Tag Archive | "Orgone energy"

ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN ORGONE DEVICES (Part 2)


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?
Early and mid-term laboratory experiments
with orgone apparatus

Roberto Maglione – Dionisio Ferrari

Synopsis

In this paper, the second of a series of three papers on the orgone motor which will appear on the Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, early measurements of electrical parameters both on 10-fold orgone accumulators, and on 10-fold tube capacitors are reported. A subsequent 5-year (mid-term) investigation on two 10-fold tube capacitors, with the organic layer of each capacitor characterized by a different thickness of the organic material, is also described. Spontaneous formation of tension of some mVolt, not attributable to traditional models of physics, was found in all the investigated orgone apparatuses. In the mid-term investigation, a cyclical trend of the tension versus the years was also observed. Data analysis is also included in the paper. All the experimental investigations were performed in an in-house laboratory, Sassuolo (Mo), Italy.

To our best knowledge Reich never did publications in which he reported results of experiments aimed at verifying the formation of a tension and the production of electric currents inside orgone accumulators or orgone apparatus, in general. He found, by using an electroscope, that the measuring device behaved differently inside and outside an accumulator indicating that a difference of electrostatic charge could exist between the interior of the accumulator and the environment outside it. However, he never tried to quantify and measure the presence of an electric tension on two opposite metallic sides of the apparatuses by a voltmeter (1). Even in the years after Reich’s death no study was performed aimed at finding whether an orgone accumulator or any other orgone apparatus could produce an electric current. 
With this aim in mind, we carried out in the last years laboratory experiments with the purpose of determining the presence of a tension and of electric currents in orgone apparatus, and above all, in orgone accumulators and tube capacitors made of alternated layers of metallic and non-metallic materials. This arrangement is typical of a Reich orgone accumulator and blanket, but it resembles and displays also a marked similarity with those used by Zamboni, more than two centuries ago in his dry piles (2).
First investigations were conducted both inside and outside orgone accumulators built of different organic and inorganic materials. To measure the presence of a tension and of electric currents in an open 10-fold accumulator, made of alternated layers of steel wool (grade 0000) and plastic sheet, two grips each fixing a plate made of paper sheet, galvanized iron sheet, and wood were used. The plates were placed either on the internal side or on the external side of the accumulator. They were connected to a low capacity capacitor (4.7 mFarad) made of plastic film, which in turn was connected to a millivoltmeter. A JFET amplifier able to increase the input impedance to 50 MOhm was also used.  However, no tension was detected with this experimental arrangement in any of the tested orgone accumulators.
Figure 1 shows the experimental set-up with the grips and the plates used during the measurements placed either inside (figure on the left) or outside (figure on the right) of the orgone accumulator.

  

Figure 1 – Plates put either inside (left) or outside (right) the 10-fold orgone accumulator

The two plates were then placed both inside and outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (figure 2), and measurements were performed with no capacitor in the circuit. Tensions as high as 10 mVolt were observed in these last measurements.

Figure 2 – Plates on both the sides of the 10-fold orgone accumulator

In this latter case the measured tension could not sustain an electric current since the generated current was so low that could be read by the measuring device only after some hours of accumulation and was dissipated by a single application of the measuring device. Further experiments involved fixed tube capacitors made of alternated layers of paper sheet and aluminum foil. The number of paper sheets the fixed capacitors were constructed was higher than those of the aluminum foils since the structure started and ended with the paper. The paper used was of the 80 g/m2 type, while the aluminium foil had a thickness of 0.02 mm. Aluminum foils were connected in alternated parallel, and folded at both ends to allow electrical connection. Height of the two tube capacitors was 18 cm, and internal diameter was 7 cm. Figure 3 shows a scheme of the tube capacitor (left) and of the final unit (right).

  

Figure 3 – Tube capacitor. Scheme (left) and capacitor final view (right)

Two similar capacitors made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (with the paper at both ends) were put one inside a 10-fold orgone accumulator (constructed with alternated layers of plastic and steel wool), and the second one outside at a distance of around 3 metres from the accumulator. Both capacitors were kept at the same height from the floor. The average charge storage capacity of the capacitors was 150 nFarad. Figure 4 shows the scheme of the circuit used in the measurements, and the experimental set-up related to the capacitor inside the 10-fold accumulator.

  

Figure 4 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left) and capacitor inside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (right)

The circuit in figure 4 was equipped with a selector that alternately connected the two capacitors during the measurements. When no measure was performed it was set in the central position so as to disconnect the capacitors from the circuit, and thus enabling the charging of the plates. Measurements were carried out as follows:

  1. A capacitor was connected to the circuit via the selector, and a first reading of the tension was done. This value provided the maximum charge of the system;
  2. A second reading was made after 30 seconds which gave the tension related to the current continuously generated on the internal resistance of the instrument;
  3. A third reading was made after 3-5 minutes in order to verify the stability of the previous measurement made at 30 seconds;
  4. The procedure was then repeated on the other capacitor.

In a 12-day run, performed in December 2010, readings of the instantaneous tension, and that after 30 seconds, proved that the values measured inside the orgone accumulator were on average lower than those obtained for the capacitor that was located outside. The following figures 5 and 6 show the behaviour of the average hourly tension as measured at 30 seconds on the capacitors located either inside or outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator, as against the weather conditions (clear and bad weather).

Figure 5 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor inside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)
Figure 6 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor outside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)

From the above figures it can be noted that the behaviour of the average hourly tension after 30 seconds is smoother for the capacitor kept inside the orgone accumulator, with no appreciable change versus the variation of weather conditions. On the other hand the average hourly tension measured on the capacitor located outside the accumulator shows a more erratic behaviour for both clear and bad weather conditions, and in some cases with negative values when the tension was measured during bad weather. Average hourly tension for the capacitor located inside the accumulator was 0.51 mVolt and 0.37 mVolt for clear weather, and bad weather conditions, respectively; while for the capacitor located outside the orgone accumulator average tension was 1.28 mVolt and -0.18 mVolt, for clear weather and bad weather conditions, respectively. In case, we consider the module of the tension on the capacitor located outside the accumulator (no need to make this conversion for the capacitor inside the orgone accumulator) we obtain 1.30 mVolt, and 0.44 mVolt for clear weather and bad weather, respectively. A Student’s t-test, carried out on the values of the average hourly tension measured at the tube capacitors inside and outside the orgone accumulator during clear weather, showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of data (p-value = 0.0024). Because of the unequal size of the two samples, Welch’s t-test was instead used to analyse the two groups of values measured during bad weather. A statistically significant difference was also found for these two groups (p-value = 0.0456) (3). No relationship between tension and time of day was instead found, though an increase of the tension in the early morning and in the afternoon for the curve of the capacitor outside the orgone accumulator related to clear weather can be observed, completely resembling the curve obtained with the measurements carried out by Reich with the electroscope (4).

Mid-term laboratory experiments with fixed tube capacitors

In a further series of experiments different types of tube capacitors were tested. They were characterized by a different ratio of the organic/inorganic materials. Measurements were done on 10-fold capacitors where the ratio of the paper sheet to the aluminum foil was 1C/1A, 2C/1A, 3C/1A, 4C/1A, and 1C/2A, where C stands for paper sheet and A for aluminum foil, while the figure gives the number of sheets or foils used in each layer. Capacitors with charge storage capacity from 70 nFarad (4C/1A) to 182 nFarad (1C/1A) were tested. The capacitors were put in the laboratory where neither orgone devices nor electromagnetic appliances were present. They were located a few centimetres apart from each other so as to minimize any possible influences of electrostatic field variations due to air movements inside the laboratory, or electrostatic phenomena accidentally produced. Figure 7 shows the electrical circuit used in this first series of measurements (left), and a view of two of the tested capacitors connected by electrical wires to the measuring instrument (right).

  

Figure 7 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left), and view of the capacitors (right)

The resistance of 1 MOhm directly applied to the capacitors did not allow a charge build-up between the plates, whose variations against time could have been difficult to evaluate. This arrangement made the two capacitors behave as current generators. The measured tension corresponded therefore to the instantaneous power generated when the measurement was made. Figure 8 reports the behaviour of the average measured daily tension of two of the capacitors under study monitored for a period of 5 continuous years. One of the capacitors was made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (1C/1A), while the other capacitor consisted of 10 alternated layers of two paper sheets and one of aluminum foil (2C/1A). Storage capacity of the 2 capacitors was 182 nFarad and 103 nFarad for the 1C/1A, and 2C/1A, respectively. Measurements were made daily from June 21, 2011 to June 20, 2016 with at least one set of measures performed in the morning (around from 7 to 8). In many cases a measure in the afternoon was also performed. In this latter case values were averaged to obtain only one daily value. In addition, measurements of the tension in different times of the day were sometimes carried out on the two capacitors. It was observed the measurement carried out in the morning might be very well representative of the averaged values of the tension measured during the whole day, even though it was noted that the tension continuously varied during the day with an oscillation difficult to predict.

Figure 8 – Behaviour of average measured daily tension versus time (June 21, 2011-June 20, 2016)

From the results in the above figure it can be observed that the two capacitors were characterized by a cyclical behaviour, resembling a bell-shaped curve, where the average daily tension is increasing from zero to reach maximum values depending on the capacitor, and then decreasing again to zero. A period of some months in which they were dormant can also be observed for both the capacitors. An inversion of the polarity was also noticed, above all for the 1C/1A capacitor, and only occasionally for the other capacitor.

From the measured data we noted that the generation of current seemed not to be the consequence of capture of photon corpuscles of an electromagnetic nature. In addition, the tested capacitors did not produce any tension over a period of a few months, and then started up again, thus appearing to negate the hypothesis that the tension might be produced by electrochemical phenomena, or as a result of a capture of electrostatic nature. Data analysis was performed on the absolute values of the (average) daily tension. This was done since the target of the present study was to evaluate the production of electric current and power, and these physical parameters are not dependent on the type of the polarity of the tension the capacitors possessed. When the tension on the capacitors changes sign the electrons are changing or reversing direction of flow. In this way, the instrument does not measure a production of charges but only the flow of electrons that an external energy put in motion in producing an electric current. Accordingly, if we consider the generation of electric power or energy only, the polarity of the tension, and the resulting direction of flow of the electrons, is not a decisive parameter, and hence resorting to the module or the absolute value of the tension fits the purpose of our study. Since, from the measured data shown in figure 8, it was seen that a cyclical, bell-shaped trend characterized the behaviour of the data versus time, with a break of some months in which the two capacitors were dormant between each cycle, it was decided to analyse the data according to a cyclical period of 12 months, i.e. from June 21 of one year to June 20 of the next year. This was done to give continuity to the period in which the capacitors were producing a tension and generating an electric current, so as not to interrupt this trend at the end of the civil year, i.e. from January 1 to December 31. Accordingly, the results of the analysed data are reported in a five 12-month period format, each one starting on June 21 and ending on June 20 next year, and precisely 2011-2012; 2012-2013; 2013-2014; 2014-2015; and 2015-2016.

Following figure 9 shows the trend of the absolute value of the daily tension of both capacitors averaged for the 5-year period.

Figure 9 – Absolute daily tension averaged for the 5-year period

Figure 10 shows the behaviour of the total absolute tension accumulated in each monitored cyclical period, i.e. from June 21 to June 20 next year, for each capacitor. From this figure it can be observed the increasing value of the total tension against the time, mainly for the 1C/1A capacitor. Total tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 84.7 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 215.4 and 367.8 mVolt (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase, characterized by a more irregular trend, from 26.8 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 143.2 and 506.8 mV (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 10 – Behaviour of total absolute tension versus time

Figure 11 shows the behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus time as measured on both the capacitors. This value has been obtained by dividing the total absolute tension, for each cyclical period, to the corresponding number of days in which the tension was recorded. From the figure it can be seen the trend of the average daily absolute tension is similar to that of the total absolute tension (in figure 10), with a more constant and smoother behaviour for the 1C/1A capacitor. Average daily absolute tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 0.38 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 1.13 and 1.67 mVolt/day (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase from 0.18 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 0.76 and 2.41 mVolt/day (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 11 – Behaviour of average daily absolute tension versus time

Figure 12 shows the number of days where the capacitors were active and were producing a tension. It can be seen from the figure the trend is a little higher for the 1C/1A capacitor; and a slight increasing trend versus time can be observed for both the capacitors. Production time ranges from 191 to 269 days for the 1C/1A capacitor (average 226.8 days); and from 150 to 236 days for the 2C/1A capacitor (average 198.6 days).

Figure 12 – Behaviour of production days versus time

The increasing trend in the production days of the tension might be related to a saturation the capacitors were subjected, in the first period of functioning, to the orgone energy available in the outside atmospheric orgonomic field. Progression of the production days during the years might be due also to environmental causes or to the aging of the capacitors. Table 1 through 3 show the values of the total absolute tension, average daily absolute tension, and production days versus weather conditions during measurements, for each monitored cyclical period.

 

TOTAL ABSOLUTE TENSION [mVolt]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

84.7

26.8

42.1

13.5

32.8

10.6

9.8

2.7

2012-2013

348,0

143.2

79.1

51.2

246.6

82.3

22.3

9.7

2013-2014

215.4

375.8

118.0

232.2

94.7

138,0

2.7

5.6

2014-2015

367.8

507.8

190.3

219.4

166.4

281.8

11.1

6.6

2015-2016

349.8

179.3

168.7

85.9

178.1

90.9

3.0

1.3

Table 1 – Data related to the total absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

 

AVERAGE DAILY ABSOLUTE TENSION [mVolt/day]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

Snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

0.38

0.18

0.36

0.18

0.35

0.17

0.82

0.23

2012-2013

1.67

0.82

1.04

0.78

2.06

0.84

1.72

0.88

2013-2014

1.13

1.70

1.17

2.05

1.08

1.30

1.35

2.80

2014-2015

1.51

2.41

1.42

1.96

1.60

2.97

1.85

1.65

2015-2016

1.29

0.76

1.15

0.72

1.47

0.81

1.00

0.43

Table 2- Data related to the average daily absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

 

PRODUCTION DAYS [#]

Total

Weather

clear

overcast/rain

Snow

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

221

150

117

77

92

61

12

12

2012-2013

209

175

76

66

120

98

13

11

2013-2014

191

221

101

113

88

106

2

2

2014-2015

244

211

134

112

104

95

6

4

2015-2016

269

236

147

119

121

113

3

3

Table 3 – Data related to the production days versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

From an analysis of the above data versus weather conditions the following observations can be drawn.

  1. The total, and the average daily absolute tension during clear, overcast/rainy, and snowy weather for each cyclical period are following the same trend previously observed for the whole set of data, independently from the weather conditions. Following figure 13 shows the trend regarding the total absolute tension versus time recorded during clear weather for both capacitors.
  2. Figure 13 – Behaviour of the total absolute tension versus time during clear weather for both capacitors

  3. There is no substantial difference from the values recorded during different type of weather, as instead one might expect for orgone apparatus, mainly between clear weather and overcast/rainy weather, where the former values in general are higher. A statistical analysis performed by the Student’s t-test on the total absolute tension samples representing clear and overcast/rainy weather for the two tube capacitors confirmed this assumption, as no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of data, with p-value = 0.6137, and p-value = 0.9966 for the 1C/1A and 1C/2A capacitor, respectively. In some cases we also noticed that the values obtained during overcast/rainy weather were even higher than those recorded during clear weather. In addition, the difference in the construction characteristics of the two capacitors did not affect the data measured during different weather conditions, and no large differences were found between the performances of the two capacitors. Figure 14 shows the trend of the average daily absolute tension for the whole period of measurements, i.e. 2011-2016, for both the capacitors. From the figure a very small increase in the values related to overcast/rain, and snowy weather can be observed when compared to those related to clear weather for both capacitors.
Figure 14 – Behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus weather conditions for the whole period of monitoring

As we already described above, in our laboratory arrangements we measured a current of electrons, as well as the tension that produced such electric current, by making the electrons flow in a resistance. This in turn gave us a measure of the maximum instantaneous power provided by the tube capacitors. In other words, the tension (the polarity does not matter when making a determination of the generated power), that we read at the measuring instrument and that is shown on the graphs of figure 8, makes a current to flow inside a 1 MOhm resistance, to whom the capacitors are connected. The flow of electrons develops an instantaneous electric power or energy per unit of time that can be calculated by the following equation:

P = V∙I                                                                                                            (1)

Where has been set:

P       = electric power, in Watt or Joule∙second-1
V       = tension (module) at the capacitor, in Volt
I        = current intensity in the external circuit, in Ampere

The electric current generated is given by:

aa                                                                                                  (2)

Being the tube capacitors closed on a 1 MOhm resistance, and the tension 1.29 mV (the one that corresponds to the average daily value for the 1C/1A capacitor in the 2015-2016 period, see table 2), and substituting the above values in eq. (2), we have:

I = 1.29∙10-3/106 = 1.29∙10-9 Ampere

and hence the electric power from eq. (1) is:

P = 1.29∙10-3∙1.29∙10-9 = 1.66∙10-12 Watt,

Considering this value constant over 24 hours, the energy produced is given by:

E = P∙t                                                                                                 (3)

And substituting the numerical values in the above eq. (3), we have:  

E = 1.66∙10-12 ∙24 = 39.8∙10-12 Watt∙hour

Or,

E = 39.8∙10-12∙3,600 = 143.3∙10-9 Joule

Being the production of the energy extended to a period of 269 days (for the period 2015-2016 in table 3), the energy produced in this period of time (a cyclical year) is:

Etot = 39.8∙10-12∙269 days = 10.7∙10-9 Watt∙hour

or

Etot = 143.3∙10-9∙269 = 38.5∙10-6 Joule

If we consider a small led that requires 8∙10-3 Watt to run, we can calculate the time it is remaining lighted, as follows:

aaa

An energy, the one produced by the 1C/1A capacitor in the cyclical period 2015-2016, able to turn on a small led for about 0.005 seconds. Assumption done in making the above calculation is that the instantaneous measure carried out in the morning and (when available) in the afternoon (and then averaged) can correspond to the daily average value. A value, as we have already discussed, that is not dependent on the polarity of the tension on the tube capacitor.

Discussion

From the data reported in the previous section, obtained from daily measurements of the tension on two tube capacitors, built according to Reich and Zamboni standards (alternated layers of organic and inorganic materials), it can be observed the tension follows a cyclical bell-shaped trend with values generally less than 1 mVolt at the beginning and at the end periods of the bell-shaped curve, and of some mVolt at the top of the curve. This trend is practically constant versus time, i.e. the size and the peak values of the bell-shaped curve are quite similar from the first cyclical period (June 21, 2011 – June 20, 2012) to the last cyclical period monitored (June 21, 2015 – June 20, 2016), with the exception of that in the 2014-2015 period, where a little more pronounced curve was observed. The beginning of the bell-shaped curve tension for both capacitors occurs in late September/October, while the end occurs in May/July, as showed in table 4. The table shows also when the highest values (peaks) of the measured daily tension occurred in both the capacitors. In brackets the corresponding values of the measured tension in mVolt are also reported. In general, peaks of the tension were observed to occur in the period January/March.

 

DAILY TENSION BELL-SHAPED CURVE CHARACTERISTICS

 

ONSET

PEAK

END

cycle

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

1C/1A

2C/1A

2011-2012

Oct 25, 11
(0.1)

Oct 31, 11
(0.1)

Feb 24, 12
(1.2)

Feb 22, 12
(0.5)

Jun 03, 12
(0.1)

May 08, 12
(0.1)

2012-2013

Oct 03, 12
(0.1)

Oct 09, 12
(0.2)

Jan 11, 13
(22.5)

Mar 09, 13
(3.3)

Jun 21, 13
(0.2)

Jun 03, 13
(0.1)

2013-2014

Oct 05, 13
(0.1)

Sep 27, 13
(0.1)

Jan 22, 14
(9.1)

Mar 14 ,14
(8.6)

Jun 21, 14
(0.2)

Jun 22, 14
(0.3)

2014-2015

Oct 01, 14
(0.1)

Oct 01, 14
(0.2)

Feb 17, 15
(7.0)

Jan 16, 15
(15.9)

Jul 20, 15
(0.1)

Jun 28, 15
(0.1)

2015-2016

Sep 13, 15
(0.1)

Sep 13, 15
(0.1)

Mar 01, 16
(7.0)

Dec 25, 15
(4.3)

Jun 17, 16
(0.7)

Jun 17, 16
(0.1)

Table 4 – Main characteristics of the daily tension bell-shaped curve (onset, peak, and end) versus time. Values in brackets show the tension (in mVolt) at the onset, peak, and end days, respectively

Figure 15 shows the trend of the daily tension of the capacitors (for the whole monitored period, 2011-2016) at the start, peak, and end days. From the figure it can be clearly seen when the capacitors were active and where peaks or maximum values occurred.

Figure 15 – Trend of the daily tension on the two capacitors at the start (onset), peak, and end days

This cyclical or pulsatory behaviour of the capacitors, that starts in late September/October and ends in May/July (and peaking in January/March) might be correlated to the general pulsatory movement of the atmospheric orgone energy envelope, that is expanding and contracting during the year, and more specifically is contracting during the winter months, and expanding during the summer months. This behaviour in turn reflects in a more concentrated amount of orgone energy units at the Earth’s surface, with a higher orgonomic potential than that available in the summer months, where the concentration of orgone energy units at the surface, and the related orgonomic potential is lower.

The pulsatory phenomenon of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth was originally observed and hypothesized by Reich (5):

“The OR energy envelope expands and reaches far out into space in good weather; on the other hand, it withdraws and concentrates at the surface of the globe before the onset of bad weather.
………………………….
5. OR EXPANSION IN SPRING AND CONTRACTION IN AUTUMN
The total contraction and expansion of the atmospheric OR energy envelope in certain regions is best expressed in the functions of nature which we observe in spring and autumn. Most of the phenomena we encounter on our wanderings through the countryside during these two periods fall into a comprehensive setting if we see them in the light of a contracting and expanding OR energy envelope of the Earth. .. .. The OR energy contracts and expands as a total energy SYSTEM. …..

CONTRACTED OR

EXPANDED OR

Tendency toward:

Tendency toward:

Matter

Energy

Immobilization

Mobility

“cold,” freezing

“heat,” expansion

autumn, winter

spring, summer

strong potential differences

even distribution of OR energy”

The pulsatory movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth have been independently confirmed in the past by the studies carried out by Baker and Maglione. They observed an annual variation of the monthly average values of the final deflection of the electroscope leaf, and of the radioactivity (as measured by a Geiger-Muller counter) inside orgone accumulators, respectively.

Figure 16 shows the trend of the annual variation of the monthly average of the radioactivity readings (red square), as measured by Maglione inside a 5-fold orgone accumulator in the period from November 2007 and October 2011; and of the monthly average of the electroscope (final) deflection (blue square), as reported by Baker (figure 1 in the original paper (6) ), for a period extending from August 1975 to August 1976 (7).

Figure 16 – Annual variation of the radioactive (after Maglione), and electroscopic (after Baker) fields inside orgone accumulators

From the above figure it can be observed that the annual trend of the radioactive field, and of the electroscopic charge are strikingly parallel; with minimum values in the summer time (and both bottoming out in September), and both peaking in the winter months. This result might provide a direct indication of the response of orgone accumulators to the outside concentration of the atmospheric orgone energy, which is lower in the Summer, and higher during the Winter. This might be the consequence and a confirmation of the annual contraction/expansion movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth, which concentrates more orgone energy (units) on the Earth’s surface during the wintry contracted state, and less during the expanded state typical of the summer months, being electroscope charge activity and radioactivity secondary states or expressions of the same primary orgone energy field at the Earth’s surface, and hence direct indicators of the behaviour of the primary orgone energy field (8).

By comparing the average annual trend of the tension at the capacitors to the annual trends from the studies of Baker’s and Maglione’s, a striking similarity can be observed in that the peaks of the tube capacitors tensions occur (from January to March) approximatively in the same period of time of the maximum variation observed for the electroscope final leaf deflection (and hence of the electroscope charge) (from November to March), and for the radioactivity (from December to February).

We might therefore deduce that the tension (and hence the associated generation of electrical current) at the tube capacitors might be a function of the pulsatory behaviour of the local energy orgone field at the Earth’s surface, at least as far as the peak values of the tension is concerned. Indeed, we did not observe a minimum value or a bottoming out of the tension at the tube capacitors in the summer months, as instead was observed for the electroscope and the Geiger-Muller counter trends. In this spell there was no electric tension, and hence no electrical currents generated by the capacitors.

To explain this, we may resort to the orgasm formula Reich conceived when studying the behaviour of human beings, and subsequently when studying the natural phenomena. Reich saw the orgasm formula can be applied, not only to the behaviour of human beings, but also to any orgonotic system in nature. According to Reich, we have (9):

tension → charge → discharge → relaxation

During the tension and charge phases the orgonotic system undergoes a build-up and an increase of its orgonomic potential by accumulating orgone energy from the surrounding environment, until the system reaches the maximum orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity, or the maximum capacity to hold (or store) orgone energy units. When the system can no longer sustain a further accumulation of orgone energy units it discharges completely the orgone energy accumulated and its orgonomic potential comes back to that of the original conditions of the system. This phenomenon can occur during the orgasm, or in other instances such as during the formation of a cloud system through the local accumulation of the surrounding atmospheric orgone energy. When the cloud system reaches the maximum holding capacity, and can no longer sustain further accumulation of orgone energy it discharges the energy absorbed via rain and lightning (mechanical potential). In doing so, the cloud system disappears (relaxation phase) and the orgonomic potential of the system is back to the original atmospheric orgonomic potential. Thus, Reich found out that an orgone energy metabolism would exist and be at work in the living organism as well as in orgone apparatuses or in any other orgonotic system.

The following scheme in figure 17 represents the orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system.

Figure 17 – Orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system

The tube capacitors can be considered artificial orgonotic systems, characterized by a well-defined orgonotic capacity, or by a well-defined maximum capacity to hold or store orgone energy units. By its nature a tube capacitor accumulates and holds the orgone energy available in the environment in which it is located (in our case that of the Earth’s surface at a particular latitude and longitude) inside the alternated organic/inorganic layers that is made of. As long as the environmental orgonomic potential, in which the capacitor is immersed, is lower (line A1D1 in figure 18) than the minimum orgonomic potential (line AD in figure 18), above which the orgone charge-discharge metabolism in the capacitor starts, no orgone charge-discharge cycle can occur. But, when the minimum orgonomic potential of the environment is exceeding this value, the capacitor observes a charge-discharge metabolism even though not continuous, occurring from time to time. And this discharge is evidenced by the formation of an electrical tension at the capacitor, and of an associated generation of electrical current, as we observe at the beginning of the bell-shaped trend of the tension (the period September-October in figures 8 and 9). However, when the orgonomic potential, in which the tube capacitor is found, is continuously increasing (line B1C1 in figure 18) and all the time is higher than that that characterizes the maximum holding capacity of the capacitor (line BC in figure 18), a continuous orgone energy accumulation followed by a continuous discharge of the capacitor via electrical tension and current may be seen (in the period November-April) (figures 8 and 9). This phenomenon is going on until when the environmental orgonomic potential decreases again to a value lower than that peculiar of the capacitor (line BC). At this point in the capacitor a discontinuous orgone charge-discharge metabolism starts again (as we observe at the end of the bell-shaped curve, in the period May-June in figures 8 and 9), until when the orgonomic potential of the environment (line A1D1) decreases again below the minimum required for the capacitors to charge and discharge (line AD) and the orgone metabolism ceases and charge-discharge no longer occurs (period from June to September in figures 8 and 9). As a consequence also the tension and the production of electricity ceases.

The following scheme in figure 18 represents the above situation, where line A1D1 represents the minimum orgonomic potential reached by the environment in which the capacitor is immersed and no orgone metabolism by the capacitor does exist (in our case during summer months); and line B1C1 represents the maximum orgonomic potential reached by the same environment (during the wintry period), characterized by a continuous charge-discharge metabolism of orgone energy of the capacitor. Intermediate positions of the orgonomic potential of the environment occurs during the other months of the year according to the pulsatory nature of the local atmospheric environment.

Figure 18 – Orgasm formula applied to a tube capacitor immersed in an atmospheric orgone energy field

The above pulsatory behaviour typical of the atmosphere (from A1D1 to B1C1, and back to A1D1 again) is what might have affected the performance of the two tube capacitors during the whole year, and particularly in the period from September/October to May/June where a flow of electric current was observed, as a consequence of the orgone energy metabolism, first discontinuously (from AD to BC); then continuously (from BC to B1C1 and back again to BC); and then discontinuously again (from BC to AD). This phenomenon is cyclic and is repeating every year according to the cyclical contraction/expansion behaviour of the local orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface.

Being OPE, the orgonomic potential of the environment, in which the tube capacitor was immersed, and TC the tension at the tube capacitor, it can be hence understood that:

TC α OPE                                           for OPE ≥ OPAD,

and:

TC = 0                                                   for OPE < OPAD

and more specifically:

TC > 0 (discontinuous)            for OPAD ≤ OPE ≤ OPBC,

TC > 0 (continuous)     for OPE  > OPBC,

where OPBC is the critical environment orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity level of the capacitor to hold or accumulate orgone energy units; while OPAD is the minimum orgonomic potential that still guarantees a charge and discharge of the capacitors.
In particular, if between the two orgonomic potentials OPAD and OPBC the charge-discharge metabolism is not continuous and requires some time for the capacitors to recharge and discharge again; the charge-discharge metabolism for values of the environment orgonomic potential OPE higher than OPBC seems to be instantaneous and continuous.
It must be outlined here that the value of TC might be considered also a function of the construction characteristic of the tube capacitors, i.e., materials used, sizes, etc. As a consequence, in the same experimental conditions tube capacitors with different construction characteristics might behave in a different way.

If we consider the trend of the radioactivity and of the electroscope leaf deflection, as shown in figure 19, we can observe that the capacitors are active (namely producing a tension and generating an associated electric current) for values of the monthly radioactivity higher than around 22.2 counts per minute (CPM), and for values of the monthly electroscope leaf deflection higher than around 19.0 degree; while for values of the monthly radioactivity lower than around 22.2 counts per minute (red dotted area), and for values of the electroscope monthly deflection lower than around 19.0 degree (blue dotted area), the two tube capacitors are dormant.

Figure 19 – Radioactivity (red dotted area), and electroscope leaf deflection (blue dotted area) range in which the two tube capacitors were unresponsive

The three cyclical trends (those regarding the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf deflection, and that regarding the electric tension) are comparable since the local orgone energy field pulsation is behaving approximately in the same way being the sites, in which the measurements were performed, located at around the same latitude. As a consequence, expansion and contraction movements of the orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface might be considered to follow the same path even though the sites of the measurements are quite distant, above all that one regarding the electroscope measurements (carried out by Baker in Eastern Pennsylvania) (10) .
It is clear from the above graphs that the tension (and the associated electrical current) at the tube capacitors, as well as the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf, were affected by a similar orgonomic potential of the local environment orgone energy.

The blue and red continuous lines in figures 19 are different expressions of the same environmental orgone energy pulsatory movement that in figure 18 is represented to move from A1D1 to B1C1 and back again to A1D1. While the line AD represents the critical (minimum) value of the environment orgone energy (corresponding to the red and blue dotted lines in figure 19) below which the tube capacitor is inactive (or dormant) and does not produce any secondary physical effects; while above which electric tension and current is detected.  

All in all, it would appear that the tube capacitors only gather a tension and an electrical charge when the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, in which they are immersed, is higher than the minimum orgonomic potential required by the orgone accumulating-type devices to produce a charge-discharge metabolism. In case the natural orgonomic potential of the environment exceeds the maximum orgonomic potential (or the maximum orgonotic capacity to hold an orgone charge) characteristic of the tube capacitors the charge-discharge metabolism is continuous.

According to what has been discussed above, for a given tube capacitor reduction of the dormant period, and increase of the tension and of the associated electrical current in periods of activity, it can only be done artificially by increasing the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, OPE, in which the capacitor is immersed. Increasing OPE from A1D1 to an orgonomic potential higher than OPBC, for instance A2D2 (see figure 20), in periods of no activity (when the capacitor is dormant), means having the generation of an electric tension at the tube capacitor for all the period where the orgonomic potential is artificially maintained at A2D2. In addition, increasing the maximum naturally-available OPE to values higher than B1C1, i.e. B2C2 (see figure 20), allows to have higher values of the tension from the tube capacitor even in periods where the capacitor is already producing a tension, being the response of the capacitor directly proportional to the orgonomic potential in which it is immersed. In addition, for OPE ≥ OPBC there should not be a charge-discharge phase but only one continuous phase that includes simultaneous charge and discharge, as observed in the winter months where the production of electricity was continuous all over the period.

Figure 20 – Behaviour of the local environment orgonomic potential when artificially increased

From accounts of witnesses of the orgone motor, it emerged that Reich, in one of his prototypes, connected the Western Electric KS-9154 motor to an orgone accumulator in order to get it run (11). As we saw in our earlier laboratory experiments a very small tension and current may be available from a small orgone accumulator, and hence different types of arrangements or possibly procedures might have been used by Reich to produce a tension sufficient to run the motor. In addition, demonstration of the functioning of the orgone motor occurred during the First International Conference, that was held at Orgonon between the end of August and beginning of September, 1948, in a period where we observed the tube capacitors we tested in our laboratory in Italy were still dormant and producing no electricity. We might assume that also during the demonstration done by Reich the orgone accumulator, connected to the motor, were not producing any amount of electricity in the case that it resorted only to the natural orgonomic potential of the environment. Hence, the electricity required to run the motor must have been produced in some other ways. We know from the accounts of his collaborators that Reich might have excited the orgone energy units contained inside the orgone accumulator by a small amount of electricity (12) (a half Volt battery). In our view, this can be understood as a way to artificially increase the orgonomic potential of the concentrated orgone energy to a level high enough to produce the electricity required to start and run the motor. However, it is not clear for how long the motor run when the battery was disconnected from the arrangement, and functioned because of the action of the excited concentrated orgone units only, being reasonable to think that after disconnection the excitation of the orgone units decreased until it disappeared after a certain period of time. No information has ever been reported on this point in the literature either by Reich nor by his collaborators. Possibly, the aim of the above arrangement was only to demonstrate the mechanical qualities of the orgone units when excited. And, Reich might have devised a different and also cheaper way to produce a more continuous and higher excitation of the orgone energy such as that of using a small source of radioactive material as suggested in the Oranur Experiment book (13):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).”

A further very important point is related to the fact the orgone motor was behaving like a hysterical woman, as reported by Baker (14), and by his second wife Ilse Ollendorf (15). The running of the orgone motor was noisy, and a clean-up was required for a good functioning. Reich might have well referred to the inversion of polarity of the tension produced by the orgone devices, as we observed in our capacitors, and that are described by the trend of the tension in figure 8. We do not know the exact reason of this phenomenon. We observed it is related to the construction characteristics of the capacitor but we can also suppose it could be related to the environment orgonomic potential itself. However, inversion of polarity either continuous and progressive, as that shown by the 1C/1A capacitor, or occasional, were not due to the tube capacitors position since they neither touched nor got close to each other. In addition, the measuring device was located in a different room and no effect might have been produced by on the polarity. In any case this might be the proof that the electric current is not generated neither by electrochemical phenomena (due to the paper foils of the capacitor that touch the aluminum foils) nor by contact between metals.

The tube capacitor 2C/1A with the lower capacity value (103 nFarad) seems to show a more stable polarity of the generated tension. This may be due to the higher thickness of the organic layers of the capacitor (in this case paper) or the higher mass. The tube capacitor with the higher capacity (1C/1A with 182 nFarad) is consisting of one sheet of paper alternated to one foil of aluminum layer and hence is characterized by half the thickness and mass of organic material (paper). Hence, it can be argued that better and more stable performances might be due to the higher amount of organic material used to build the capacitors.

The phenomenon of the inversion of polarity was also observed by Zamboni during the development of his dry piles (16):

“Una pila di questo genere ch’era riuscita molto energica la mattina, si vedea alle volte illanguidir sulla sera: cinquanta coppie di una carta non davano in certi giorni la tensione, data nello stesso momento dalle sole dieci di un’altra: l’aria umida egualmente che la secca, parea dare la vita ad alcune, ad altre la morte; e quel che è più, vedeasi persino rovesciarsi in alcune la polarità elettrica, e dove jeri aveano il polo negativo sulla faccia metallica, e il positivo nel rovescio, oggi tutto al contrario….”

“A battery of this kind might show a good tension in the morning, which might vanish in the evening: fifty couples of one type of paper did not give on some days the tension produced at the same moment by ten (couples) of another (paper): wet air, as well as dry air, seemed to give life to some, and death to others; and in some cases electric polarity was found to reverse, and where the day before we had the negative pole on the metallic side, and the positive one on the other side, the day after we observed the opposite ….”

It is possible that the erratic behaviour of the arrangements of Zamboni’s dry piles is the same phenomenon we observed in the functioning of our tube capacitors, and that Reich observed in his orgone motor when run by excited orgone energy alone. An erratic behaviour that resembled the hysterical woman-like behaviour.   
Zamboni solved the point by introducing in his piles alternated layers of silver paper disk (a paper with a thin layer of tin or a copper-zinc alloy on one side) and gilded paper disk (a paper smeared with manganese oxide or copper powder on one side). He saw that by introducing this arrangement the polarity of the tension, that was seen to be affected by variations of the weather and the time of day, stabilized.

In this paper we described the spontaneous formation of few mVolt of tension in orgone accumulating-type devices. This tension and the related charge fluctuate in annual cycles. Tension and electrical charge do not appear to be explained by electrostatic, electromagnetic, and chemical reactions.
In the next and last paper the results obtained by artificially increasing the local orgonomic potential in one of the two tube capacitors will be discussed. A hypothesis about the Y-factor will be also developed and included in the paper.

References:

(1). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 83-125.

(2). Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, 2017, Milan, pages 43-65.

(3). In all instances a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

(4). Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Institute Press, New York, 1948, pages 132-142. See also Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 88 and 89.

(5). Reich W, OROP Desert. Part 1: Spaceships, DOR and Drought. Chapter 1. Expansion and Contraction in the Atmospheric OR Energy, Cosmic Orgone Engineering, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Usa, Vol. VI, N° 14, July 1954, pages 1 (top), and 5-7 (bottom).

(6). Baker CF, The Electroscope IV: Atmospheric Pulsation, Journal of Orgonomy, 11(1):35-48, 1977.

(7). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, page 137.

(8). Maglione R, Ibid, 2012.

(9). Reich W, The Function of the Orgasm, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 1973.

(10). Latitude and longitude of the sites where Baker did electroscopic measurements (Ambler, Pennsylvania), Maglione did radioactivity measurements (Vercelli, Italy), and those of the present study (Sassuolo, Italy) were, respectively: Ambler, Pennsylvania, latitude 40° 09’ 18” N (40.1545535),  longitude 75° 13’ 13” W (-75.2215651); Vercelli, Italy, 45° 19′ 0" N (45.3166667), longitude 8° 25′ 0" E (8.4166667); and Sassuolo, Italy, latitude 44° 40′ 0" N (44.6666667), longitude 10° 55′ 0" E (10.9166667). As to the site in which Baker carried out his measurements we assumed they were performed in Ambler, Pennsylvania, the location where usually Baker conducted all his scientific activities. In the paper, published on the Journal of Orgonomy regarding his research experience (Vol. 11(1), 1977), Baker reported the measurements were performed in Eastern Pennsylvania, without giving more specific details on the site.

(11). Maglione R, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? A State of the Art, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, August 27, 2017.

(12). Maglione R, Ibid, August 27, 2017.

(13). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 199.

(14). Baker EF, My Eleven Years with Reich, ACO Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001, pages 32 and 33.

(15). Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, St Martin’s, New York, 1969, page 117.

(16). Zamboni G, Lettera all’Accademia Reale delle Scienze di Monaco dell’Abate Giuseppe Zamboni Sopra i Miglioramenti da Lui Fatti alla Sua Pila Elettrica, Tipografia Ramanzini, Verona, 1816.

Acknowledgement

The authors wish to thank Leon Southgate for the critical review of the final manuscript.

Authors:

Roberto Maglione – 1 Scholar, and author in orgonomy. Italy www.orgonenergy.org

Degree in Mining Engineering.

Dionisio Ferrari – Electronic technician specialized in electroacoustics. Scholar in orgonomy, and manufacturer of orgone accumulators. www.dionisioferrari.it

  

Posted in Orgone BiophysicsComments (1)

ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN ORGONE DEVICES


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?
A state of the art (1)
Roberto Maglione

This paper is the first of a series of three papers focused on the Reich orgone motor which will appear on Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy. The present one is a brief account of the state of the art. The second paper (co-authored with Dionisio Ferrari) focuses on lab experiments performed in-house where a spontaneous cyclical production of electrical energy has been obtained from orgone apparatuses in a standard orgone energy environment. The third paper (co-authored with Dionisio Ferrari) reports and discusses the response of the orgone apparatuses to the production of electrical energy when the orgonomic potential of the environment is artificially increased. A hypothesis of the Y-factor is developed and described in this last paper.

Reich spent all his life in studying and researching on the presence in nature of a ubiquitous cosmic energy whose application would have had dramatic social and technological impact on the life of human beings. Towards the end of the 1950, after many years of investigations on the biological and physical properties of this cosmic energy, which he called orgone energy, Reich started to use a Geiger-Muller counter to study the interaction between orgone energy and radioactivity (2). He was thinking that orgone energy could mitigate, or even annul, the danger and harmfulness of radioactivity on the organism and life forms in general. He planned and conducted this type of research partly because of the advent of the Korean war in order to find a response and an antidote to the threat of a possible nuclear conflict. He was convinced that (3):

“Nuclear radiation, for instance radium, is changed under the influence of concentrated orgone energy. The kind and the extent of such change is still very obscure.”

And his later experiments were focused on this assumption and aimed at verifying whether very small quantities of radioactive materials, when put inside strong and powerful orgone accumulators located inside an orgone room (4) were rendered innocuous. The results of this last experiment, called Oranur (5), carried out in Reich’s laboratory, led him to completely different results and conclusions, and radioactivity was found to be detrimental to high concentration of orgone energy (6). Nevertheless, further researches conducted by Reich in the following years, based on the results of the Oranur experience, proved that in the end orgone energy could convert nuclear energy into a more powerful and basically benign form of energy, called Orur (7). Besides, results of his first experiments with Geiger-Muller counters and orgone apparatus, carried out in the years 1947 and 1948, led him to unexpected findings and to the conclusion that orgone energy could also be used and converted to produce mechanical energy, or work (8).

During the first experiments, carried out in 1947-1948, Reich observed that the Geiger-Muller counter, used to monitor the radioactivity, initially reacted normally, registering the background count given, and the gamma radiation of the area. However, the device was unresponsive when placed close to orgone accumulators, and did not react to background radiation and not even to small x-ray sources. The device remained practically unreactive for some weeks, when the pointer of the impulse recorder started rotating at the rate of one full turn per second, which corresponded to about 100 impulses per second, a very high value compared to the normal background of 10-15 counts per minute. On further measurements Reich obtained a reading of about six to eight thousand counts per minute. Reich realized that he was witnessing a possible motor force (9). The orgone energy was somehow being transformed into electromagnetic and mechanical energy through the Geiger-Muller counter (10). He argued that the motor effect occurred because the tube of the Geiger-Muller counter had soaked up orgone energy through constant exposure to the high orgonotic charge in the laboratory. Since the gas-filled counter tube consisted of an inner cylindrical metal tube, and an outer non-metallic protective layer, usually of coated glass, the counter tube constituted and behaved essentially as a small orgone energy accumulator (11).

Later on, he replaced the counter tube with a specially-built vacuum tube (called a Vacor tube). It was built with inner parallel aluminum plates, attached to the cathode and anode, respectively. The plates were inserted in the tube (generally made of pyrex) 4-6 cm apart, opposite each other. Each plate was 16 cm long, and 4 cm wide. The vacuum was 0.5 micron of pressure, which was sufficient to rule out the presence of any gas. This arrangement functioned like a kind of a orgone energy accumulator in the vacuum. Reich obtained, by using this updated arrangement, a much more powerful reaction that shortly afterwards was able to run a small spinner motor. In another arrangement he used a small orgone accumulator attached to a wheel. He excited the concentrated orgone energy inside the accumulator to run the wheel by a half Volt of electricity. Indeed, Reich found that electric energy might excite orgone energy (12):

“ELECTRICAL ENERGY EXCITES OR ENERGY AND CAUSED IT TO CHANGE FROM THE STATE OF CLOUDY PATCHES TO THAT OF QUICK WHITISH RAYS.
……
Now it became most probable that there is only ONE type of OR energy which changes its appearance and form according to different conditions.”

However, electrical energy was not the only way to excite orgone energy. Reich found several methods to excite concentrated orgone energy (13):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).…………..

May, 1950.”

In practice, with all these researches Reich was able to convert an excited concentrated orgone energy field into usable electrical energy to produce work (14):

“I have simply transformed orgone into electrical energy.”

However, Reich, notwithstanding this important discovery, never revealed the basic theory, design, and experimental set-ups through which he was able to run the small spinner motor, and to obtain mechanical work directly from the cosmic orgone energy locally available (15). He wrote, soon after the discovery, a very brief communication, included in the book the Cancer Biopathy (16), and a brief report, a year later, was included in the first issue of the Orgone Energy Bulletin (17). The information therein reported was too small to understand and to replicate the experiments that led to the development of the motor. Nevertheless, Reich included in his last book, Contact with Space, several clues on how to develop the orgone motor and maybe to understand the meaning of the mysterious and inexplicable Y-factor that, according to Reich, was essential in developing the orgone motor. From them it can be inferred that Reich was able to convert orgone energy into mechanical energy by exciting concentrated orgone energy, and that one of the key points of such conversion was the use of radioactivity. He set also a minimum rate of radioactivity to run a motor.
However, the first chapters of the Oranur Experiment text include many of the tests he did with Geiger-Muller counters, and that later led to the development of the first prototypes of the orgone motor. And they can be considered an introductory work to the development of the final prototype of the orgone motor.
The running of the orgone motor was witnessed by many collaborators, and people outside his research circle. Demonstration of the functioning of the orgone motor was also done during the First International Conference, held at Orgonon, from August 30 to September 2, 1948.

In his accounts, Reich described only in general lines the basic functioning of the motor (18):

“… These phenomena, open up a vista of two new technical applications of orgone energy:

  1. production of light, and
  2. transformation of impulses in rapid succession into a mechanical motor force ……

On June 24th, 1948, at 1 p.m., I succeeded in setting a motor (Western Electric, KS-9154, Serial No. 1227) into motion by means of the Orgone Energy Motor Force which I had discovered by way of the Geiger-Muller counter on August 8th, 1947. …. In order to set the Orgone Motor into motion, a certain function, called Y is necessary. This function cannot be divulged at the present time.
The sources of orgone energy used hitherto are the following:

  1. Orgone-charged Vacor tubes
  2. Atmospheric Orgone
  3. Earth Orgone
  4. Organismic Orgone Energy

 

No material as is being used in the process of nuclear fission is required. The succession of impulses can be regulated. The sequence of impulses is even and continuous. The relation of the amount of used orgone energy to the tremendous reservoir of the Cosmic Energy Source is minimal. …. The speed of the motor action can be regulated. It depends on

  1. The number of vacor tubes connected
  2. Weather conditions in accordance with orgonotic functions found hitherto, such as temperature difference T-To, speed of electroscopic discharge, etc.,
  3. Function Y

 

…. There is no such thing as “empty space.” Field actions are due to the activity of the universal cosmic orgone energy.”

The Western Electric KS-9154 motor used by Reich is a small two phase spinner motor, with a diameter of 2 15/16 inches, and length of 4 1/16 inches. It consists of a laminated steel stator, and of a rotor (1 inch diameter, and 2.5 inch long) made by a hollow cylinder of copper, open at one end and connected to a steel shaft at the other end (19).
Reich died without revealing the function Y, a fundamental part for understanding the functioning of the orgone motor, since he assumed the average man (the little man as he called it) was not prepared to use such an unlimited source of power. However, what is missing in Reich’s accounts is not only the meaning of the function Y, but also the general theory behind the functioning of the motor, whose function Y is only a part of it.
Amongst the accounts of the co-workers who witnessed the orgone motor running we have those of Sharaf, Baker, Wyvell, Neill, and that of his second wife, Ilse Ollendorf. They add only anecdotic information on the orgone motor, and only very few more interesting details can be found in addition to those already available. In general, from the accounts it emerged that the wheel of the motor was turning much faster and noiselessly when powered only by the orgone energy, which was supplied to it by a vacor tube, or by a small orgone accumulator; while when connected to a battery the wheel was turning much slower and the rotational movement was noisy. When alimented by orgone energy alone the rotation of the wheel was affected by weather conditions. Besides, Reich stated that he wanted either to commercialize the discovery, or to carry out researches and experiments only, without going through the marketing of it. He also asserted that he did not want to publish the details, including the Y-factor. This latter controversial behaviour was never considered nor discussed by the biographers, and scholars of Reich.

Sharaf’s account was (20):

“Reich never published the design for the orgone energy motor and I no longer remember the details of the experimental set-up or its operation. I do recall that it involved the use of an accumulator attached to a wheel; concentrated orgone energy was triggered by a small amount of electricity, an amount insufficient to rotate the wheel without the accumulator. I also recall that when the wheel was rotated entirely by electricity, it had a steady grinding motion. When powered by the combination of orgonotic and electrical energy, it ran smoothly and quietly; but its speed varied depending upon the weather – more rapidly on dry, clear days, more slowly when the humidity was high. During this summer [1948], Reich was extremely excited about the motor and envisioned its industrial applications. He also expressed considerable concern that the “secret” of the motor might be stolen, which may have contributed to his reluctance to publish the details.”

Baker’s account, was based on what he observed during the demonstration of the orgone motor at the First International Conference in 1948 (21):

“Films from the archives of the Orgone Institute on cancer development were shown, as well as a film of the development of the orgone energy motor.
Reich also demonstrated the reaction of the Geiger Muller counter to orgone energy and, finally, the orgone energy motor. Reich discovered the motor force of orgone energy in 1947 when he observed the dial of the Geiger Muller counter revolve. He decided to build an orgone energy motor. On Myron Sharaf’s suggestion, he employed one William Washington, a black who was a student of mathematics at the University of Chicago, to help work out a way to build the motor. Reich first used vacor tubes in series attached to a small accumulator and connected to a transformer to build up an electrical charge to excite the orgone energy. He used four or five vacor tubes. All were connected to a 25 volt electric motor. A vacor tube is a vacuum tube soaked in orgone energy in an accumulator for six weeks. Reich was able to get the vacor tube to glow a beautiful blue when excited by a charge of 500 volts of electricity. His photographer, Kari Berggrav, took colored photographs of this, as well as of the orgone energy motor. Reich took away one vacor tube after another until all were taken away, and still the motor ran. The important ingredient was the so-called “Y factor” which Reich did not divulge. The motor ran on ½ volt of electricity sent through an accumulator that was connected to the electric motor. When the motor was run on electricity alone, it took 25 volts of electricity and was noisy and wobbly. On orgone energy, it was practically noiseless and ran smoother and faster. At times, it would change direction. In damp weather, it would not ran. Reich said it was like an hysterical woman.”

Wyvell’s account was (22):

“The one I saw was about the size of a large orange … It was hooked up to a special OR [orgone] accumulator with a “Y” factor that Reich did not divulge as he felt mankind was not ready to use such a potentially boundless power rationally. It was also connected to an electrical source with very low voltage because, as I remember it, the unexcited orgone energy by itself couldn’t overcome the initial inertia. But it ran on atmospheric orgone energy fed to it through the accumulator and also from the human energy field … It ran erratically, as no motor with a mechanical energy source does: it slowed down and speeded up without any interference. Also, if one curved his hands over it, it also speeded up and slowed down, apparently on its own volition, but actually at the volition of the orgone energy. Thirdly, the motor using orgone energy did something no motor using mechanical energy can do: it reversed itself every once in a while without slowing down, even without a jolt. This, I believe, is impossible in terms of what is known of mechanical physics, but it was witnessed by a number of sane and sensible doctors, scientists, and laymen. This is, of course, why Reich believed UFOs were powered by orgone energy, for they, too, have been observed to be moving at a terrific speed in one direction and to reverse or turn off at a sharp angle without slowing down and without a jerk.
The “Y” factor hasn’t been rediscovered, and I personally hope it won’t be until power-lust and other forms of the emotional plague are reduced to controllable proportions.”

Neill briefly commented the orgone motor in two of his writings:

“Ten years ago [1948] in Maine I saw a small motor turning over when attached to an orgone accumulator. “The power of the future”, cried Reich joyfully. But as far as I ever knew, the experiment was not continued. In reply to a query Reich wrote: “My job is discovery, and I leave it to others to carry out the results”.”(23)

“He had a small motor which was charged by an orgone accumulator. It ran slowly but when gingered up by volts from a battery it seemed to revolve at a great speed. Reich was in ecstasies: “The motive force of the future!” he exclaimed. I never heard of its being developed.”(24)

His second wife, Ilse Ollendorf, briefly commented in her biography of Reich that the orgone motor was as follows (25):

“In March of that year [1948] Reich had experimented with Geiger counters and with vacuum tubes, and had made several important discoveries about the behaviour of orgone energy.
He had also started to experiment with a small motor moved by orgone energy. This work continued in Maine with the help of a young assistant [William Washington (26)] who concentrated on the elaboration of these phenomena. Reich was very excited about the reactions of the little motor. Notes kept by some students at the laboratory, and put at my disposal as source material, mention the work with the motor again and again as one of Reich’s preoccupations that summer [1948]. He knew that a great deal of work was needed to “clean” the experiment, to clarify all its ramifications and functions because, as he put it, it sometimes behaved like “an hysterical woman”. Reich foresaw a great future for his orgone-energy motor.”

Reich made motion pictures of the motor in operation, and these have been preserved, transferred to videotape, and are now available at the Wilhelm Reich Museum, Rangeley, Maine.

In the last decades, the Wilhelm Reich Museum published four books (27), edited by Body Higgins, trustee of the Museum, covering all the periods of Reich’s life and research topics, including materials taken mainly from Journals and correspondence available in the Reich’s Archive, located at Harvard Medical School (Boston, Massachusetts). In some of them, and particularly in the volume published in 1999 (28), some more information about type and line of research conducted by Reich, the system he conceived to convert orgone energy into a motor force, and few details on the experimental set-ups can be found.
From this last book, on August 9, 1947, Reich writes (29):

“Continuation of Geiger-Muller tests:
1. Switching off tube: No humming, but one click each time the high voltage is applied.
2. Questions to Washington on the phone, 2 p.m.
a. Have you ever worked with such a device?
b. What is most speedy reaction of Geiger-Muller to radiation?
c. What is the "normal" reaction to cosmic rays?
d. Ever seen 100 per second?
3. Measurement with seconds meter + recorder.
In 25 seconds 1,500 pulses!
60 per second!
Incredible!
Consequences:
1. Wheels are rotated by pulses of orgone energy.
2. It will be possible to power motors with orgone.
3. This use will be risk-free; it will be cheap.
4.20 p.m.
I place the receiver in a threefold orgone accumulator in order to see whether it rises.
Today, 9 August 1947, between 11 a.m. and 5 p.m. I have discovered the principle of the transformation of orgone energy into mechanical energy by means of the electronic impulses of a Geiger counter.
Present this afternoon were: Ilse Ollendorff
William Washington, whom I called
Tom Ross, our caretaker
One revolution per second at the counter.
Immediately notified: the Atomic Energy Commission, American Academy of Sciences, French Academy, Patent Office.”

On August 14, 1947, he writes (30):

“Orgone is capable of turning a wheel if a counter tube or similar instrument is so excited that an electromagnetic wheel rotates. It seems important that the electrons "excite" the orgone in the tube. It remains to be discovered whether the electrons or the orgone itself
is the motor force.
I have simply transformed orgone into electrical energy. The impulse is a simple electromagnetic system.
9 a.m. Proof for orgone = motor force.
I killed the reaction by completely uncovering the counter tube. Reaction 0. As soon as the counter tube is placed in the accumulator or metal housing, the motor on the counter starts to run.
Tasks for orgone motor.
1. Does the orgone motor also work outside the metal-lined room [Reich refers to a room in the laboratory at Orgonon which was lined with metal as an accumulator], with accumulator in the open air or in an orgone-free room?
2. What types of electromagnetic apparatus are caused to move?
3. How much can be eliminated from the structure of the Geiger-Muller without destroying the principle?
4. What are the conditions for obtaining a patent if a Geiger-Muller counter tube is used?
5. Can the motor force be increased, and how?”

And, on November 7 and 9, 1947, he writes (31):

♦ “7 November 1947
Have begun construction of an orgone motor.

♦ 9 November 1947
I must study electron tubes, for they are opening up a new world for me. The orgone in the electron tube. That is the way of great science! I found five years ago the functional identity of body orgone and secondary coil orgone. Now I could eliminate all high tension from the Geiger-Muller counter. The "wheel turns" without high tension
a. when I touch a battery with my hands,
b. when I let a secondary coil system be excited.”

Reich believed that this kind of motor could be used to move spaceships, and that they were propelled by orgone energy, and could reach tremendous velocities in outer space, up to 10,000 – 15,000 mph (around 16,100 – 24,150 km/hr). They could also use orgone streams in the Universe to move much faster. He came to these conclusions by observing the striking similarity between the phenomena related to spaceships, as described in the literature by many authors about Unidentified Flying Objects, and those provided by the observations of both natural phenomena and those produced by the use of high concentrations of orgone energy. He writes in a paper out on CORE (32):

“The facts confirming these abstractions seemed to be at hand now in a strangely practical manner. Things tied in further. Function-after-function coordinated itself with what I had read about the "Unidentified Objects". The final picture as of today is about this:
(1) The CORE Men" (CORE = Cosmic Orgone Engineering) – as I came to call them – apparently were thoroughly conversant with the laws of functioning in the cosmic OR [orgone] energy ocean, especially with gravity as a function of superimposition.
(2) They use Cosmic OR energy in propelling their machines.
(3) Their "blue lights" were in agreement with the blue color characteristic of all visible OR functions – sky, protoplasm, aurora, sunspots, depth of moon valley seen at dusk, the color of OR energy lumination in vacor tubes, etc.
(4) The changes of color from blue to white or red, etc. I knew well from various studies of OR phenomena. And I had seen some practically in vacor tubes.
(5) The CORE men were obviously riding their spaceships on the main OR energy streams of the Universe (See Cosmic Superimposition on "Galactic and Equatorial Streams").
(6) The tremendous speeds which they are able to achieve were not in disagreement with all the tremendous quantities I had calculated for the OR energy streams of the Universe in 1940-1944. There are still many gaps there and many uncertainties. The tables of the krx-number system are in my possession.
(7) A speed of 10,000 – or – 15,000 mph did not appear impossible in the light of these numbers. On the contrary, it appeared quite natural.
(8) They rotated their discs in harmony with the OR waves they rode on. Rotating discs describe exactly what I had calculated 10 years previously as the so-called KRW ("Krieselwellen") or Spinning Waves, without any knowledge of spaceships actually riding Cosmic OR waves. From these waves, I had derived my mass-free equation:
Things were fitting well – even too neatly for my taste. Therefore, I hesitated to tell anything to anyone about them. I only worried about what might have happened to the facts and equations which a student [William Washington] had acquired in 1947 to 1949. He had worked on the OR energy motor. And he disappeared in 1949 under mysterious circumstances.
(9) Just as space is not empty, light does not "come down to us from the stars and the Sun". It is an effect of lumination in the OR energy envelope of the planets. It is a local phenomenon. Therefore, there is theoretically no limit to speed in cosmic space except technically. This agrees with the apparently limitless quantities in energy functions which characterize the Orgonometric "krx- system" as progressing in geometric proportions. These Orgonometric calculations seem to be applicable to the technological problems of Cosmic OR Energy Streams.”

And on November 20, 1953, Reich writes in his diary (33):

“After reading Keyhoe report [Donal Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer are Real, New York, Fawcett, 1950]
Summary: State of affairs:

  1. The flying saucers are real, to judge from Keyhoe’s report.
  2. They use OR [orgone] energy in propelling and lightning: speed, colors, silence [one of the basic characteristics of the orgone motor was silence]
  3. Most likely they were stirred into action in far outer space by the atomic explosions: Oranur effects.
  4. They come to investigate the disturbance of their lives by nuclear Oranur.
  5. They are directed by intelligent beings who come peacefully.
  6. All DOR effects began with equinox: flying saucers ride on Galactic stream.
  7. The melanor was brought down to earth by the Galactic Beings. Lets call them “CORE People
  8. They know Oranur and E
  9. Using OR they cannot be armored
  10. Melanor sucks O2 and H2O, rock disintegrates; living is invaded.“

After Reich’s death no significant research efforts were carried out aimed at re-discovering the original orgone motor and its functioning principles, including the function Y. In the orgonomic literature only very few papers appeared in the last years, and they were mainly focused on providing further information and details on already known subjects such as peculiarities of the electric motor used by Reich (Western Electric KS-9154), and hypotheses on the nature of the factor Y (34).

The only published research along this way was carried out by Correa and Correa (35). They did resort to developing an energy conversion system, as it was called by the authors, from massfree energy into electrical or kinetic energy to the work of Tesla, Aspden, De Broglie, and Thom, and only partially to the work of Reich’s. They report in the 2007 US patent text the philosophy of their invention (36):

“It is critical to understand that the implication from this that – aside from local electromagnetic radiation and from thermal radiation associated with the motions of molecules (thermo-mechanical energy), there is at least another form of energy radiation which is everywhere present, even in space absent matter…. And undoubtedly also this radiation is ubiquitous and not subject to relativistic transformations (i.e. Lorentz invariant). What it is not, is electromagnetic radiation consisting of randomistic phases of transverse waves.
To understand this properly, …. this energy which is neither electromagnetic nor thermal per se (and is certainly not merely thermo-mechanical), has nevertheless identifiable characteristics both distributed across subtypes or variants and as well common to all of them.
Essentially the first subtype or variant consists of longitudinal massfree waves that deploy electric energy. They could well be called Tesla waves, since Tesla-type transformers can indeed be shown experimentally to radiate massfree electric energy, in the form of longitudinal magnetic and electric waves having properties not reduceable to photon energy or to “electromagnetic waves”, …………
One may well denote the second subtype by the designation of massfree thermal radiation, since it contributes to temperature changes – and, as obviously indicated by the impossibility of reaching an absolute zero of temperature, this contribution occurs independently of the presence of matter, or mass-energy, in Space. …
Finally the third subtype may be designated latent massfree energy radiation – since it deploys neither charge, nor thermal or baroscopic effects, and yet it is responsible for “true latent heat“ or for the “intrinsic potential energy” of a molecule.”

Correa and Correa developed a concept of massfree energy similar to that of Reich’s orgone energy, devoid of inertia, and that could be found everywhere in space. They found its characteristics might belong to three massfree energy subtypes or variants defined respectively as radiating massfree electric energy, radiating massfree thermal energy, and responsible for the latent heat. However, no mention was made by the authors in their physical model on two other important subtypes of the cosmic orgone energy, namely the variation of the gravitational field, and above all that of the nuclear field which Reich seemed to give extremely importance to for the development of a motor force (37).
In reproducing Reich experiments, according to the above assumptions, Correa and Correa observed that an AC induction motor could be efficiently run from the output of a modified thytraton pulse amplifier of the Herbach & Rademan CMB-3A GM scaler; while in reconstructing the archaeology of the function Y, they came to the conclusion that it might correspond to a thermionic full-wave divider of the Delon, Greibacker and Latour circuit applied in the manner of a dual diode sensor circuit in RF power meters (38). However, no public demonstration of the energy conversion systems, and of the aether motor in action was ever provided by the inventors.

 

References:

(1). This paper is a summary of the chapter Reich and the Orgone Motor contained in the book The Legendary Shamir by Maglione R (2017).

(2). To this end he first planned to use 2.2∙10-5 milliCurie of radio cobalt CO-60 (half-life of 5.3 years), and 20 milliCurie of Phosphorous P-32 (a radioactive isotope of phosphorous); and later on two needles of 1 mg each one of radium.

(3). Reich W, The Anti Nuclear Radiation Effect of Cosmic Orgone Energy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Vol 3, N° 1, January 1951.

(4). The orgone room located at Reich‘s laboratory, Orgonon, Maine, was a completely metal-lined room where the observer, after sitting a while in complete darkness, could observe orgone energy. The room was used by Reich in many of his experiments as well as in the Oranur experiment. The room, size 18 x 18 ft (6 x 6 m), was made of an external layer of organic material and internally lined by a sheet of iron. Inside the orgone room some small accumulators were located, one of them used by Reich during the Oranur experiment, where the radioactive material was daily put inside for some days.

(5). Oranur was coined by Reich as an acronym for Orgone Anti Nuclear.

(6). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951.

(7). Reich W, History of the Discovery of the Life Energy. Atoms for Peace vs the HIG Documentary, Supplement N° 3, A-XII-EP, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, Maine, 1956, page 14.

(8). In this first period of investigation apparently Reich never used radioactive materials in his experiments, even though he made sometimes reference to measurements of the counts emitted by his wristwatch (equipped with a radium dial) carried out by a Geiger-Muller counter (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 214).

(9). Soon after, in April 1948, Reich informed the Director of the NYC Technical Advisers Office of the Atomic Energy Commission about the motor effect of the orgone energy on the Geiger-Muller counter (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 154).

(10). Reich W, The Geiger-Muller Effect of Cosmic Orgone Energy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, 3(4), 1951, New York.

(11). Generally, a Geiger-Muller tube consists of an anode (positive electrode) positioned in the center of a tubular cathode (negative electrode) filled with a mixture of argon, neon, and either chlorine or bromine gases. The cathode is a thin-walled metallic cylinder sealed at each end with an insulating disk to contain the gas. The anode is a wire that extends into the cylinder. A high voltage is applied to the electrodes to create an electrical field within the chamber. When radiation passes through the chamber and ionizes the gas, it generate radiation passes through the chamber and ionizes the gas, it generates a pulse of current. The device processes these pulses to display the radiation level.

(12). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 213.

(13). Reich W, Ibid, page 199 and 200.

(14). Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999, page 401.

(15). It should be outlined, however, that Reich, in July 1948, informed the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of the motoric qualities of the orgone energy and of the fact that such a motor force might be abused by totalitarian countries (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 154).

(16). Reich W, The Discovery of the Orgone. Volume Two: the Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Institute Press, 1948, New York, page 150.

(17). Reich W, A Motor Force in Orgone Energy. Preliminary Communication, Orgone Energy Bulletin, 1(1), Orgone Institute Press, January 1949, New York, pages 7-11.

(18). Reich W, Ibid, pages 7-11.

(19). Reiter AN, Examination of the Western Electric KS-9154 Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002.

(20). Sharaf M, Fury on the Earth. A Biography of Wilhelm Reich, A St Martin’s Press/Marek, New York, 1983, note at page 354.

(21). Baker EF, My Eleven Years with Reich, ACO Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001, pages 32 and 33.

(22).Wyvell L, An Appreciation of Reich, Journal of Orgonomy, 7(2):170-186, 1973, page 185.

(23). Neill AS, The Man Reich, in Wilhelm Reich Memorial Volume, Ritter Press, Nottingham, 1958, reprinted in Boadella D, Wilhelm Reich. The Evolution of his Work, Henry Regenery, Chicago, 1973, page 382.

(24). Neill AS, Neill! Neill! Orange Peel! A Personal View of Ninety Years, Quartet Books Limited, London, 1977, page 128.

(25). Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, St Martin’s, New York, 1969, page 117.

(26). Washington was a student and assistant of Reich in the development of the orgone motor, and particularly in the elaboration of the orgonometric equations and in the experimental work, between 1947 and 1949. He was introduced to Reich by Myron Sharaf, student of psychology at the University of Chicago and a collaborator of Reich. Washington disappeared mysteriously in the summer of 1949 with a prototype of the orgone motor. He first alleged a trip to a Chicago professor about his thesis, then illness in his family, later that he was ordered to Oak Ridge Laboratories by telegram, and finally that he was working with Argonne (AEC) laboratories. Investigations done by Reich disclosed that not only did letters reveal that Washington was not known to be at Argonne laboratories as claimed, but furthermore inquiry from professors under whom Washington was allegedly working for his thesis, denied that this was so. Chicago University answered that Washington had never completed his college work there (Reich W, History of the Discovery of the Life Energy. The Red Thread of a Conspiracy, Documentary Supplement No 2, A-XII-EP, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Maine, 1995). Reich suspected that he had been a Russian spy. The matter was brought to the attention of the FBI in the interest of national security, since Washington had come into possession of important knowledge and facts in 1949, and again in 1950 and in 1953, but no action was ever taken by the Governmental body. In 1956 Reich was convinced by factual consideration that he was connected with spaceship development (Reich W, Contact with Space. Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1956, page 71). Eden reported in one of his publications that Washington disappeared with two of the prototypes of the orgone motor, which later were reported as being in the Soviet Union (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 23).

(27). Reich W, Passion of Youth. An Autobiography 1897-1922, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1988; Reich W, Beyond Psychology. Letters and Journals 1934-1939, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1994; Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999; and Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, NY 2012.

(28). Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999.

(29). Reich W, Ibid, pages 399 and 400.

(30).Reich W, Ibid, page 401.

(31).Reich W, Ibid, page 425.

(32). Reich W, OROP Galactic Stream (Hancock, October 22, 1953), CORE, Orgone Institute Press, Vol. VI, No 1-4, July1954, New York, pages 103 and 104.

(33). Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, 2012, page 134.

(34). Reiter AN, Examination of the Western Electric KS-9154 Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002; see also DeMeo J, The Orgone Energy Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002.

(35). Correa PN, Correa AN, Experimental Aetherometry, Volume 3: The Orgone Motor and the Aether Motor, Akronos Publishing, Canada, July 2006; see also Correa PN, Correa AN, Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,053,576, May 30, 2006; and Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,235,945, June 26, 2007.

(36). Correa PN, Correa AN, Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,235,945, June 26, 2007.

(37). For more information on the secondary qualities of orgone energy see Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, 2012.

(38). Correa PN, Correa AN, Experimental Aetherometry, Volume 3: The Orgone Motor and the Aether Motor (abstracts), Akronos Publishing, Canada, July 2006.

Posted in Orgone BiophysicsComments (6)

The Oranur Experiment “Alone”


On April 3rd 1952, Dr. Wilhelm Reich recorded about 10 minutes of speech in the student’s laboratory at the Orgonon in Maine. This speech followed a period of an experiment that Reich called the “Oranur” experiment. Dr. Reich reported the process of this experiment and the conclusions that were derived as a result. This experiment entailed the approximation of nuclear energy (NR) to orgone energy (OR). Dr. Reich wanted to know what happens when orgone energy is confronted or approximated to nuclear energy. The results and conclusions are highly significant and Dr. Reich by the results of this experiment and observation of the effects of it, as well as the effects on laboratory mice and measurements of geiger counter concluded that in approximation of nuclear energy, orgone energy gets highly excited and as he puts it gets “bizerk”., It acts in an agitated way and in this process, orgone energy turns to deadly orgone energy (DOR). In a controlled situation, however, such a reaction can render medical benefits similar to immunization that provokes immunity in the body and makes a person stronger. Dr. Reich was able to acquire two 1mg. Units of Radium each in a separate half inch led container which arrived to the Orgonon on January 5th, 1951. Hence he started the experiment. Because of unforeseen circumstances and reactions, many of the workers in the Orgonon developed illnesses and the Orgonon and the laboratories had to be evacuated. Considering the difficulties and strain that the continuation of such an experiment was bringing to the staff, students, and workers, as well as the difficulty to contain the reaction, Dr. Reich halted the experiment and buried the radium units in a location far from their work and living area. This experiment has not been replicated or further explored by his students or any other interested scientists as of this date. Below is Dr. Reich’s speech on April 3, 1952 in the student’s laboratory pertaining to this experiment and its transcription. This speech contains many important aspects and embedded in it are his students characterological limitations and encouragement for the scientists to follow the path considering the possibilities that it may open for science and medicine.

Wilhelm Reich’s recording (Alone):

It is April 3rd, 1952, at Orgonon, Rangeley, Maine. I, Wilhelm Reich, am sitting alone in the large room in the lower house. All people are gone. In the morning and the whole day yesterday, a meeting took place of the members of the board of trustees of the foundation which carries my name. Everybody is gone now and I would like to add a few words to the recording we made yesterday and today of the disaster which struck Orgonon. There’s nobody here to listen to what I am saying. The recording apparatus is the only witness.

I hope that someone will at some time in the future listen to this recording with great respect, respect for the courage that was necessary to sustain the research work in orgone energy and life energy all through these years. I shall not go into the great strain, into the details, into the worries, the sleepless nights, the tears, the expenditures of money and effort, the patience which I had to have with all my workers and with all my students. I would like only to mention the fact that there is nobody around, there is not a single soul either here at Orgonon or down in New York who would fully and really from the bottom of his existence understand what I’m doing, and be with me in what I’m doing.

They are all very good people. They are decent, honest hard working. I trust them. They are very good friends, all of them – or most of them. But, this does not alter the fact that they all, without any exception, are against, I say, are against what I am doing. Every single one of them spites me, interferes with my effort, crosses it out, blunts out, flattens out, this one thing or another thing, whatever it may be, to diminish the effects of my effort. To block out the sharpness and acuity of my thoughts. To reduce to rubble and nothing – or nothingness what I have elaborated and about now thirty three or thirty four years of systematic thinking and in about forty years of human suffering, since about 1912, or rather 1910 when my mother died. There is not a single soul around who would fully understand or would not say “no” to it all.
This “no” is identical with: I don’t want it, I don’t like it, I loathe it, why is it here?, why does he have to exist?, why does he – why doesn’t he sit down and take it easy?, why did he have to start this ORANUR experiment which gives us so much trouble? They see only the trouble. They don’t see or they don’t want to realize what it means for medicine, biology and science in general, as well as philosophy, to have this ORANUR going. To them it is mostly a bother, an inducer of sickness, suffering and at times I have the distinct feeling that they believe or they do not quite dare to admit their own thoughts, that I may have gone haywire..

This reaction of my closest friends and coworkers to the situation here is exactly the same that has harassed the human race for as much as we can say, 8.000 or 10.000 years, since patriarchy has ruled its destinies and since natural love was extinguished in the newborn infants. I shall not go into that. It is all written up in my publications. Whoever knows these publications also knows what that means. The discovery of the life energy would have been accomplished long ago, had this “I don’t want it, I fear it, I loathe it, I’ll kill it, I’ll flatten it out, I won’t let it live, or exist”, if that had not been in their structures. Not that in their desires, not in their positive conscious wishes, they’re all descent and good people. “No” is in the structure. It is somehow in their tissues, in their blood. They cannot tolerate anything that has to do with orgone energy, or life energy, or what they call God, or what is their deepest longing for love fulfillment. They cannot tolerate it and they fear it. They fear it by way of structure. Their tissues, their blood cannot stretch out, cannot take it, evades it avoids it and loathes it.

I do not say all this to depreciate their efforts, their honor, their loves, their lives. I say it because it is true, because it turns up in every single move, in every single word, in every single opinion, in every single paper, in every single thing they did to whatever ever had to do with the discovery of genitality, life, love, such people as Laurence/Lawrence, or such philosophies as Giordano Bruno’s or such great lives as Jesus Christ, and so forth, and so forth. It is a sad, lonely chapter of the human race.

I don’t feel that I am obligated to solve this riddle, or to do anything about it. I happened to discover the life energy. I happened to induce the ORANUR experiment. I know what it means for the future development of medicine and biology, philosophy and natural science and in this awareness I am completely alone. There is no soul far and wide to talk to, to give one’s feelings to let one’s feelings go freely, to speak like as friends speak to each other. This is all.

Posted in History, Orgone BiophysicsComments (5)

Reich’s Point’s of Departure from Freud


Following article transcribed from a lecture given by Dr Simonian at UCLA in 2009.

I want to tell you how I was introduced to Dr. Reich and how I came to know Dr. Wilhelm Reich.  When I was in my second year of residency training, there were a lot of  different psychiatric theories and psychoanalytic theories. There was a lot of confusion about these different approaches and students of psychiatry were generally lost in these theories. I accidentally came across a book in the library with the title of Reich speaks of Freud.

He knew what he was talking about, his ideas were precise, to the point, and clear. So I couldn’t free myself from him and I continued pursuing his theories and writings. I did it all alone because there were no teachings of Reich in any of the institutes or psychiatry residency programs.  So I was all  by myself,  however I kept reading Reich and kept experiencing his theories on my own, until I discovered his museum.  I started going to the museum every summer for conferences. At one of the summer conferences, I met Dr.  Morton Herskowitz who was a student of Reich himself and he was and still is practicing Philadelphia.  So I was driving from Boston, MA to Philadelphia, seeing him every 2 weeks or so.  I progressed to the extent that I don’t think it is possible for me to practice psychiatry without Reichian Theories.

I wanted to give this lecture because I benefited tremendously from Dr. Reich’s teachings and treatment approaches both in my personal life and in my practice, and I think that we are obliged to share it with others when we ourselves benefit from something.

Reich vs Freud

Orgonomy, which is a body of knowledge that Dr. Reich has set forth, actually grew in the womb of  Freud’s psychoanalysis.  Dr. Reich was a student of Freud and was first a psychoanalyst himself, but later on they split from each other. Actually, in one of his books, The Function of the Orgasm, Reich describes his relationship with Freud.  He says that he first saw Freud when he was a medical student.   They were studying sexuality in medical school, and he approached Freud to get more information about sexuality.  This is Reich’s description of Freud, “Freud was different, whereas the others played some kind of a role, he did not put on any airs. He spoke to me as a completely ordinary person. He had bright intelligent eyes, which did not seek to penetrate another persons eyes, but simply look at the world in an honest and truthful way. I had been apprehensive in going to him but I went away cheerful and happy.  From that day on, I spent 14 years in intensive work in psychoanalysis.  In the end I was severely disappointed in Freud, fortunately the disappointment did not lead to hatred and rejection . I am happy to have been his student for such a long time without having criticized him prematurely and with complete devotion to his cause.”

Freud’s major theories

  • Libido theory (economic theory).
  • Topographic theory (theory of consciousness and unconsciousness)
  • Structural theory, (theory of Id, ego and superego).

To tell you how Reich’s theories evolved, I have to tell you about Freud’s theories first.  Freud had proposed 3 major theories.  The Libido theory was one of his initial theories. By observing children he realized that there is an innate energy in the child that initially is concentrated on the oral area, children put things in their mouth, suck things.  Then later on as they grow in the second year, that energy moves to anal area, then around age 3 the energy gets concentrated on the genital area. The topographic theory is a theory of conscious and unconscious, and the structural theory is a theory of id ego and super ego.

Freud’s 2 types of neurosis

  • Stasis neurosis or actual neurosis caused by disturbance in sexual life and damming up of sexual energy
  • Psychoneurosis has an underlying core of stasis neurosis

He postulated that because of an unhealthy sexual life or abstinence, the libido energy gets blocked and damned up , accumulates and causes toxic reaction in the body which causes palpitations and hyperventilation. So he called it stasis neurosis.  Counseling and helping the person not to be abstinent may improve the stasis neurosis.

However  psychoneurosis is caused when a person has obsessional  thoughts or phobias, and is a result of  unconscious conflicts and needs psychoanalytic techniques for treatment.  Nevertheless, psychoneurosis also has a core of stasis neurosis, an accumulation of damned up energy.  Reich later on says if psychoneurosis had a core of stasis neurosis and stasis neurosis had a superstructure of psychoneurosis, then was there any need for differentiation of these two?

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Treatment

For the treatment of neurosis, Freud suggested that when the unconscious conflicts become conscious the neurosis should improve.  When the unconscious roots of neurotic symptoms become conscious, the patient must improve, however later on he changed his statement and said “ the patient may improve”.

Freud’s Psychoanalytic Technique

Freud’s psychoanalytic technique was that the patient lays on the couch and  is encouraged to free associate.  The assumption is that by talking, one idea will bring another idea, like links of a chain, and eventually will get to the unconscious.  The analyst helps and gives suggestions, and when  the unconscious becomes conscious, the neurosis should improve and symptoms should improve.
Also, the interpretation of dreams was something that Freud suggested as a tool to get to the unconscious. Because dreams symbolically reflect unconscious conflict but needs interpretation.  So these were types of therapeutic techniques that were suggested by Freud.  However the treatment results have not been encouraging.

Freud discovered libido energy, childhood sexuality and presence of unconsciousness which promised treatment of neurosis
But his theory and technique did not always lead to improvement. He himself changed his statement later on and said, “when unconsciousness roots of the neurotic symptoms become conscious patient’s may improve” Perhaps these failures led to today’s abandonment in psychoanalysis

In the November 29th, 1993 Time Magazine, there was an article titled, “Is Freud Dead”? By the end of the article, the author concludes that “psychoanalysis and all of it’s off shoots, may in final analysis, turn out to be no more reliable than countless other pseudosciences that once offered unsubstantiated answers or false solace.”
Now this is a heavy word, because Freud’s discoveries are major discoveries.  Freud is the one that discovered libido energy, childhood sexuality, and presence of unconscious which promised treatment for neurosis.  However this was the result, that after several decades, Time Magazine’s article concluded that this is a pseudoscience that offers false solace or false hope.

These failures of psychoanalysis caused Reich to depart from Freud. His aim was to further psychoanalysis, to make it work better, and to refine it. That is what Reich was trying to do.

Character Analysis

Reich moved from psychoanalysis to character analysis.  In character analysis, the most importance was given to the way the patient talks  versus what he says. Reich focuses on how the person is talking, he says words can lie, but expressions never lie.

Reich’s Major Theories

In the pursuit of furthering Freud’s achievements Reich proposed two major theories

  • Orgasm theory
  • Theory of armoring

These two theories  developed concomitantly and parallel to each other, but later on they merged and became integrated with each other.

Orgasm Theory

Reich realized that patients who were able to achieve sexual satisfaction visibly improved, and as long as this sexual potency and satisfaction persisted, the symptoms did not come back. He presented his findings of the patients he was treating, but he was rebuffed by psychoanalysts. Many psychoanalyst said that they have patients who are sexually very potent, but have neurotic symptoms. Reich says that until 1923, only erective potency and ejaculation were known without the inclusion of other aspect of sex economy.
In other words anyone who was able to have sex was considered to be sexually potent.  He says that at that time he started to analyze this matter in detail and realized that there was a difference in what he was describing as orgastic and sexual potency and what the prevailing concept of sexual potency was.

In the book, Function of Orgasm, in explaining his orgasm theory, Reich says, “Until 1923 only ejaculation and erective potency were known without the inclusion of other aspects of sex economy and experiential components” Unfortunately the situation is not changed even today in contemporary medicine and psychiatry

Very little importance has been given to the matter of sexuality and orgastic potency in medicine. You can not find one medical book that deals with it, but it is well dealt with in the Reichian theories and Reich’s writings.

Erective and ejaculative potency are merely indispensable conditions for orgastic potency.  But that alone is not enough.

What is Orgastic Potency?

The orgastic potency is the capacity to surrender to the flow of biological energy free of any inhibition and fantasies
It is the capacity to discharge completely the dammed up sexual excitation and energy through involuntary pleasurable convulsions.

I’ll give you an example.  Once I was treating a patient who was very promiscuous, she was having a lot of sexual relations, she was also using substances and drugs, she had a very unhealthy and disturbed life. One day I asked her that when she has relations with men, does she have sexual satisfaction?  She said no, I said how do you get sexual satisfaction.  She said that “I get sexual satisfaction when I masturbate”.  I said “then what is the fantasy of your masturbation”.  She said “doctor, I don’t know why this is, I have to fantasize that a small child’s throat is slashed and blood is coming out to be able to have an orgasm”. So there are lots of strange fantasies which go with orgasm, but this is not a healthy sexual orgasm, this is not what Reich was talking about when speaking of orgasm.  So these matters are not dealt in medicine, there are no books about it,  they never talk about it, and they never analyze it. The reason is that I think even today, these matters are still taboo, and even in medicine people don’t want to deal with it. But people’s health is at stake here in these matters.  That is why I think Reich is very important and should be studied much more deeply and thoroughly.

Orgasm theory  encompasses concepts of:

  • Expansion and contraction of living protoplasm and its psychological expression as pleasure and displeasure and its relation to autonomic nervous system.
  • Sex economy, the metabolism of biological energy (orgone energy) in the organism.
  • Pulsetory nature of living organism.
  • Capacity of self regulation of living organism by regulating the energy metabolism.
  • Formula of mechanical tension, charge, discharge and relaxation.

If you go to a doctor and ask what the difference is between someone who is capable of having an orgasm and someone who is not capable of having an orgasm, they don’t know.  But there must be a difference, there must be some reason, it’s a physiological reaction, but they don’t give any significance to it.

Theory of Armoring

Armor is defined as total defensive apparatus of the organism consisting of the rigidities of the character and the chronic spasms of the musculature, which functions essentially as a defense against the break through of the emotions – primarily anxiety, rage and sexual excitation, sadness and fear.
Armoring happens in the process of the interaction of the child with environmental prohibitions in the process of the struggle of primary motives with outside inhibitions.

There is drive, and an inhibition that opposes that.  A child pushes, asks for something, or wants something, and when comes to the inhibition, initially puts up a fight and protests, but then gradually submits to it.
A part of the drive disassociates, then it turns against itself, then that part itself acts as the inhibition force. This is the mechanism of why children become like their parents.  I have many patients that ask me, “doctor, I hated what my father and my mother did, but I catch myself doing the same thing.” Why? Because of this mechanism.  The person becomes armored and part of the outer qualities becomes ingrained in it and acts against itself and assumes the inhibition that the world was dictating.

Patients were armored against therapeutic suggestions and treatment in general. The character armor was the mechanism which was blocking the affect

However this character that the person shows has a somatic and psychical component, a muscular and physical component.

Theory of Armoring:  Physical and Muscular Armoring

Somatic counterpart of the armor: Functionally identical with character armor but rooted in the physical realm.  They cannot be separated.

Character armor functions in the realm of psychology, but it has physical and somatic components that acts in the realm of the body.
In 1933 Reich was treating a man who offered considerable resistance to uncovering his passive homosexual fantasies. This resistance was overtly expressed in an extremely stern and stiff attitude of his neck and throat. Reich says that constant attack on his defensive attitude and the stiffness of neck and throat caused him finally to yield.  Although in an alarming way. For three days he became shaken by manifestations of vegetative autonomic shock. His skin was spotted and mottled. The pallor of his face changed from white to yellow and blue. He experienced violent pains in his neck and back of the head. His heartbeat was rapid and pounding, and he had diarrhea and felt tired, and seemed to have lost control.  the musculature, the muscles that were stiff and contracted had the function of inhibiting. When the neck muscles relaxed, powerful impulses as if  unleashed from a taut coil broke through. Biological sexual energy can be bound by chronic muscular tensions.  Anger and anxiety can also be blocked by muscular tensions. So from here on, Reich realized that there was a physical component on the persons character attitude that was manifesting.  These two armorings, one in the psychological realm and one in the physical realm, are functionally identical, they can not be separated from each other, they have identical function and they are interrelated with each other.

Muscular Armor is Defined As:

Total muscular and physical attitudes and chronic muscular spasms. Develops as a defense against breakthrough of organ sensations and emotions. In particular rage, sexual excitation, etc.

Muscular Armor

The inhibition of the primary impulses produces secondary impulses and anxiety.
This is a schematic manifestation of the human organism. Here is the center of the organism, this is the primary impulse, and when it hits the armor, it changes and changes it’s quality.  It develops secondary impulses or neurotic symptoms and from here on it can change to anything, it can become a sadistic impulse, it can turn into unhealthy impulses. So from here on, this armor becomes the base of the pathology in the person and causes all sorts of sicknesses and behaviors such as passive-aggressive behavior.

Psychosomatic Identity & Antithesis

Now you see here how psychology, which is the patients character attitude, and somatic and physical condition are getting integrated with each other, one is attached to the other, they can not be separated. The man with a stern neck also had a defensive attitude. Defensive attitude is something in the psychological realm, while the stern neck is the muscular and physical realm.  So you see how these two are related to each other. From here on, the concept of psychosomatic illnesses develops, but this is unique to orgonomy, you can not find this understanding in general medicine. That’s why they are helpless when it comes to psychosomatic illnesses.
In any medical or psychiatric book, in the section of psychosomatic illnesses, you will see that the author talks of  how psyche and soma are related, and that there should be a psyche and soma unity, but if you keep going down a few paragraphs, you see that again that he is talking as if psyche is something here and soma is something there, in a duality type of manner, and they soon loose what they were talking about, the unity of psyche and soma. They don’t have the concept of unity, this is specific to orgonomy.

Integration of Orgasm Theory & Theory of Armoring

Disturbance of flow of bio-psycho-sexual energy  (orgone energy) which causes disturbance in orgasm and happens mostly by the process of armoring.

The libido energy, that Reich later on called orgone energy, the disturbance of its flow, which also causes disturbance of  orgasm, happens by the process of armoring. Armoring is one of the major reasons that the flow of energy becomes disturbed.  So you see how these theories are getting integrated and fitting into each other, the theory of armoring and theory of orgasm.

In  psychoanalysis, the model for the treatment of the patient is conscious and unconscious, and also id, ego, and super ego, which we talked about earlier.  While in orgonomy, our model is core, middle layer, and outer layer.    Outer layer is the way that the person presents. Middle layer is the different impulses that are conflicting with each other and then there is the core.

Pathogenesis of Armoring

Armoring disturbs and distorts the orderly flow of bio-sexual energy in the body. This becomes the pathogenic base for many emotional and physical illnesses. It also causes emotional plague

Emotional Plague

Armoring causes secondary drives that may present itself as sadistic and destructive impulses that harms society in general
From here on Reich’s theories gain significance in sociology

Reich called emotional plague the impulses that get distorted by armoring. Secondary motives that get distorted and become sadistic and destructive to society.  From here on Reich’s theories transcend  psychology, psychiatry and medicine, and it enter into social work and sociology.

Orgonomy

The body of knowledge that was set forth by Dr. Wilhelm Reich is collectively called orgonomy.  This is an extension of Freud’s libido theory

Psychiatric Orgone Therapy

Based on resolution of armor, re-establishment of orderly flow of energy and orgastic reflex. Its technique is different from psychoanalytic technique.

The treatment that is offered by Dr. Reich’s techniques are called psychiatric orgone therapy. This is based on the resolution of  the armor, if the armor is the main pathologic entity that disturbs the flow of the energy , then our work in treating the patient should be in removing the armor.  Resolution of armor is done in two ways.  One is by character analysis, which is in the realm of psychology, and the other is by the resolution of muscular and physical armoring, analysis of the physical armoring and resolution of this armoring, which is in the realm of the body. This technique is different from psychoanalysis.

Orgone Energy

In the pursuit of identifying and quantifying this energy, Reich discovered its existence in all living organisms as well as in the atmosphere. He called it orgone energy. Why orgone energy? Because of its relationship to body organs and its relationship to the orgasm theory and organism.

Harvesting Orgone Energy

Reich tried to improve and strengthen the energetic state of his patients by accumulating and harvesting orgone energy from the atmosphere and making it available for his patients
He designed accumulators of orgone energy

“….The basic theory belonged to Freud, but I furthered it so much that he himself could not recognize it anymore”
Wilhelm Reich

Posted in History, PhilosophyComments (5)

Reichian Theory in Compulsive Disorders


Wilhelm Reich was a student of Freud, who departed from psychoanalysis and proposed a different treatment approach called “Psychiatric Orgone Therapy.”

Many of Freud’s disciples departed in different ways from Freud. Most moved away from certain aspect of Freudian theories, while elaborating on other aspects. Jung, for example, elaborated on the theory of unconscious and extended it to the concept of universal unconscious. However, almost all of his disciples minimized the significance of his Libido Theory and gradually moved away from it to the extent that nowadays in psychoanalytic schools there is very little talk, if any, about Libido Theory. One can say that Freud’s Libido theory is almost abandoned. Reich, however, took a different approach. Reich considered Freud’s Libido theory the most basic theory, that other theories, such as topographic theory-the theory of conscious and unconscious-and structural theory-the theory of Id, Ego, and Super Ego-are based on it and are consequence and secondary to it.

Reich’s definition and distinction of health or sickness of the human organism is based on the proper movement of energy in his organism, the energy that Freud called “Libido Energy” and Reich named “Orgone Energy.”

In order to explain certain phenomena that he was observing in children and in his patients, Freud had to hypothesize an existence of a psycho-sexual energy that flows in the body and gets concentrated in certain areas. The concentrated areas of this energy, Libido Energy, were considered to be Erogenous zones, such as mouth, anus and genitals. The investment of this energy on different areas is in relation to the developmental stage of the child. In the newborn this energy is mostly concentrated around the oral area, later between the ages of one and two, the investment of Libido Energy is mostly in the anal area and the sphincters and around age 3, Libido energy moves into the genital area. Freud hypothesized that this energy energizes instincts. Emotions get its power from instincts. As Freud’s disciples gradually moved away from this theory and elaborated endlessly on other aspects of his theories, such as the theory of conscious and unconscious and the theory of Id, Ego, Super Ego, Freud himself also moved away from his own Libido theory.

Reich contended that Libido theory, the theory of psychosexual energy, is the basic and central theory and understanding of the functioning of human organism depends on this theory.

Reich called this energy “Orgone Energy” because of its Function in the body organs and its pertinence in the function of the orgasm. Reich realized that the proper metabolism of this energy, production and discharge of this energy, the proper economy of this psychosexual energy is an essential factor in human health. Any hindrance in the flow of this energy from center toward periphery, from head toward pelvis, disturbs the physical and emotional functioning of the organism and causes psychiatric as well as physical illnesses. Freud himself described stasis neurosis, the neurosis which manifests itself by palpitation, hyperventilation and anxiety, the result of abstinence; an unhealthy sexual life, which causes accumulation and stagnation of Libidinal energy.  Based on Reichian theory hindrance to the flow of this energy mostly is caused by physical and muscular contractions as well as by psychological means, which happens concomitantly.

Children control their emotions, their sexual and aggressive impulses or their sadness in different ways, including psychological repression and physical contractions. The children usually breathe shallowly; develop contractions of the throat muscles to hide their sadness or anger. They contract their abdominal muscles and they develop stomach and abdominal pains and aches. These somatic features gradually become chronic and do not go away by the patient’s will, even when the external factors that had caused these contractions disappear. These physical and muscular contractions, which after a while become permanent in the Reichian school of thought, are called “muscular and physical armor.” These physical contractions have psychological counter parts. They have a counter part in character armoring. The child, and later the grown up adult’s character structure is a reflection of their muscular and physical contractions and visa-versa. They are inseparable from each other; they are two sides of the same coin. Tense and serious attitudes, or over-friendly smiles, or indifferent and apathetic attitude and so on are all part of the person’s character, which has physical and muscular counterpart. Character armor and physical armor are functionally identical with each other and serve the same purpose. They both prevent expression of emotions from within and protect the person from without. Armoring of the human organism becomes the most important factor that distorts and impedes the flow of biological sexual and physical energy of the body, the organismic orgone energy or as Freud called it “Libidinal Energy.”

This distortion of the flow of energy then causes different pathologies and symptoms. It causes wide range of different physical illnesses, as well as psychiatric and psychological illnesses including compulsive disorders. Those who work in the field of psychiatry, and those who see patients in psychiatric hospitals or clinics are aware of the stubbornness of psychiatric symptoms. They know how psychiatric patients become a revolving door in hospitals and in clinics and how their symptoms persist in spite of conventional treatment and in occasions, they become loaded with different psychiatric medication so much that the side effects of the medications make them worse than the illness itself. This is also true for compulsive disorders. From the Reichian point of view the reason for this difficulty is the fact that psychiatry and psychology have failed to recognize the roots of the symptoms that partially is anchored in the body, the physical armoring.

In the treatment of patients by Psychiatric Orgone therapy, the goal is to restore the healthy and orderly flow of energy in the human organism. The most important factor in achieving this goal is the resolution of muscular and character armor. The psychiatric orgone therapists have to recognize the armoring of the patient and try to resolve it with different techniques that are available in this treatment approach. The character armoring as well as physical armoring responds to some extent to different psychotherapeutic measures. This is why patients show some improvement by psychotherapeutic approaches, however, the improvement in many cases is only partial and in some cases no improvement happens and the illness continues to progress and destroys the person’s life. In psychiatric orgone therapy, the recognition of the somatic and physical roots of the illness and the resolution of the physical armoring brings quicker and more profound and pronounced improvement, symptoms disappear quickly and fundamentally.

Unfortunately, Wilhelm Reich who is the founder of this treatment approach, and the body of knowledge that he left behind, which is called Orgonomy, has been largely unknown to psychiatric disciplines, residency training programs, psychology training programs, and social workers training programs. Nevertheless this body of knowledge offers a theory based on which many psychiatric and physical symptoms can be explained, which is inexplicable with present theories and it also offers techniques that is able to penetrate deeper and cure the illnesses which is not been attainable by other approaches.

Posted in Biopathies & Psychiatric Orgone TherapyComments (8)


Upcoming Conference

Subscribe Via Email

Enter your email address:

Delivered by FeedBurner

Wilhelm Reich – Founder of Orgone Therapy

Annals of The Institute for Orgonomic Science (December, 2015)

Featured Book: Character Analysis

Available for purchase via the Wilhelm Reich Museum.

Browse our Archives