Tag Archive | "orgone motor"

ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN ORGONE DEVICES


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?
A state of the art (1)
Roberto Maglione

This paper is the first of a series of three papers focused on the Reich orgone motor which will appear on Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy. The present one is a brief account of the state of the art. The second paper (co-authored with Dionisio Ferrari) focuses on lab experiments performed in-house where a spontaneous cyclical production of electrical energy has been obtained from orgone apparatuses in a standard orgone energy environment. The third paper (co-authored with Dionisio Ferrari) reports and discusses the response of the orgone apparatuses to the production of electrical energy when the orgonomic potential of the environment is artificially increased. A hypothesis of the Y-factor is developed and described in this last paper.

Reich spent all his life in studying and researching on the presence in nature of a ubiquitous cosmic energy whose application would have had dramatic social and technological impact on the life of human beings. Towards the end of the 1950, after many years of investigations on the biological and physical properties of this cosmic energy, which he called orgone energy, Reich started to use a Geiger-Muller counter to study the interaction between orgone energy and radioactivity (2). He was thinking that orgone energy could mitigate, or even annul, the danger and harmfulness of radioactivity on the organism and life forms in general. He planned and conducted this type of research partly because of the advent of the Korean war in order to find a response and an antidote to the threat of a possible nuclear conflict. He was convinced that (3):

“Nuclear radiation, for instance radium, is changed under the influence of concentrated orgone energy. The kind and the extent of such change is still very obscure.”

And his later experiments were focused on this assumption and aimed at verifying whether very small quantities of radioactive materials, when put inside strong and powerful orgone accumulators located inside an orgone room (4) were rendered innocuous. The results of this last experiment, called Oranur (5), carried out in Reich’s laboratory, led him to completely different results and conclusions, and radioactivity was found to be detrimental to high concentration of orgone energy (6). Nevertheless, further researches conducted by Reich in the following years, based on the results of the Oranur experience, proved that in the end orgone energy could convert nuclear energy into a more powerful and basically benign form of energy, called Orur (7). Besides, results of his first experiments with Geiger-Muller counters and orgone apparatus, carried out in the years 1947 and 1948, led him to unexpected findings and to the conclusion that orgone energy could also be used and converted to produce mechanical energy, or work (8).

During the first experiments, carried out in 1947-1948, Reich observed that the Geiger-Muller counter, used to monitor the radioactivity, initially reacted normally, registering the background count given, and the gamma radiation of the area. However, the device was unresponsive when placed close to orgone accumulators, and did not react to background radiation and not even to small x-ray sources. The device remained practically unreactive for some weeks, when the pointer of the impulse recorder started rotating at the rate of one full turn per second, which corresponded to about 100 impulses per second, a very high value compared to the normal background of 10-15 counts per minute. On further measurements Reich obtained a reading of about six to eight thousand counts per minute. Reich realized that he was witnessing a possible motor force (9). The orgone energy was somehow being transformed into electromagnetic and mechanical energy through the Geiger-Muller counter (10). He argued that the motor effect occurred because the tube of the Geiger-Muller counter had soaked up orgone energy through constant exposure to the high orgonotic charge in the laboratory. Since the gas-filled counter tube consisted of an inner cylindrical metal tube, and an outer non-metallic protective layer, usually of coated glass, the counter tube constituted and behaved essentially as a small orgone energy accumulator (11).

Later on, he replaced the counter tube with a specially-built vacuum tube (called a Vacor tube). It was built with inner parallel aluminum plates, attached to the cathode and anode, respectively. The plates were inserted in the tube (generally made of pyrex) 4-6 cm apart, opposite each other. Each plate was 16 cm long, and 4 cm wide. The vacuum was 0.5 micron of pressure, which was sufficient to rule out the presence of any gas. This arrangement functioned like a kind of a orgone energy accumulator in the vacuum. Reich obtained, by using this updated arrangement, a much more powerful reaction that shortly afterwards was able to run a small spinner motor. In another arrangement he used a small orgone accumulator attached to a wheel. He excited the concentrated orgone energy inside the accumulator to run the wheel by a half Volt of electricity. Indeed, Reich found that electric energy might excite orgone energy (12):

“ELECTRICAL ENERGY EXCITES OR ENERGY AND CAUSED IT TO CHANGE FROM THE STATE OF CLOUDY PATCHES TO THAT OF QUICK WHITISH RAYS.
……
Now it became most probable that there is only ONE type of OR energy which changes its appearance and form according to different conditions.”

However, electrical energy was not the only way to excite orgone energy. Reich found several methods to excite concentrated orgone energy (13):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).…………..

May, 1950.”

In practice, with all these researches Reich was able to convert an excited concentrated orgone energy field into usable electrical energy to produce work (14)

“I have simply transformed orgone into electrical energy.”

However, Reich, notwithstanding this important discovery, never revealed the basic theory, design, and experimental set-ups through which he was able to run the small spinner motor, and to obtain mechanical work directly from the cosmic orgone energy locally available (15). He wrote, soon after the discovery, a very brief communication, included in the book the Cancer Biopathy (16), and a brief report, a year later, was included in the first issue of the Orgone Energy Bulletin (17). The information therein reported was too small to understand and to replicate the experiments that led to the development of the motor. Nevertheless, Reich included in his last book, Contact with Space, several clues on how to develop the orgone motor and maybe to understand the meaning of the mysterious and inexplicable Y-factor that, according to Reich, was essential in developing the orgone motor. From them it can be inferred that Reich was able to convert orgone energy into mechanical energy by exciting concentrated orgone energy, and that one of the key points of such conversion was the use of radioactivity. He set also a minimum rate of radioactivity to run a motor.
However, the first chapters of the Oranur Experiment text include many of the tests he did with Geiger-Muller counters measurements, and that later led to the development of the first prototypes of the orgone motor. And they can be considered an introductory work to the development of the final prototype of the orgone motor. 
The running of the orgone motor was witnessed by many collaborators, and people outside his research circle. Demonstration of the functioning of the orgone motor was also done during the First International Conference, held at Orgonon, from August 30 to September 2, 1948.

In his accounts, Reich described only in general lines the basic functioning of the motor (18):

“… These phenomena, open up a vista of two new technical applications of orgone energy:

  1. production of light, and
  2. transformation of impulses in rapid succession into a mechanical motor force ……

On June 24th, 1948, at 1 p.m., I succeeded in setting a motor (Western Electric, KS-9154, Serial No. 1227) into motion by means of the Orgone Energy Motor Force which I had discovered by way of the Geiger-Muller counter on August 8th, 1947. …. In order to set the Orgone Motor into motion, a certain function, called Y is necessary. This function cannot be divulged at the present time.
The sources of orgone energy used hitherto are the following:

  1. Orgone-charged Vacor tubes
  2. Atmospheric Orgone
  3. Earth Orgone
  4. Organismic Orgone Energy

 

No material as is being used in the process of nuclear fission is required. The succession of impulses can be regulated. The sequence of impulses is even and continuous. The relation of the amount of used orgone energy to the tremendous reservoir of the Cosmic Energy Source is minimal. …. The speed of the motor action can be regulated. It depends on

  1. The number of vacor tubes connected
  2. Weather conditions in accordance with orgonotic functions found hitherto, such as temperature difference T-To, speed of electroscopic discharge, etc.,
  3. Function Y

 

…. There is no such thing as “empty space.” Field actions are due to the activity of the universal cosmic orgone energy.”

The Western Electric KS-9154 motor used by Reich is a small two phase spinner motor, with a diameter of 2 15/16 inches, and length of 4 1/16 inches. It consists of a laminated steel stator, and of a rotor (1 inch diameter, and 2.5 inch long) made by a hollow cylinder of copper, open at one end and connected to a steel shaft at the other end (19).
Reich died without revealing the function Y, a fundamental part for understanding the functioning of the orgone motor, since he assumed the average man (the little man as he called it) was not prepared to use such an unlimited source of power. However, what is missing in Reich’s accounts is not only the meaning of the function Y, but also the general theory behind the functioning of the motor, whose function Y is only a part of it.
Amongst the accounts of the co-workers who witnessed the orgone motor running we have those of Sharaf, Baker, Wyvell, Neill, and that of his second wife, Ilse Ollendorf. They add only anecdotic information on the orgone motor, and only very few more interesting details can be found in addition to those already available. In general, from the accounts it emerged that the wheel of the motor was turning much faster and noiselessly when powered only by the orgone energy, which was supplied to it by a vacor tube, or by a small orgone accumulator; while when connected to a battery the wheel was turning much slower and the rotational movement was noisy. When alimented by orgone energy alone the rotation of the wheel was affected by weather conditions. Besides, Reich stated that he wanted either to commercialize the discovery, or to carry out researches and experiments only, without going through the marketing of it. He also asserted that he did not want to publish the details, including the Y-factor. This latter controversial behaviour was never considered nor discussed by the biographers, and scholars of Reich.   

Sharaf’s account was (20):

“Reich never published the design for the orgone energy motor and I no longer remember the details of the experimental set-up or its operation. I do recall that it involved the use of an accumulator attached to a wheel; concentrated orgone energy was triggered by a small amount of electricity, an amount insufficient to rotate the wheel without the accumulator. I also recall that when the wheel was rotated entirely by electricity, it had a steady grinding motion. When powered by the combination of orgonotic and electrical energy, it ran smoothly and quietly; but its speed varied depending upon the weather – more rapidly on dry, clear days, more slowly when the humidity was high. During this summer [1948], Reich was extremely excited about the motor and envisioned its industrial applications. He also expressed considerable concern that the “secret” of the motor might be stolen, which may have contributed to his reluctance to publish the details.”

Baker’s account, was based on what he observed during the demonstration of the orgone motor at the First International Conference in 1948(21):

“Films from the archives of the Orgone Institute on cancer development were shown, as well as a film of the development of the orgone energy motor.
Reich also demonstrated the reaction of the Geiger Muller counter to orgone energy and, finally, the orgone energy motor. Reich discovered the motor force of orgone energy in 1947 when he observed the dial of the Geiger Muller counter revolve. He decided to build an orgone energy motor. On Myron Sharaf’s suggestion, he employed one William Washington, a black who was a student of mathematics at the University of Chicago, to help work out a way to build the motor. Reich first used vacor tubes in series attached to a small accumulator and connected to a transformer to build up an electrical charge to excite the orgone energy. He used four or five vacor tubes. All were connected to a 25 volt electric motor. A vacor tube is a vacuum tube soaked in orgone energy in an accumulator for six weeks. Reich was able to get the vacor tube to glow a beautiful blue when excited by a charge of 500 volts of electricity. His photographer, Kari Berggrav, took colored photographs of this, as well as of the orgone energy motor. Reich took away one vacor tube after another until all were taken away, and still the motor ran. The important ingredient was the so-called “Y factor” which Reich did not divulge. The motor ran on ½ volt of electricity sent through an accumulator that was connected to the electric motor. When the motor was run on electricity alone, it took 25 volts of electricity and was noisy and wobbly. On orgone energy, it was practically noiseless and ran smoother and faster. At times, it would change direction. In damp weather, it would not ran. Reich said it was like an hysterical woman.”

Wyvell’s account was(22):

“The one I saw was about the size of a large orange … It was hooked up to a special OR [orgone] accumulator with a “Y” factor that Reich did not divulge as he felt mankind was not ready to use such a potentially boundless power rationally. It was also connected to an electrical source with very low voltage because, as I remember it, the unexcited orgone energy by itself couldn’t overcome the initial inertia. But it ran on atmospheric orgone energy fed to it through the accumulator and also from the human energy field … It ran erratically, as no motor with a mechanical energy source does: it slowed down and speeded up without any interference. Also, if one curved his hands over it, it also speeded up and slowed down, apparently on its own volition, but actually at the volition of the orgone energy. Thirdly, the motor using orgone energy did something no motor using mechanical energy can do: it reversed itself every once in a while without slowing down, even without a jolt. This, I believe, is impossible in terms of what is known of mechanical physics, but it was witnessed by a number of sane and sensible doctors, scientists, and laymen. This is, of course, why Reich believed UFOs were powered by orgone energy, for they, too, have been observed to be moving at a terrific speed in one direction and to reverse or turn off at a sharp angle without slowing down and without a jerk.
The “Y” factor hasn’t been rediscovered, and I personally hope it won’t be until power-lust and other forms of the emotional plague are reduced to controllable proportions.”

Neill briefly commented the orgone motor in two of his writings:

“Ten years ago [1948] in Maine I saw a small motor turning over when attached to an orgone accumulator. “The power of the future”, cried Reich joyfully. But as far as I ever knew, the experiment was not continued. In reply to a query Reich wrote: “My job is discovery, and I leave it to others to carry out the results”.”(23)

“He had a small motor which was charged by an orgone accumulator. It ran slowly but when gingered up by volts from a battery it seemed to revolve at a great speed. Reich was in ecstasies: “The motive force of the future!” he exclaimed. I never heard of its being developed.”(24)

His second wife, Ilse Ollendorf, briefly commented in her biography of Reich that the orgone motor was as follows(25):

“In March of that year [1948] Reich had experimented with Geiger counters and with vacuum tubes, and had made several important discoveries about the behaviour of orgone energy.
He had also started to experiment with a small motor moved by orgone energy. This work continued in Maine with the help of a young assistant [William Washington (26)] who concentrated on the elaboration of these phenomena. Reich was very excited about the reactions of the little motor. Notes kept by some students at the laboratory, and put at my disposal as source material, mention the work with the motor again and again as one of Reich’s preoccupations that summer [1948]. He knew that a great deal of work was needed to “clean” the experiment, to clarify all its ramifications and functions because, as he put it, it sometimes behaved like “an hysterical woman”. Reich foresaw a great future for his orgone-energy motor.”

Reich made motion pictures of the motor in operation, and these have been preserved, transferred to videotape, and are now available at the Wilhelm Reich Museum, Rangeley, Maine.

In the last decades, the Wilhelm Reich Museum published four books(27), edited by Body Higgins, trustee of the Museum, covering all the periods of Reich’s life and research topics, including materials taken mainly from Journals and correspondence available in the Reich’s Archive, located at Harvard Medical School (Boston, Massachusetts). In some of them, and particularly in the volume published in 1999(27), some more information about type and line of research conducted by Reich, the system he conceived to convert orgone energy into a motor force, and few details on the experimental set-ups can be found.
From this last book, on August 9, 1947, Reich writes(28):

“Continuation of Geiger-Muller tests:
1. Switching off tube: No humming, but one click each time the high voltage is applied.
2. Questions to Washington on the phone, 2 p.m.
a. Have you ever worked with such a device?
b. What is most speedy reaction of Geiger-Muller to radiation?
c. What is the "normal" reaction to cosmic rays?
d. Ever seen 100 per second?
3. Measurement with seconds meter + recorder.
In 25 seconds 1,500 pulses!
60 per second!
Incredible!
Consequences:
1. Wheels are rotated by pulses of orgone energy.
2. It will be possible to power motors with orgone.
3. This use will be risk-free; it will be cheap.
4.20 p.m.
I place the receiver in a threefold orgone accumulator in order to see whether it rises.
Today, 9 August 1947, between 11 a.m. and 5 p.m. I have discovered the principle of the transformation of orgone energy into mechanical energy by means of the electronic impulses of a Geiger counter.
Present this afternoon were: Ilse Ollendorff
William Washington, whom I called
Tom Ross, our caretaker
One revolution per second at the counter.
Immediately notified: the Atomic Energy Commission, American Academy of Sciences, French Academy, Patent Office.”

On August 14, 1947, he writes(29):

“Orgone is capable of turning a wheel if a counter tube or similar instrument is so excited that an electromagnetic wheel rotates. It seems important that the electrons "excite" the orgone in the tube. It remains to be discovered whether the electrons or the orgone itself
is the motor force.
I have simply transformed orgone into electrical energy. The impulse is a simple electromagnetic system.
9 a.m. Proof for orgone = motor force.
I killed the reaction by completely uncovering the counter tube. Reaction 0. As soon as the counter tube is placed in the accumulator or metal housing, the motor on the counter starts to run.
Tasks for orgone motor.
1. Does the orgone motor also work outside the metal-lined room [Reich refers to a room in the laboratory at Orgonon which was lined with metal as an accumulator], with accumulator in the open air or in an orgone-free room?
2. What types of electromagnetic apparatus are caused to move?
3. How much can be eliminated from the structure of the Geiger-Muller without destroying the principle?
4. What are the conditions for obtaining a patent if a Geiger-Muller counter tube is used?
5. Can the motor force be increased, and how?”

And, on November 7 and 9, 1947, he writes(30):

♦ “7 November 1947
Have begun construction of an orgone motor.

♦ 9 November 1947
I must study electron tubes, for they are opening up a new world for me. The orgone in the electron tube. That is the way of great science! I found five years ago the functional identity of body orgone and secondary coil orgone. Now I could eliminate all high tension from the Geiger-Muller counter. The "wheel turns" without high tension
a. when I touch a battery with my hands,
b. when I let a secondary coil system be excited.”

Reich believed that this kind of motor could be used to move spaceships, and that they were propelled by orgone energy, and could reach tremendous velocities in outer space, up to 10,000 – 15,000 mph (around 16,100 – 24,150 km/hr). They could also use orgone streams in the Universe to move much faster. He came to these conclusions by observing the striking similarity between the phenomena related to spaceships, as described in the literature by many authors about Unidentified Flying Objects, and those provided by the observations of both natural phenomena and those produced by the use of high concentrations of orgone energy. He writes in a paper out on CORE(31):

“The facts confirming these abstractions seemed to be at hand now in a strangely practical manner. Things tied in further. Function-after-function coordinated itself with what I had read about the "Unidentified Objects". The final picture as of today is about this:
(1) The CORE Men" (CORE = Cosmic Orgone Engineering) – as I came to call them – apparently were thoroughly conversant with the laws of functioning in the cosmic OR [orgone] energy ocean, especially with gravity as a function of superimposition.
(2) They use Cosmic OR energy in propelling their machines.
(3) Their "blue lights" were in agreement with the blue color characteristic of all visible OR functions – sky, protoplasm, aurora, sunspots, depth of moon valley seen at dusk, the color of OR energy lumination in vacor tubes, etc.
(4) The changes of color from blue to white or red, etc. I knew well from various studies of OR phenomena. And I had seen some practically in vacor tubes.
(5) The CORE men were obviously riding their spaceships on the main OR energy streams of the Universe (See Cosmic Superimposition on "Galactic and Equatorial Streams").
(6) The tremendous speeds which they are able to achieve were not in disagreement with all the tremendous quantities I had calculated for the OR energy streams of the Universe in 1940-1944. There are still many gaps there and many uncertainties. The tables of the krx-number system are in my possession.
(7) A speed of 10,000 – or – 15,000 mph did not appear impossible in the light of these numbers. On the contrary, it appeared quite natural.
(8) They rotated their discs in harmony with the OR waves they rode on. Rotating discs describe exactly what I had calculated 10 years previously as the so-called KRW ("Krieselwellen") or Spinning Waves, without any knowledge of spaceships actually riding Cosmic OR waves. From these waves, I had derived my mass-free equation:
Things were fitting well – even too neatly for my taste. Therefore, I hesitated to tell anything to anyone about them. I only worried about what might have happened to the facts and equations which a student [William Washington] had acquired in 1947 to 1949. He had worked on the OR energy motor. And he disappeared in 1949 under mysterious circumstances.

(9) Just as space is not empty, light does not "come down to us from the stars and the Sun". It is an effect of lumination in the OR energy envelope of the planets. It is a local phenomenon. Therefore, there is theoretically no limit to speed in cosmic space except technically. This agrees with the apparently limitless quantities in energy functions which characterize the Orgonometric "krx- system" as progressing in geometric proportions. These Orgonometric calculations seem to be applicable to the technological problems of Cosmic OR Energy Streams.”

And on November 20, 1953, Reich writes in his diary(33):

“After reading Keyhoe report [Donal Keyhoe, The Flying Saucer are Real, New York, Fawcett, 1950]
Summary: State of affairs:

  1. The flying saucers are real, to judge from Keyhoe’s report.
  2. They use OR [orgone] energy in propelling and lightning: speed, colors, silence [one of the basic characteristics of the orgone motor was silence]
  3. Most likely they were stirred into action in far outer space by the atomic explosions: Oranur effects.
  4. They come to investigate the disturbance of their lives by nuclear  Oranur.
  5. They are directed by intelligent beings who come peacefully.
  6. All DOR effects began with equinox: flying saucers ride on Galactic stream.   
  7. The melanor was brought down to earth by the Galactic Beings. Lets call them “CORE People
  8. They know Oranur and E
  9. Using OR they cannot be armored
  10. Melanor sucks O2 and H2O, rock disintegrates; living is invaded.“

After Reich’s death no significant research efforts were carried out aimed at re-discovering the original orgone motor and its functioning principles, including the function Y. In the orgonomic literature only very few papers appeared in the last years, and they were mainly focused on providing further information and details on already known subjects such as peculiarities of the electric motor used by Reich (Western Electric KS-9154), and hypotheses on the nature of the factor Y(34).

The only published research along this way was carried out by Correa and Correa(35). They did resort to developing an energy conversion system, as it was called by the authors, from massfree energy into electrical or kinetic energy to the work of Tesla, Aspden, De Broglie, and Thom, and only partially to the work of Reich’s. They report in the 2007 US patent text the philosophy of their invention(36):

“It is critical to understand that the implication from this that – aside from local electromagnetic radiation and from thermal radiation associated with the motions of molecules (thermo-mechanical energy), there is at least another form of energy radiation which is everywhere present, even in space absent matter…. And undoubtedly also this radiation is ubiquitous and not subject to relativistic transformations (i.e. Lorentz invariant). What it is not, is electromagnetic radiation consisting of randomistic phases of transverse waves. 
To understand this properly, …. this energy which is neither electromagnetic nor thermal per se (and is certainly not merely thermo-mechanical), has nevertheless identifiable characteristics both distributed across subtypes or variants and as well common to all of them.
Essentially the first subtype or variant consists of longitudinal massfree waves that deploy electric energy. They could well be called Tesla waves, since Tesla-type transformers can indeed be shown experimentally to radiate massfree electric energy, in the form of longitudinal magnetic and electric waves having properties not reduceable to photon energy or to “electromagnetic waves”, …………
One may well denote the second subtype by the designation of massfree thermal radiation, since it contributes to temperature changes – and, as obviously indicated by the impossibility of reaching an absolute zero of temperature, this contribution occurs independently of the presence of matter, or mass-energy, in Space. …
Finally the third subtype may be designated latent massfree energy radiation – since it deploys neither charge, nor thermal or baroscopic effects, and yet it is responsible for “true latent heat“ or for the “intrinsic potential energy” of a molecule.”

Correa and Correa developed a concept of massfree energy similar to that of Reich’s orgone energy, devoid of inertia, and that could be found everywhere in space. They found its characteristics might belong to three massfree energy subtypes or variants defined respectively as radiating massfree electric energy, radiating massfree thermal energy, and responsible for the latent heat. However, no mention was made by the authors in their physical model on two other important subtypes of the cosmic orgone energy, namely the variation of the gravitational field, and above all that of the nuclear field which Reich seemed to give extremely importance to for the development of a motor force(37).
In reproducing Reich experiments, according to the above assumptions, Correa and Correa observed that an AC induction motor could be efficiently run from the output of a modified thytraton pulse amplifier of the Herbach & Rademan CMB-3A GM scaler; while in reconstructing the archaeology of the function Y, they came to the conclusion that it might correspond to a thermionic full-wave divider of the Delon, Greibacker and Latour circuit applied in the manner of a dual diode sensor circuit in RF power meters(38). However, no public demonstration of the energy conversion systems, and of the aether motor in action was ever provided by the inventors.

 

References:

(1). This paper is a summary of the chapter Reich and the Orgone Motor contained in the book The Legendary Shamir by Maglione R (2017).

(2). To this end he first planned to use 2.2∙10-5 milliCurie of radio cobalt CO-60 (half-life of 5.3 years), and 20 milliCurie of Phosphorous P-32 (a radioactive isotope of phosphorous); and later on two needles of 1 mg each one of radium.

(3). Reich W, The Anti Nuclear Radiation Effect of Cosmic Orgone Energy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Vol 3, N° 1, January 1951.

(4). The orgone room located at Reich‘s laboratory, Orgonon, Maine, was a completely metal-lined room where the observer, after sitting a while in complete darkness, could observe orgone energy. The room was used by Reich in many of his experiments as well as in the Oranur experiment. The room, size 18 x 18 ft (6 x 6 m), was made of an external layer of organic material and internally lined by a sheet of iron. Inside the orgone room some small accumulators were located, one of them used by Reich during the Oranur experiment, where the radioactive material was daily put inside for some days.

(5). Oranur was coined by Reich as an acronym for Orgone Anti Nuclear.

(6). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951.

(7). Reich W, History of the Discovery of the Life Energy. Atoms for Peace vs the HIG Documentary, Supplement N° 3, A-XII-EP, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, Maine, 1956, page 14.

(8). In this first period of investigation apparently Reich never used radioactive materials in his experiments, even though he made sometimes reference to measurements of the counts emitted by his wristwatch (equipped with a radium dial) carried out by a Geiger-Muller counter (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 214).

(9). Soon after, in April 1948, Reich informed the Director of the NYC Technical Advisers Office of the Atomic Energy Commission about the motor effect of the orgone energy on the Geiger-Muller counter (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 154).

(10). Reich W, The Geiger-Muller Effect of Cosmic Orgone Energy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, 3(4), 1951, New York.

(11). Generally, a Geiger-Muller tube consists of an anode (positive electrode) positioned in the center of a tubular cathode (negative electrode) filled with a mixture of argon, neon, and either chlorine or bromine gases. The cathode is a thin-walled metallic cylinder sealed at each end with an insulating disk to contain the gas. The anode is a wire that extends into the cylinder. A high voltage is applied to the electrodes to create an electrical field within the chamber. When radiation passes through the chamber and ionizes the gas, it generate radiation passes through the chamber and ionizes the gas, it generates a pulse of current. The device processes these pulses to display the radiation level.

(12). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 213.

(13). Reich W, Ibid, page 199 and 200.

(14). Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999, page 401.

(15).  It should be outlined, however, that Reich, in July 1948, informed the Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of the motoric qualities of the orgone energy and of the fact that such a motor force might be abused by totalitarian countries (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 154).

(16). Reich W, The Discovery of the Orgone. Volume Two: the Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Institute Press, 1948, New York, page 150.

(17). Reich W, A Motor Force in Orgone Energy. Preliminary Communication, Orgone Energy Bulletin, 1(1), Orgone Institute Press, January 1949, New York, pages 7-11.

(18). Reich W, Ibid, pages 7-11.

(19). Reiter AN, Examination of the Western Electric KS-9154 Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002.

(20). Sharaf M, Fury on the Earth. A Biography of Wilhelm Reich, A St Martin’s Press/Marek, New York, 1983, note at page 354.

(21). Baker EF, My Eleven Years with Reich, ACO Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001, pages 32 and 33.

(22).Wyvell L, An Appreciation of Reich, Journal of Orgonomy, 7(2):170-186, 1973, page 185.

(23). Neill AS, The Man Reich, in Wilhelm Reich Memorial Volume, Ritter Press, Nottingham, 1958, reprinted in Boadella D, Wilhelm Reich. The Evolution of his Work, Henry Regenery, Chicago, 1973, page 382. 

(24). Neill AS, Neill! Neill! Orange Peel! A Personal View of Ninety Years, Quartet Books Limited, London, 1977, page 128.

(25). Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, St Martin’s, New York, 1969, page 117.

(26). Washington was a student and assistant of Reich in the development of the orgone motor, and particularly in the elaboration of the orgonometric equations and in the experimental work, between 1947 and 1949. He was introduced to Reich by Myron Sharaf, student of psychology at the University of Chicago and a collaborator of Reich. Washington disappeared mysteriously in the summer of 1949 with a prototype of the orgone motor. He first alleged a trip to a Chicago professor about his thesis, then illness in his family, later that he was ordered to Oak Ridge Laboratories by telegram, and finally that he was working with Argonne (AEC) laboratories. Investigations done by Reich disclosed that not only did letters reveal that Washington was not known to be at Argonne laboratories as claimed, but furthermore inquiry from professors under whom Washington was allegedly working for his thesis, denied that this was so. Chicago University answered that Washington had never completed his college work there (Reich W, History of the Discovery of the Life Energy. The Red Thread of a Conspiracy, Documentary Supplement No 2, A-XII-EP, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Maine, 1995). Reich suspected that he had been a Russian spy. The matter was brought to the attention of the FBI in the interest of national security, since Washington had come into possession of important knowledge and facts in 1949, and again in 1950 and in 1953, but no action was ever taken by the Governmental body. In 1956 Reich was convinced by factual consideration that he was connected with spaceship development (Reich W, Contact with Space. Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1956, page 71). Eden reported in one of his publications that Washington disappeared with two of the prototypes of the orgone motor, which later were reported as being in the Soviet Union (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 23).

(27). Reich W, Passion of Youth. An Autobiography 1897-1922, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1988; Reich W, Beyond Psychology. Letters and Journals 1934-1939, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1994; Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999; and Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, NY 2012.

(28). Reich W, American Odyssey. Letters and Journals 1940-1947, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1999.

(29). Reich W, Ibid, pages 399 and 400.

(30).Reich W, Ibid, page 401.

(31).Reich W, Ibid, page 425.

(32). Reich W, OROP Galactic Stream (Hancock, October 22, 1953), CORE, Orgone Institute Press, Vol. VI, No 1-4, July1954, New York, pages 103 and 104.

(33). Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, New York, 2012, page 134.

(34). Reiter AN, Examination of the Western Electric KS-9154 Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002; see also DeMeo J, The Orgone Energy Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002.

(35). Correa PN, Correa AN, Experimental Aetherometry, Volume 3: The Orgone Motor and the Aether Motor, Akronos Publishing, Canada, July 2006; see also Correa PN, Correa AN, Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,053,576, May 30, 2006; and Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,235,945, June 26, 2007.

(36). Correa PN, Correa AN, Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,235,945, June 26, 2007.

(37). For more information on the secondary qualities of orgone energy see Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, 2012.

(38). Correa PN, Correa AN, Experimental Aetherometry, Volume 3: The Orgone Motor and the Aether Motor (chapters abstracts), Akronos Publishing, Canada, July 2006.

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