic/inorganic layers that is made of. As long as the environmental orgonomic potential, in which the capacitor is immersed, is lower (line A1D1 in figure 18) than the minimum orgonomic potential (line AD in figure 18), above which the orgone charge-discharge metabolism in the capacitor starts, no orgone charge-discharge cycle can occur. But, when the minimum orgonomic potential of the environment is exceeding this value, the capacitor observes a charge-discharge metabolism even though not continuous, occurring from time to time. And this discharge is evidenced by the formation of an electrical tension at the capacitor, and of an associated generation of electrical current, as we observe at the beginning of the bell-shaped trend of the tension (the period September-October in figures 8 and 9). However, when the orgonomic potential, in which the tube capacitor is found, is continuously increasing (line B1C1 in figure 18) and all the time is higher than that that characterizes the maximum holding capacity of the capacitor (line BC in figure 18), a continuous orgone energy accumulation followed by a continuous discharge of the capacitor via electrical tension and current may be seen (in the period November-April) (figures 8 and 9). This phenomenon is going on until when the environmental orgonomic potential decreases again to a value lower than that peculiar of the capacitor (line BC). At this point in the capacitor a discontinuous orgone charge-discharge metabolism starts again (as we observe at the end of the bell-shaped curve, in the period May-June in figures 8 and 9), until when the orgonomic potential of the environment (line A1D1) decreases again below the minimum required for the capacitors to charge and discharge (line AD) and the orgone metabolism ceases and charge-discharge no longer occurs (period from June to September in figures 8 and 9). As a consequence also the tension and the production of electricity ceases.

The following scheme in figure 18 represents the above situation, where line A1D1 represents the minimum orgonomic potential reached by the environment in which the capacitor is immersed and no orgone metabolism by the capacitor does exist (in our case during summer months); and line B1C1 represents the maximum orgonomic potential reached by the same environment (during the wintry period), characterized by a continuous charge-discharge metabolism of orgone energy of the capacitor. Intermediate positions of the orgonomic potential of the environment occurs during the other months of the year according to the pulsatory nature of the local atmospheric environment.

Figure 18 – Orgasm formula applied to a tube capacitor immersed in an atmospheric orgone energy field

The above pulsatory behaviour typical of the atmosphere (from A1D1 to B1C1, and back to A1D1 again) is what might have affected the performance of the two tube capacitors during the whole year, and particularly in the period from September/October to May/June where a flow of electric current was observed, as a consequence of the orgone energy metabolism, first discontinuously (from AD to BC); then continuously (from BC to B1C1 and back again to BC); and then discontinuously again (from BC to AD). This phenomenon is cyclic and is repeating every year according to the cyclical contraction/expansion behaviour of the local orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface.

Being OPE, the orgonomic potential of the environment, in which the tube capacitor was immersed, and TC the tension at the tube capacitor, it can be hence understood that:

TC α OPE                                           for OPE ≥ OPAD,

and:

TC = 0                                                   for OPE < OPAD

and more specifically:

TC > 0 (discontinuous)            for OPAD ≤ OPE ≤ OPBC,

TC > 0 (continuous)     for OPE  > OPBC,

where OPBC is the critical environment orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity level of the capacitor to hold or accumulate orgone energy units; while OPAD is the minimum orgonomic potential that still guarantees a charge and discharge of the capacitors.
In particular, if between the two orgonomic potentials OPAD and OPBC the charge-discharge metabolism is not continuous and requires some time for the capacitors to recharge and discharge again; the charge-discharge metabolism for values of the environment orgonomic potential OPE higher than OPBC seems to be instantaneous and continuous.
It must be outlined here that the value of TC might be considered also a function of the construction characteristic of the tube capacitors, i.e., materials used, sizes, etc. As a consequence, in the same experimental conditions tube capacitors with different construction characteristics might behave in a different way.

If we consider the trend of the radioactivity and of the electroscope leaf deflection, as shown in figure 19, we can observe that the capacitors are active (namely producing a tension and generating an associated electric current) for values of the monthly radioactivity higher than around 22.2 counts per minute (CPM), and for values of the monthly electroscope leaf deflection higher than around 19.0 degree; while for values of the monthly radioactivity lower than around 22.2 counts per minute (red dotted area), and for values of the electroscope monthly deflection lower than around 19.0 degree (blue dotted area), the two tube capacitors are dormant.

Figure 19 – Radioactivity (red dotted area), and electroscope leaf deflection (blue dotted area) range in which the two tube capacitors were unresponsive

The three cyclical trends (those regarding the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf deflection, and that regarding the electric tension) are comparable since the local orgone energy field pulsation is behaving approximately in the same way being the sites, in which the measurements were performed, located at around the same latitude. As a consequence, expansion and contraction movements of the orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface might be considered to follow the same path even though the sites of the measurements are quite distant, above all that one regarding the electroscope measurements (carried out by Baker in Eastern Pennsylvania) (10) .
It is clear from the above graphs that the tension (and the associated electrical current) at the tube capacitors, as well as the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf, were affected by a similar orgonomic potential of the local environment orgone energy.

The blue and red continuous lines in figures 19 are different expressions of the same environmental orgone energy pulsatory movement that in figure 18 is represented to move from A1D1 to B1C1 and back again to A1D1. While the line AD represents the critical (minimum) value of the environment orgone energy (corresponding to the red and blue dotted lines in figure 19) below which the tube capacitor is inactive (or dormant) and does not produce any secondary physical effects; while above which electric tension and current is detected.  

All in all, it would appear that the tube capacitors only gather a tension and an electrical charge when the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, in which they are immersed, is higher than the minimum orgonomic potential required by the orgone accumulating-type devices to produce a charge-discharge metabolism. In case the natural orgonomic potential of the environment exceeds the maximum orgonomic potential (or the maximum orgonotic capacity to hold an orgone charge) characteristic of the tube capacitors the charge-discharge metabolism is continuous.

According to what has been discussed above, for a given tube capacitor reduction of the dormant period, and increase of the tension and of the associated electrical current in periods of activity, it can only be done artificially by increasing the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, OPE, in which the capacitor is immersed. Increasing OPE from A1D1 to an orgonomic potential higher than OPBC, for instance A2D2 (see figure 20), in periods of no activity (when the capacitor is dormant), means having the generation of an electric tension at the tube capacitor for all the period where the orgonomic potential is artificially maintained at A2D2. In addition, increasing the maximum naturally-available OPE to values higher than B1C1, i.e. B2C2 (see figure 20), allows to have higher values of the tension from the tube capacitor even in periods where the capacitor is already producing a tension, being the response of the capacitor directly proportional to the orgonomic potential in which it is immersed. In addition, for OPE ≥ OPBC there should not be a charge-discharge phase but only one continuous phase that includes simultaneous charge and discharge, as observed in the winter months where the production of electricity was continuous all over the period.

Figure 20 – Behaviour of the local environment orgonomic potential when artificially increased

From accounts of witnesses of the orgone motor, it emerged that Reich, in one of his prototypes, connected the Western Electric KS-9154 motor to an orgone accumulator in order to get it run (11). As we saw in our earlier laboratory experiments a very small tension and current may be available from a small orgone accumulator, and hence different types of arrangements or possibly procedures might have been used by Reich to produce a tension sufficient to run the motor. In addition, demonstration of the functioning of the orgone motor occurred during the First International Conference, that was held at Orgonon between the end of August and beginning of September, 1948, in a period where we observed the tube capacitors we tested in our laboratory in Italy were still dormant and producing no electricity. We might assume that also during the demonstration done by Reich the orgone accumulator, connected to the motor, were not producing any amount of electricity in the case that it resorted only to the natural orgonomic potential of the environment. Hence, the electricity required to run the motor must have been produced in some other ways. We know from the accounts of his collaborators that Reich might have excited the orgone energy units contained inside the orgone accumulator by a small amount of electricity (12) (a half Volt battery). In our view, this can be understood as a way to artificially increase the orgonomic potential of the concentrated orgone energy to a level high enough to produce the electricity required to start and run the motor. However, it is not clear for how long the motor run when the battery was disconnected from the arrangement, and functioned because of the action of the excited concentrated orgone units only, being reasonable to think that after disconnection the excitation of the orgone units decreased until it disappeared after a certain period of time. No information has ever been reported on this point in the literature either by Reich nor by his collaborators. Possibly, the aim of the above arrangement was only to demonstrate the mechanical qualities of the orgone units when excited. And, Reich might have devised a different and also cheaper way to produce a more continuous and higher excitation of the orgone energy such as that of using a small source of radioactive material as suggested in the Oranur Experiment book (13):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).”

A further very important point is related to the fact the orgone motor was behaving like a hysterical woman, as reported by Baker (14), and by his second wife Ilse Ollendorf (15). The running of the orgone motor was noisy, and a clean-up was required for a good functioning. Reich might have well referred to the inversion of polarity of the tension produced by the orgone devices, as we observed in our capacitors, and that are described by the trend of the tension in figure 8. We do not know the exact reason of this phenomenon. We observed it is related to the construction characteristics of the capacitor but we can also suppose it could be related to the environment orgonomic potential itself. However, inversion of polarity either continuous and progressive, as that shown by the 1C/1A capacitor, or occasional, were not due to the tube capacitors position since they neither touched nor got close to each other. In addition, the measuring device was located in a different room and no effect might have been produced by on the polarity. In any case this might be the proof that the electric current is not generated neither by electrochemical phenomena (due to the paper foils of the capacitor that touch the aluminum foils) nor by contact between metals.

The tube capacitor 2C/1A with the lower capacity value (103 nFarad) seems to show a more stable polarity of the generated tension. This may be due to the higher thickness of the organic layers of the capacitor (in this case paper) or the higher mass. The tube capacitor with the higher capacity (1C/1A with 182 nFarad) is consisting of one sheet of paper alternated to one foil of aluminum layer and hence is characterized by half the thickness and mass of organic material (paper). Hence, it can be argued that better and more stable performances might be due to the higher amount of organic material used to build the capacitors.

The phenomenon of the inversion of polarity was also observed by Zamboni during the development of his dry piles (16):

“Una pila di questo genere ch’era riuscita molto energica la mattina, si vedea alle volte illanguidir sulla sera: cinquanta coppie di una carta non davano in certi giorni la tensione, data nello stesso momento dalle sole dieci di un’altra: l’aria umida egualmente che la secca, parea dare la vita ad alcune, ad altre la morte; e quel che è più, vedeasi persino rovesciarsi in alcune la polarità elettrica, e dove jeri aveano il polo negativo sulla faccia metallica, e il positivo nel rovescio, oggi tutto al contrario….”

“A battery of this kind might show a good tension in the morning, which might vanish in the evening: fifty couples of one type of paper did not give on some days the tension produced at the same moment by ten (couples) of another (paper): wet air, as well as dry air, seemed to give life to some, and death to others; and in some cases electric polarity was found to reverse, and where the day before we had the negative pole on the metallic side, and the positive one on the other side, the day after we observed the opposite ….”

It is possible that the erratic behaviour of the arrangements of Zamboni’s dry piles is the same phenomenon we observed in the functioning of our tube capacitors, and that Reich observed in his orgone motor when run by excited orgone energy alone. An erratic behaviour that resembled the hysterical woman-like behaviour.   
Zamboni solved the point by introducing in his piles alternated layers of silver paper disk (a paper with a thin layer of tin or a copper-zinc alloy on one side) and gilded paper disk (a paper smeared with manganese oxide or copper powder on one side). He saw that by introducing this arrangement the polarity of the tension, that was seen to be affected by variations of the weather and the time of day, stabilized.

In this paper we described the spontaneous formation of few mVolt of tension in orgone accumulating-type devices. This tension and the related charge fluctuate in annual cycles. Tension and electrical charge do not appear to be explained by electrostatic, electromagnetic, and chemical reactions.
In the next and last paper the results obtained by artificially increasing the local orgonomic potential in one of the two tube capacitors will be discussed. A hypothesis about the Y-factor will be also developed and included in the paper.

References:

(1). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 83-125.

(2). Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, 2017, Milan, pages 43-65.

(3). In all instances a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

(4). Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Institute Press, New York, 1948, pages 132-142. See also Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 88 and 89.

(5). Reich W, OROP Desert. Part 1: Spaceships, DOR and Drought. Chapter 1. Expansion and Contraction in the Atmospheric OR Energy, Cosmic Orgone Engineering, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Usa, Vol. VI, N° 14, July 1954, pages 1 (top), and 5-7 (bottom).

(6). Baker CF, The Electroscope IV: Atmospheric Pulsation, Journal of Orgonomy, 11(1):35-48, 1977.

(7). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, page 137.

(8). Maglione R, Ibid, 2012.

(9). Reich W, The Function of the Orgasm, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 1973.

(10). Latitude and longitude of the sites where Baker did electroscopic measurements (Ambler, Pennsylvania), Maglione did radioactivity measurements (Vercelli, Italy), and those of the present study (Sassuolo, Italy) were, respectively: Ambler, Pennsylvania, latitude 40° 09’ 18” N (40.1545535),  longitude 75° 13’ 13” W (-75.2215651); Vercelli, Italy, 45° 19′ 0" N (45.3166667), longitude 8° 25′ 0" E (8.4166667); and Sassuolo, Italy, latitude 44° 40′ 0" N (44.6666667), longitude 10° 55′ 0" E (10.9166667). As to the site in which Baker carried out his measurements we assumed they were performed in Ambler, Pennsylvania, the location where usually Baker conducted all his scientific activities. In the paper, published on the Journal of Orgonomy regarding his research experience (Vol. 11(1), 1977), Baker reported the measurements were performed in Eastern Pennsylvania, without giving more specific details on the site.

(11). Maglione R, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? A State of the Art, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, August 27, 2017.

(12). Maglione R, Ibid, August 27, 2017.

(13). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 199.

(14). Baker EF, My Eleven Years with Reich, ACO Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001, pages 32 and 33.

(15). Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, St Martin’s, New York, 1969, page 117.

(16). Zamboni G, Lettera all’Accademia Reale delle Scienze di Monaco dell’Abate Giuseppe Zamboni Sopra i Miglioramenti da Lui Fatti alla Sua Pila Elettrica, Tipografia Ramanzini, Verona, 1816.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank Leon Southgate for the critical review of the final manuscript.

Authors:

Roberto Maglione – 1 Scholar, and author in orgonomy. Italy www.orgonenergy.org

Degree in Mining Engineering.

Dionisio Ferrari – Electronic technician specialized in electroacoustics. Scholar in orgonomy, and manufacturer of orgone accumulators. www.dionisioferrari.it

  

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