Categorized | Orgone Biophysics

Temperature And Electric Measurements On An Organism Exposed To A Concentrated Orgone Energy Field

Article by Roberto Maglione

Temperature And Electric Measurements On An Organism Exposed To A Concentrated Orgone Energy Field

Co-Author: Luca Piergentili


Body temperature, body resistance and skin voltage were measured before and after a 20-minute daily ORAC session, carried out in the period April 5th-December 10th, 2021, on a male patient aged 62.

Total number of daily sessions was 226. The difference of the temperature and electrical parameters was found by a t-Student test to be highly statistically significant. This means effects were unlikely to have occurred by chance. During an ORAC session the organism, in addition to energy dissipation through the well-known basal metabolic rate process, might be subjected to two further processes in which energy variation might occur. These are related to the variation of thermal energy, and of electrical energy. Healing processes observed in an ill organism during the use of ORACs might be closely related in some still unknown ways to the action of the variation of the above energies.

Introduction and background

The orgone energy accumulator (ORAC) is a device, conceived by Wilhelm Reich in the ‘40s of the last century, whose peculiarity is to concentrate a specific kind of energy from the atmosphere.1 According to Reich this kind of energy, called orgone energy, can be found everywhere and fills the Universe and all things in Nature and is the primary component of matter. In high concentrations, such as those found inside an ORAC, it has many beneficial effects on living organisms and it might be useful in medical therapies of several diseases, including cancer. Orgone energy is said to be a pre-atomic energy as matter is formed by the superimposition of two or more orgone energy waves.2 This phenomenon marks the line beyond which formation of secondary physical phenomena, recognised by traditional physics as electricity, magnetism, gravity, etc., occur. Reich remarked that the qualities of the orgone energy continuum he discovered, made of an infinite number of units and filling the Universe, might be compared with those of the well-known aether of the scientific revolution (called also luminiferous aether) and of that of the Ancient’s, and it can be identified with them.3

Indeed, the presence of the aether in Nature and its qualities had been thoroughly investigated and discussed in the past few centuries by a long list of scientists. They conceived it as a very dense medium either composed of discrete, separate parts or grains, or perhaps made of a jelly or continuous substance.4 Supporter of the first hypothesis were for example Reynolds (1842-1912),5 and Todeschini (1899-1988);6 while amongst the many of the other group we find Kelvin (1824-1907)7 and Lodge (1851-1940)8 that promoted a continuous and partless aether similar to an infinite liquid. Reich’s orgone energy continuum or ocean might belong to the first school of thought in that Reich made many examples from direct observations and experiments in which the orgone energy continuum was found to be made of tiny, dynamic, and sometimes visible dots or points or particles.9 In addition, the tiny orgone particles were endowed by Reich with life-giving and therapeutic or syntropic qualities. These latter properties were less considered by the scientific circles of the 18th and 19th centuries in that scientists were more committed to consider the aether as a medium fundamental to explain the ‘action-at-a-distance’ of bodies and various physical phenomena rather than the biological and medical properties. According to Reich, orgone energy was also responsible for metaphysical phenomena in that he thought that the oranur state (one of three characterising the orgone energy continuum) might help to promote higher states of consciousness.10

In the period of the scientific revolution we find many important scientists that devoted their existence to elucidating the secrets of the aether conundrum. Amongst them we find Ciolkovskij (1857-1935), Lorentz (1853-1928), Hertz (1857-1894), Maxwell (1831-1879), Faraday (1791-1867), Fresnel (1788-1827), Ampere (1775-1836), Young (1773-1829), Bernoulli (Johann, 1710-1790), Euler (1707-1783), Huygens (1629-1695), and also Descartes (1596-1650) who was the first in the 17th century, to develop and to bring into science a modern concept of aether, constituted of subtle particles moving in vortexes.

Going further back in time, there is a period of relatively scarce evidence of interest in the aether where the only few enquiries were advanced by theologians and philosophers of the medieval Islamic East tradition.11 After this we find the philosophical schools of the Ancients. Amongst the many we may consider the work of Lucretius (1st century BCE) and Epicurus (about 3rd century BCE) and above all of Leucippus and Democritus, the founders of the atomist school in the 5th century BCE. They conceived an aether characterized by a continuous granular structure and called its basic constituents atomos or atomom (indivisible or indestructible), or ideai (shapes or forms).12 These basic components were thought to be made of different shapes and sizes and to be eternal. Democritus considered the visible objects of the world of appearance to be brought about by clusters of these atomos that were dynamic and characterized by whirling movements. Before them an aether with similar characteristics was discussed by Anaximander (that he called apeiron)13 and Pythagoras in the 6th century BCE, and then by Moschus of Sidon, in the 13th-14th century BCE.14 Possibly, the properties of this aether were already known to the ancient Egyptians, as proposed by Maglione,15 and even further back in time to the Chinese (Qi) and Indians (Prana) of the 5-10 millennia BCE who were the few to endow it with therapeutic qualities.

Reich’s orgone energy continuum might be considered the most complete conception of the aether today available endowed with both physical and biological qualities, and directly connected to the metaphysical realm. And, one of the most important results of Reich’s investigation might be the law of the orgonomic potentials from which one very important natural law can be deduced, i.e. the orgasm formula from which the pulsation of an organism follows.16 Indeed, the law of the orgonomic potentials is a powerful tool to explain the evenness, the equilibrium and the resilience of the orgone energy continuum in that each unit or particles of the continuum might be subjected to the attractive force of the surrounding units (constituting a higher orgonomic potential when compared to that of the single unit) thus making the continuum a homogeneous and stable structure unless a higher orgonomic potential is applied somewhere to the system from the outside.

The concrete and tangible orgone energy continuum might match quite well also with the philosophical view the late Planck expressed at a lecture in Florence, Italy, in 1944. A conception totally against the view of physics of the time he contributed to develop:17


“As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clear-headed science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about atoms this much:
There is no matter as such.
All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together.
We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind.
This mind is the matrix of all matter.”


By and large, it seems that the granular structure of the aether, a conception that has been constantly found along the history of mankind’s thought, might be the most credible and promising position in order to clarify the characteristics of this substance and to give it a final identity.

The mathematical modelling work of the aether developed by Reynolds and Todeschini based on laboratory physical experiments, and the experimental work of Reich in the biology and medical fields might be an invaluable and priceless body of knowledge available today to continue and develop the Great True Science based on the presence in the Universe of a ubiquitous and granularly-structured aether that, according to the Greek philosophers might be eternal, with no beginning nor end. It is a science that can be called without presumption Eternal Science or Scientia Aeterna in which there is no place for a void cosmos.

The medical and therapeutic properties the aether had been found to be endowed are clearly evident in the use of the ORAC. Its function and healing qualities had been investigated both by Reich and many scholars and researchers after his death. Reich and his associates observed strong biological effects from the ORAC, publishing results of controlled experiments suggesting a strong stimulus of the parasympathetic nervous system of human beings,18 and delayed tumour development in cancer mice and human beings.19

In the period following Reich’s death (1957), a number of physicians and scientists replicated many of his experiments. Noteworthy, are the double-blind controlled trials on human physiology undertaken by Muschenich and Gebauer,20 and by Hebenstreit.21 These experiments showed an evident stimulus of the parasympathetic nervous system in organisms exposed to the high orgone field of an ORAC, with a statistically significant increase of skin and body core temperatures, and heart rate. Mazzocchi and Maglione22 carried out body temperature and Ryodoraku23 measurements on 20 test subjects after exposure to the orgone field of an ORAC. They found a statistically significant increase of body temperature interpreted as a slight healing fever, while the Ryodoraku measurements revealed a parasympathetic nervous system activation, consistent with increased peripheral blood circulation to dissipate the slight heat increase. Other studies on cancer mice performed by Grad,24 and by Blasband25 showed a delayed development of tumour mass of the ORAC-exposed cancer mice groups. Aprile et al26 observed a complete regression of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma mass in a human organism after exposure to systematic concentrated orgone fields performed in parallel to traditional chemotherapy. Senf27 published results of research aimed at evaluating the effects of orgone devices on acupuncture points. Southgate28 found statistically significant effects (p=0.03) of an ORAC on acupuncture sensation in a population of 72 patients, in a double-blind controlled investigation.

Currently, there is a growing interest in the ORAC for treatment of various diseases and several new books have been published on the clinical applications of the orgone energy accumulator.29

Objectives of Present Study

In this present research the authors considered whether the ORAC would change the behaviour of body electrical resistance, voltage and temperature measurements of a human organism when it is systematically exposed to a concentrated orgone energy field.

Materials and Methods

The investigation was performed on a patient (male, age 62) with no major diseases. Measurements of electric resistance and voltage between the hands of the patient and of axillary body temperature were taken. Then the patient entered and was seated in the ORAC for a 20 minute-session. Soon after the ORAC session was concluded, the patient came out of the ORAC, and electric resistance, voltage and body temperature were measured again.

The ORAC used was a human-sized orgone accumulator made of five alternating layers of sheep wool and steel wool, with the outer layer made of masonboard, and the inner layer of a galvanized metal sheet.

The electric resistance was measured by an analog tester to which the test leads had been replaced by two handles lined each by a 1-mm copper sheet. Each handle was held by a patient’s hand and reading recorded when stabilized. To avoid any error in the measurements due to variation of humidity of the patient’s palm hands before and after ORAC session the measurements were done with the two copper handles held by the patient immersed each in a glass bowl filled with tap water. The aim was to standardise the adherence surface between readings to reduce as much as possible any error in the measurements.

The voltage measurement was carried out by using one of the copper handles, while the other had been replaced by a handle lined by a zinc sheet. Readings were recorded when stabilized. Temperature measurements were taken by a digital thermometer. To reduce any possible error in the readings three consecutive measurements were taken before and after each ORAC session. The reference temperature before and after each session was the average of the three readings.

In addition, temperature and humidity of the room in which the ORAC was located were also taken during each session. Humidity was regulated by a dehumidifier to be 50%; while temperature was proportional to the seasonal temperature since no heater or air conditioning system was on inside the room. The 20-minute ORAC sessions were performed from April 05 to December 10, 2021. In total 226 sessions were done.

Theoretical background

Based on the measures of temperatures, and of electric resistance and voltage between patient’s hands, it emerges that the exposure of the organism to the concentrated orgone energy field of the ORAC results in the dissipation of a certain amount of energy into other forms of energy. As largely known from literature, an organism at rest dissipates energy into heat through the basal metabolic rate process. However, this amount is general and not dependant on the use of the ORAC. When an organism undergoes an ORAC session, energy is dissipated as variation of body temperature (TA-TB) and in some unknown way due to the variation of the electric parameters, Resistance and Voltage – (RA-RB) and (VA-VB). This means that during the exposure inside the ORAC the energy dissipated by the organism during a session can be identified into the following:


  1. basal metabolic rate
  2. increase of body temperature
  3. increase of body resistance and decrease of body voltage.


The energy converted into heat by the organism while being at rest is known as basal metabolic rate (QBMR),30 and is determined by applying the following expression given by Quenouille et al:31



Where QBMR denotes the basal metabolic rate in [kcal/day]; w the weight of the subject in [kg]; h the height of the subject in [cm]; s the surface area of the subject in [cm2]; and T the temperature in [°C] and H the humidity in [%] of the environment in which the test subject is. In our study temperature and humidity are those of the room where the ORAC is located. The surface area of the body’s subject can be calculated by the following Dubois and Dubois’ equation:32


Where s denotes the surface area of the subject in [cm2], w the weight in [kg], and h the height in [cm].

The energy dissipated by the organism into heat, as a consequence of the variation of temperature during a session inside the ORAC33 might be supposed to be function of the change of temperature of the water content inside a human organism. Therefore, the amount of dissipated heat is directly proportional to the mass of water of the subject and the variation of temperature, as follows:


Where cw denotes the specific heat of water, 4182 J/kg∙°C, mw the mass of water of the organism in [kg], and (TA-TB) the temperature difference as measured before and after the ORAC session in [°C]. The mass of water in the organism has been estimated to be mw = 0.6∙w, where w is the weight of the organism in [kg].34 The above equation (3) can be rewritten as follows:


The third amount of energy involved is the electric energy produced in the organism during one ORAC session. It can be determined by the following equations:


Where PB and PA denote the electric power of the organism before and after the ORAC session, respectively, in [Watt]; VB and VA the potential difference (voltage) before and after the session in [mV]; and RB and RA the electrical resistance before and after the session in [kOhm].
The difference between PA and PB gives the amount of electric power (P) involved during the session inside the orgone accumulator:


Knowing the duration of the exposure (t) of the organism to the concentrated orgone energy field of the ORAC the variation of electric energy (W) during a session can be determined as follows:




Where t denotes the duration of the orgone session (20 minutes).

Results and data analysis

Figures 1 through 3 show the behaviour of the body electric resistance (RA-RB), the body voltage (VA-VB), and the body temperature (TA-TB) differences, respectively, between after (A) and before (B) the ORAC session for the whole period of testing (226 days).


Figure 1


Figure 2


Figure 3


All the above differences showed a prevailing behaviour. Body electrical resistance (RA-RB) recorded a mainly positive difference between readings recorded after (A) and before (B) sessions (figure 1), with an average increase of 0.874 kOhm.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that these differences were highly statistically significant (p=8.6077∙10-19) for a significant level of p<0.05

Figure 4 shows the frequency of the values of the resistance difference. The most frequent value was 0.30 kOhm with a frequency of 3.54%.


Figure 4



Voltage differences (VA – VB) showed a negative trend for the monitored period (figure 2), with an average decrease of -15.5 mVolt. Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this difference was highly statistically significant (p=3.1552∙10-56) for a significance level of p<0.05.

Figure 5 shows the frequency of the values of the voltage difference. The most frequent value was -15.0 mV °C with a frequency of 11.50%.


Figure 5


Body temperature difference (TA–TB) showed a positive trend (figure 3) with an average increase of 0.146 °C.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this temperature difference was highly statistically significant (p=2.381∙10-37) for a significance level of p<0.05.

Figure 6 shows the frequency of the values of the temperature difference. The most frequent value was 0.20 °C with a frequency of 10.18%.


Figure 6


Figure 7 reports the behaviour of the Basal Metabolic Rate (QBMR) for each session. Obviously, the value is all the time negative since the process always involves a dissipation of heat. As reported above, this is function of the characteristics of the test subject (weight and height), and of the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) where the subject is located. An average value encompassing all the tested period of -0.1108∙106 Joule was found.35


Figure 7


Following figure 8 reports the heat dissipated or acquired by the organism (Qw) as increase or decrease of body temperature after the ORAC session. As can be observed from the figure, the trend is practically always negative apart from a few cases in which it was positive. An average value encompassing all the tested period of -0.0311∙106 Joule was found.


Figure 8


Following figure 9 shows the trend of the variation of electric energy into the organism during each ORAC session. It can be remarked that the trend of (WA-WB), determined by eq. (9), is practically all the time negative. The average value was -0.3077∙10-3 Joule.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this difference in electrical energy was highly statistically significant (p=3.6595∙10-35) for a significance level of p<0.05.


Figure 9


Statistics Summary Analysis

Table 1 below reports the average values of the experimental parameters and their statistical significance.


Table 1


Table 2 shows the variation of the measured and calculated data against weather conditions during ORAC sessions. From Table 2 an increase of the average value of (TA-TB), (RA-RB), and a decrease of (VA-VB) can be remarked when the ORAC session is done in clear or clear-like weather (151 days). Conversely, in case of bad weather (rain) or of a highly cloud-covered atmosphere (75 days) the corresponding average values are lower.


Table 2


From the data reported in Table 2 it is evident the variation of resistance, voltage, and temperature followed weather conditions. In days with a homogeneous distribution of orgone energy into the atmosphere (clear, scattered clouds, and windy weather) resistance, and temperature were higher (+19.3% and +15.0%, respectively), while voltage was lower (-13.6%) than in days with a high concentration of orgone energy at the ground (foggy and rainy weather), or in mostly cloudy and overcast days.

The above results are telling us that the variation of the measured parameters, and hence of the related energies, are a function of the amount of orgone energy available inside the ORAC. This is fully in agreement with the law of the orgonomic potentials that states in days where the distribution of orgone energy into the atmosphere is low and homogeneously-distributed the amount of concentrated orgone energy inside an ORAC is higher than in days with a high concentration of orgone energy at the ground.


The life-positive qualities of the orgone energy continuum, whose equivalence with the aether was very briefly described in the introductory chapter,36 seems to be a well founded and solid reality. In the Orgonomy literature we may find many experiments and research conducted in the last 80 years that produced a large deal of experimental data and publications that might confirm the above assertion. Aether’s therapeutic characteristics have been known since ancient times, even though precise and accurate information were not passed on to us. Presently, orgone energy’s (or aether’s) life-enhancing as well as physical aspects can be properly defined through the Galilean scientific methods and processes, and peculiarities measured and repeated in controlled experiments. This makes their properties an objective reality whose application encompasses all fields of human knowledge and makes the present science of void and matter a misinterpretation and a distortion, if not an esoteric understanding of the aether’s properties.

The present study aimed at investigating the response of the organism to concentrations of orgone energy in dynamic conditions37 higher than those usually found in the natural environment. The results we obtained highlighted many processes that might be at work during the exposure to these high concentrations, and some of them are still unknown.

Our measures of body electric resistance and voltage, and body temperature before and after exposure evidenced that a certain amount of energy is dissipated by the organism during a 20-minute ORAC session. At least three distinct processes that might involve the metabolism of specific forms of energy have been identified. One process is the well-known basal metabolic rate (QBMR); another process implies the conversion of energy (QW) into heat as evidenced by the increase of body temperature; and the third one involves the variation of electric energy (W) to satisfy still unknown functions.

As for the first process, it is known from the literature that whatever standard relationship available today is used to calculate the BMR, it requires that the subject is 1) not engaged in physical activity; 2) completely rested; 3) fasted for at least 10 hours; 4) free from emotional stress; 5) free from disease or infection; and 6) in a test site not located at high altitudes.38 The above are all conditions met by the test subject during the sessions inside the ORAC. A further condition requires that the temperature of the environment should be thermo-neutral, that it should not fall below 18 °C. In our testing, the heater of the room in which the sessions were done was off, temperature of the room was proportional to the outside environment, and during spring and fall it dropped 108 (out of 226) times below 18 °C. Lowest recorded temperature was 5.2 °C. In order to take into account this latter point we considered for the calculation of the BMR the Quenouille et al equation because in its mathematical structure it contained a term taking into account the variation of the temperature of the location in which the test subject was located during the measures.

As far as the second process, or the increase of body temperature is concerned, the phenomenon had been already observed by other authors. Muschenich and Gebauer39 found, on a limited cohort of patients (10 people), a statistically significant increase of body temperature (p=0.01). Ritter and Ritter40 conducted an experiment on 12 patients by measuring body temperature by a thermometer under the tongue. They observed a body temperature increase (with a maximum of 0.53 °C) in the first 10 minutes of the ORAC session. Correa and Correa41 reported on an increase of body temperature of patients inside an ORAC even in the first 15 minutes of exposure. Oral temperature of a male patient (53 yrs old) showed, after 15 minutes of ORAC session, an average increase of the temperature of 0.38°C with a peak of 0.6 °C during a 10-day observation period. Mazzocchi and Maglione42 found a statistically significant increase (p=0.006) of body temperature of 0.242 °C in a group of 20 persons treated inside the ORAC for 45 minutes. Correa and Ritter’s temperature measurements were partially taken with the patients inside the ORAC possibly affecting the overall results; while Mazzocchi and Maglione’s measurements were always taken with the patient outside the ORAC so as to avoid any interference due to ORAC temperature fluctuations.

In the present study, the authors obtained for one patient daily exposed to the ORAC’s field a highly statistically significant increase of the temperature of 0.146 °C (p=2.3810∙10-37), with a peak of 0.57 °C recorded in a day where the weather was clear. Variation of temperature was observed to follow the law of the orgonomic potentials.

Though the present research was based only on one patient, the average increase of temperature observed agrees very well with that obtained by Reich,43 and later authors with the addition that the long-term research we carried out encompassed all seasonal but winter conditions.

According to the conclusions of the above-mentioned authors a small increase in body temperature or functional fever may support the theory of a parasympathetic stimulation. However, many agree it’s still unclear today what may be the role of this small increase. Buhl and Fischer reported that a mild fever may be a result of the accumulation of vital energy on the organism which stimulates the immune system.44 This heat might interact with latent infections, parasites, etc., of the organism by healing them, and when those latent diseases have healed up the temperature should not increase anymore even though the subject is still having regular ORAC sessions.

In the present study the authors assumed that this functional fever would have to be identified with the increase of the temperature of bodily fluids and more specifically of the water content of the organism. Besides, it can be argued an exposure of the organism to the concentrated orgone field of the accumulator for 20 minutes might be a sufficient time for the bodily water volume to be permeated by the orgone particles thus triggering a spontaneous reaction that is evidenced as an increase of temperature. It is known that when the organism is at rest the immune system increases its temperature as a repairing process by activating structured healing and regenerating mechanisms. It can be hypothesised the orgone particles that flood and permeate the human organism might provide the necessary information to cause a healing process at the expense of a consumption of calories and subsequent dissipation of heat.

As for the third process, the changes in electrical energy, to the authors’ best knowledge nothing had ever been reported in the literature about this observation. The authors have no plausible explanations to clarify the statistically significant variation of the electric energy in the organism during ORAC sessions. The matter needs further and accurate investigations. Research on this direction is ongoing through the analysis of electric potential measurements of the patient when compared to the surrounding electric potential of the environment before and after ORAC sessions. Results will be the subject of a future publication.

Overall Conclusion

From the results of the above 9-month study it can be concluded the exposure of a human organism to the concentrated orgone energy field typical of the interior of a human-sized orgone accumulator for 20 minutes determines certain effects. Chief amongst these is a variation of the electric properties of the biological tissues of the organism, such as resistance and potential difference, and of bodily temperature. Such variations are interconnected and indexes of activation of biological phenomena still unknown, but with beneficial effects to human beings.

The variation of the measured (resistance, potential difference, and temperature), and calculated (heat and electric energy) physical parameters follows and confirms the correctness of the law of the orgonomic potential.

Limitations of the study

This research was conducted on one patient with no major diseases. More studies need to be done in order to compare the above results with patients of different ages, sex, and who have major diseases. However, although the study was limited in terms of patient numbers it was comprehensive in terms of the length of time studying the variables, the repeated measurement points and the control of the variables themselves. Also, it may increase reliability to use the same person as their own control over time.


The authors would like to thank Leon Southgate for his suggestions in writing the paper.


1 The standard configuration of an ORAC involves a structure made of alternating layers of organic and inorganic materials, with the inner wall lined with a thin sheet of galvanised steel. This configuration stimulates an orgone energy flow from the outside to the inside of the device, thus creating in the interior a higher orgone energy concentration than on the outside.

2 According to Reich’s experiments and observations it might be assumed that an orgone energy wave is produced by the movement of an orgone energy unit.

3 Reich W, Ether, God and Devil, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, pages 139-161.

4 Whittaker E, A History of the Theories of Aether & Electricity, Dover Publications, 2017.

5 For the work of Reynolds on the aether see Reynolds O, The Sub-mechanics of the Universe, Cambridge University Press, UK, 1903; Reynolds O, On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of the Universe (The Rede Lecture, June 10, 1902), Cambridge University Press, 1903; and Mackenzie J, The Structure of the Universe Being a Presentation of Professor Osborne Reynolds’ Theory of Gravitation, Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, Vol 4, No 3, pages 385-403, 1910.

6 For the work of Todeschini on the aether see Todeschini M, La Teoria delle Apparenze (Spazio-Dinamica e Psico-bio-fisica), Movimento Psicobiofisico Internazionale S. Marco, Bergamo, Italy, 1949; Todeschini M, Einstein o Todeschini?, Movimento Psicobiofisico Internazionale S. Marco, Bergamo, Italy, 1956; Todeschini M, Decisive Experiments in Moderne Physics, Bergamo, Italy, 1966; Todeschini M, Psicobiofisica, Centro Internazionale di Psicobiofisica, Bergamo, 1977; and Borgognone E, La Realtà Fisica dei Fenomeni Elettrici, Magnetici, Luminosi, Accademia Teatina Delle Scienze, Rome, Italy, 1967.

7 Thomson W (Lord Kelvin), On Ether and Gravitational Matter Through Infinite Space, Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol 2, No 8, August 1901.

8 Lodge O, The Ether and its Functions. Part I, Nature, Vol 27, pages 304-306, January 25, 1883; Lodge O, The Ether and its Functions. Part II, Nature, Vol 27, pages 328-330, February 01, 1883; and Lodge O, Modern Views of the Ether, Nature, Vol 75, pages 519-522, March 28, 1907.

9 See for example Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, at pages 105-106 where Reich refers to light dots (Kreiselwelle) that are visible when one stays for a sufficient amount of time inside an ORAC. At pages 112-113 of the same text Reich called moving energy particles those of the orgone continuum that are drawn inside the accumulator and whose movement is restricted and then stopped by the inner metal walls of the accumulator. According to Reich, in this circumstance particles’ kinetic energy is converted into heat and displayed as a rise of accumulator’s temperature. It is important to stress here that being kinetic energy directly proportional to the mass of the particle, and to the square of its velocity, the orgone particles must possess a mass, even though infinitesimally small, otherwise claiming dynamic or kinetic energy can be converted into heat is unsustainable. Reich’s view is that orgone particles and the orgone continuum in general is massless but this is untenable if one wants to resort to classic physics interpretation. In Reich W, Ether, God and Devil (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973) at page 146 Reich clearly speaks of orgone energy units that form in the orgone ocean by concentration, and others that end their existence by energy dissipation. At page 152 of the same book Reich refers to deep blue-violet luminating dots as one of the form of the orgone energy continuum. And in Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second report, 1951-1956. OROP Desert Ea 1954-1955 (Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957) at pages 37-42 Reich describes the qualities of orgone dots or energy units of different size and intensity that from time to time emerge from the substratum of the primordial cosmic energy continuum.

10 See the discussion on the effects of the Oranur experiment and the connection between physics and metaphysics in Reich W, The Oranur Experiment. First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, Usa, 1951, at pages 326-334; see also Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, Avon Books, New York, October 1969, pages 195-196; and Wyvell L, Orgone and You, Offshoots of Orgonomy, N° 12, page 8.

11 The atomists of the medieval Islamic East tradition maintain that the atom (kalam) is a physically and conceptually minimal unit of magnitude and, when a finite number of these atoms are combined or aggregated together so as to form a body, they continue to exist within the body fully in actuality as discrete articulated units (masfil). The kalam is physically indivisible and has a minimal or non-zero amount of spatial (three dimensions) magnitude that exists in and moves through space, and thus it is distinct from the space it occupies (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021). Prominent atomists were al-Juwayni (1028-1085), al-Ghazali (1058–1111), al-Sharastani (c. 1075-1153), and al-Razi (1149-1210). For more information see Wolfson HA, The Philosophy of the Kalam, Harvard University Press, 1976; Baffioni C, Atomismo e Antiatomismo nel Pensiero Islamico, Series Minor, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, Seminario di Studi Asiatici, 16, Rome 1982; Dhanani A, The Physical Theory of Kalam, Atoms, Space, and Void in Basrian Mu’tazili Cosmology, EJ Brill, Leiden, 1994; van Ess J, 60 Years After: Shlomo Pines’s Beitrage and Half a Century of Research on Atomism in Islamic Theology, Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 8.2, 2002; and Sabra AI, Kalam Atomism as an Alternative Philosophy to Hellenizing Falsafa, in Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy, From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebration of Richard M Frank, Edited by Montgomery EJ, Peeters, Leuven, 2006.

12 Taylor CCW, The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus. Fragments. A Text and Translation with a Commentary, University of Toronto Press, 1999; Berryman S, Leucippus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016; and Berryman S, Democritus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016. The work of the atomists was erroneously considered the basis of modern science. In fact, the term atomos of Leucippus and Democritus, first introduced by Gassendi in the first half of the 17th century, was adopted by Dalton to develop the fundamentals of chemistry. The atom was considered to be the smallest part making up matter. However, this was not the case, and subsequent experiments revealed the atom to be made of many smaller particles. Clearly, the atom of traditional physics has nothing in common with that conceived by Leucippus and Democritus. Unfortunately, the atomists are still considered the forerunners of one of the best-known building blocks, the atom, of which matter today is thought to consist. Making a comparison like the above can be argued to be a naive exercise (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021).

13 Maglione R, L’Apeiron di Anassimandro. Un Antesignano dell’Energia Orgonica? In Glielmi N, Maglione R, Wilhelm Reich, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, Italy, 2009. See also Rovelli C, The First Scientist. Anaximander and His Legacy, Westholme Publishing, 2011.

14 Moschus (or Mochus) of Sidon or the lawgiver is identified by many scholars with Moses the Hebrew, the well-known figure of the Pentateuch (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021; see also Sailor DB, Moses and Atomism, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol 25, No 1, Jan-Mar 1964; and McGuire JE, Rattansi PM, Newton and the “Pipes of Pan”, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol 21, No 2, December 1966). A view that Moses was well acquainted in the laws of Orgonomy was recently elaborated and advanced by Maglione developing the work of Isaacs (Isaacs RD, Talking With God. The Radioactive Ark of the Testimony. Communication Through It. Protection From It, Sacred Closet Books, Chicago, 2010) and Reich. According to Isaacs, many words in the Old Testament, and above all in the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, used to describe the events and the phenomena related to the Ark of the Covenant had been erroneously translated or were not fully understood in their meaning. What surfaced from Isaacs’ study was a situation totally different from that traditionally depicted, namely an Ark that in certain circumstances was emitting dangerous radiations, a sort of radioactivity, and all the rituals and the sacrifices were developed as safety measures to be followed during the Exodus when approaching the Ark, its interior, or to protect Israelites and the animals of the camp from the radioactivity emitted by the Ark and the Tabernacle. One of the most important methods to protect from the nefarious radioactive cloud was the systematic use of incense’s smoke. The incense was a mixture made of equal parts of storax, galbanum, frankincense, salt and myrrh. Being that the Ark is a device emitting radiation, but at the same time being also an orgone-like accumulator, Maglione applied the laws of Orgonomy. Particularly those laws related to the Oranur state of the orgone continuum were used to study the behaviour of the Ark of the Covenant. He found a striking similarity between what is recounted in the Old Testament and what is described by Reich and his collaborators regarding the Oranur experiment. He identified in the words ruach and kawbode, terms that might potentially represent the orgone energy continuum found by Reich in dynamic flow, and in its Oranur state, respectively. Besides, Maglione found that nefesh, the substance that is present in the blood, could be identified with the orgone units known as bions. Therefore, Maglione considered it logical to think that Moses’ successors such as Joshua, and later Hezekiah and Solomon were accustomed to, and knew very well the laws regulating the use of orgone energy (aether). Maglione believed that for the time being this was a knowledge passed on for centuries to a restricted circle of Jewish initiates. In addition, being that Moses belonged also to the Egyptian elite, where he was brought up and educated, he thinks that this same knowledge was part of the daily practice of a small band of Egyptian initiates (see Maglione R, The legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017). In this context, the similarity is extraordinary, between the Moses of the atomist thought and the Moses of the Pentateuch. The two aspects were contemporary to the same historical period and dealt with the same fundamental theories and issues.

15 Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017.

16 Reich W, The Function of the Orgasm. Volume 1 of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, pages 272-286.

17 Planck M, Das Wesen der Materie (The Nature of Matter), Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797, 1944.

18 Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Usa, 1973.

19 Reich W, The Carcinomatous Shrinking Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, I(2):131-155, July 1942; Reich W, Experimental Orgone Therapy of the Cancer Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, II(1):1-92, March 1943; Reich W, Anorgonia in the Carcinomatous Shrinking Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, IV(1):1-33, April 1945; Tropp SJ, The Treatment of a Mediastinal Malignancy with the Orgone Accumulator, Orgone Energy Bulletin, I(3):100-109, 1949; Tropp SJ, Orgone Therapy of an Early Breast Cancer, Orgone Energy Bulletin, II(3):131-138, 1950; Hoppe W, Orgone Versus Radium Therapy in Skin Cancer, Report of a Case, Orgonomic Medicine, I(2):133-138, 1955; Reich E, Reich W, Early Diagnosis of Cancer of the Uterus, Cosmic Orgone Engineering, VII(1-2):47-53, 1955, Raphael CM, Confirmation of Orgonomic (Reich) Tests for the Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer, Orgonomic Medicine, II(1):36-41, 1956.

20 Muschenich S, Gebauer R, The Psycho-Physiological Effects of the Reich Orgone Energy Accumulator, Pulse of the Planet, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, Vol 1, No 2, 1989; and Muschenich S, Einige Zitate und Bemerkungen zur Frage ‘Sind die Begriffe Vagotonie versus Sympathocotonie auf die Wirkungen des Orgons übertragbar?’, Emotion, No 8, pages 68-71, 1987.

21 Hebenstreit G, Der Orgonakkumulator Nach Wilhelm Reich. Eine Experimentelle Untersuchung zur Spannungs-Ladungs-Formel, Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Magistergrades der Philosophie an der Grung- und Integrativ-wissenschaftlichen Fakultat der Universitat Wien, 1995.

22 Mazzocchi A, Maglione R, A Preliminary Study of the Reich Orgone Accumulator Effects on Human Physiology, Subtle Energy & Energy Medicine, Vol 21, No 2, 2010.

23 The Ryodoraku diagnostic technique is based on Nakatami’s research carried out in 1950. He discovered low-resistance electrical points on the human skin (hyper-electric conductive points), located along the longitudinal lines of the body and corresponding to the main energetic meridians of Chinese Medicine and classic Acupuncture. The Ryodoraku technique might be considered well-suited to evaluate ORAC effects on human physiology because it allows an instrumental objective registration (electrical resistance of human skin) of possible changes before and after an ORAC session. These measurements may help to understand physiological changes before and after ORAC exposure, from the viewpoints of both Reich’s orgonomy and that of Chinese Medicine.

24 Grad B, The Accumulator Effect on Leukemia Mice, Journal of Orgonomy, 26(2):199-218, 1992.

25 Blasband RA, The Orgone Energy Accumulator in the Treatment of Cancer Mice, Journal of Orgonomy, 7(1):81-85, 1973; and Blasband RA, Effects of the Orac on Cancer in Mice: Three Experiments, Journal of Orgonomy, 18(2):202-211, 1984.

26 Aprile T, Carlino F, Del Prete S, Angelone I, Cammisa A, Cusani F, Dello Iacovo N, Orgone Blanket as a Complementary Support in the Treatment of an Atrophic-Cancer Biopathy, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, October 02, 2018.

27 Senf B, Wilhelm Reich: Discoverer of Acupuncture Energy? American Journal of Acupuncture, Vol 7 (2):109-118, 1979; Senf B, Wilhelm Reich: Discoverer of Acupuncture Energy? Pulse of the Planet, Vol 1 (2): 25-30, 1989; and Senf B, Die Wiederentdeckung des Lebendigen. Erforschung der Lebensenergie Durch Reich, Schauberger, Lakhovsky u.a., Omega Verlag, Aachen, Germany, 2003.

28 Southgate L, Chinese Medicine and Wilhelm Reich, European Journal of Oriental Medicine, UK, (4) 4:31-41, 2003.

29 Kavouras J, Heilen mit Orgonenergie.Turm Verlag, Bietigheim, 2005; and Buhl H, Fischer J, Energie! Heilung und Selbstheilung mit Lebensenergie, Ulrich Leutner Verlag, Berlin, 2007; Maglione R, Mazzocchi A, Biofisica e Medicina Orgonica, Nuova Ipsa, Palermo, Italy, 2013, and Shapiro N, My Cancer and the Orgone Box, The Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust, Rangeley, Maine, Usa, 2019.

30 The basal metabolic rate (BMR) gives the daily rate of energy metabolism an individual needs to sustain in order to preserve the integrity of vital functions. In a normal free-living person, the amount of energy provided by its diet must cover the demands of basal metabolism plus additional amounts needed for the physical activity associated with essential bodily needs, and also those imposed by the physical work involved in occupation, in engaging in social exchanges and in leisure activities (Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurements and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition; 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2002).

31 Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurement and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2005.

32 DuBois D, DuBois EF, The Measurements of the Surface Area of Man, Archives of Internal Medicine, 1915, 15:868-75.

33 The phenomenon of variation of body temperature during an ORAC session had been observed by many authors and is well documented in the Orgonomic literature (see Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2012, pages 13-82).

34 Spaggiari P, Tribbia C, Le Meraviglie dell’Acqua. Il Mistero Biofisico che ci Dona la Vita, Tecniche Nuove, Milan, 2007, page 40.

35 As average value is intended the ratio of the summation of the daily values to the total number of days (226).

36 A book on the history of the aether is planned to be published by the author in the very near future.

37 For dynamic conditions the authors refer to the condition of orgone energy that is not affected by secondary energies that can create an Oranur or a DOR state.

38 Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurement and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2005.

39 Muschenich S, Gebauer R, The Psycho-Physiological Effects of the Reich Orgone Energy Accumulator, Pulse of the Planet, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, Vol 1, no 2, 1989; see also Muschenich S, Einige Zitate und Bemerkungen zur Frage ‘Sind die Begriffe Vagotonie versus Sympathocotonie auf die Wirkungen des Orgons übertragbar?’, Emotion, No.8, pp. 68-71, 1987; and Müschenich S, Der Gesundheitsbegriff im Werk des Arztes Wilhelm Reich (The Concept of Health in the Works of Dr. Wilhelm Reich), Doktorarbeit am Fachbereich Humanmedizin der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Verlag Gorich & Weiershauser, Marburg, 1995.

40 Ritter P, Ritter J, Orgonomic Functionalism, Vol II, 1955; see also Sconamiglio R, et al, Piani e Istruzioni Per l’Accumulatore di Energia Orgonica, Quaderni Andromeda, 92:1-15, 2005.

41 Correa PN, Correa A, Transiently Induced Hyperthermia in Humans Exposed to a Controlled Orac Environment, AS2-33: Exp Aetherom.; Series 2, Vol 4 (33):1-27, 2007.

42 Mazzocchi A, Maglione R, A Preliminary Study of the Reich Orgone Accumulator Effects on Human Physiology, Subtle Energy & Energy Medicine, Vol 21, No 2, 2010.

43 Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, page 317.

44 Buhl H, Fischer J, Energie! Heilung und Selbstheilung mit Lebensenergie, Ulrich Leutner Verlag, Berlin, 2007.


Luca Piergentili graduated in computer engineering in 2004 with specialization in databases, data analysis and design of digital communication systems. He is a designer and manufacturer of control units for industrial equipment and atmospheric phenomena.

Piergentili is a founding member and coordinator of the border science department of the Fermo 43° Parallelo association. His interest encompasses research and study of new technologies and new forms of energy. In his free time he does the hiking guide of the Sibillini park.

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- who has written 9 posts on The Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy.

Roberto Maglione is a scholar, and author in orgonomy. He graduated at the Polytechnic of Turin, Italy, in Mining Engineering in 1986. Email:

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The Living Body: Wilhelm Reich’s Influence on Contemporary Psychotherapies


In pursuing the development of psychosomatic medicine and an energetic model of health which respected the importance of psyche and soma equally, Wilhelm Reich created the foundation for what ultimately came to be known as the fields of Body Psychotherapy, Somatic Psychology and others.

Building upon the conference we presented in the summer of 2021, Wilhelm Reich and Psychoanalysis, the goal of this conference is to map the field of body-centered therapy today. Speakers from the Americas, Europe and Australia, representing Reich’s Orgone Therapy as well as a variety of schools which are heirs to Reich such as Radix, Bioenergetics, Biodynamic Therapy, Biosynthesis, Gestalt, Navarro, Core Energetics and other modalities based in important ways on his approach, will present and describe their respective theories, training processes and therapeutic methods.

Historians will present an overview of Reich’s evolution from psychoanalysis to character analysis, to the more body-centered character analytic vegetotherapy, and beyond.

By exploring this field through the common denominator, the theories and techniques developed by Wilhelm Reich, we hope to generate interaction and exchanges and highlight the similarities, differences and relationships between traditions.

With so many schools of therapy represented, there are bound to be some differences of opinion about theory and practice. By bringing them together, we hope to give participants a comprehensive overview of the field and build bridges between individuals and groups who have much in common and might benefit from direct, respectful interaction with one another.

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Wilhelm Reich – Founder of Orgone Therapy

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