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A Pictorial Essay of Photographic Evidence of Healthy and Cancer (Phase I) Cells, and RBCs After the Reich Biological Blood Tests

Editor’s Notes:

This pictorial essay is an important step in introducing the concept of cancer biopathy to contemporary medicine.

The following paragraph written by Dr. Wilhelm Reich in the book "Cancer Biopathy" reflects the significance of this article written by Armando Vecchietti.

"The examination of the blood is therefore particularly useful for the early detection of cancer. In fact, I would like to venture assumption that the blood is the first system to be affected by systemic contraction and subsequent shrinking of the organism. Blood is, after all the "sap of life" which binds all the organs into one whole and provides them with nourishment. Blood therefore plays a major role in orgone therapy for cancer. For that reason, the orgonothic function of the blood must be fully understood."  Reich W. Cancer Biopathy (page 235).



The paper reports a collection of photographs regarding the behaviour of healthy and phase I cancer process (Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III) cells. Figures describing the behaviour of energetically-charged or weak RBCs (Red Blood Cells), when made to disintegrate in saline, and then subjected to autoclavation are also reported. The compendium fills a gap within orgonomic medicine, and might be considered as an important reference for further studies in the evaluation of healthy and cancer conditions of the human organism.


When I began to study orgonomy in the mid-1970s and specifically the Reich blood test for the very early diagnosis of cancer I soon realised that an exhaustive amount of photographic material to be considered as reference was not available.

Images of the cancer cells and of the RBCs as described by Reich practically did not exist, and only a few drawings and some black and white pictures were available.1

After Reich’s death very few articles were published reporting high-quality images of the cancer cell’s formation and process, and very little regarding those cells characterising the first phase (phase 1) of the cancer process (Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III cells), and about the results of the Reich biological blood tests.2

Therefore, being that the amount of published material was far from exhaustive, I could not compare what I saw at the microscope with other material because of its low quality or even the lack of it altogether. Many years were needed before much light was shed on the interpretation of several images I had personally produced.

The following collection of photographs has the purpose to fill this gap and to offer images the reader can use as reference in future work thus making easier ongoing study and research. The photographs show images of disintegration of urinary tract cells and RBCs. The various form and shapes they assume is of course a function of their orgonotic or energetic charge. Both groups of cells had been taken from samples from human beings of both sex and of different ages. All the biological samples had been observed at the optic microscope and photographed in-vivo with a magnification ranging between 800x and 1000x.3 All images had been developed in-house and belong to the archives I built in more than 40 years of research.

As to the images regarding the Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III cells, the photographed material comes from centrifuged urinary sediments only as I consider this the easiest to obtain and observe amongst the various other sources available, such as the patient’s sputum.

As to Ca IV (mature) and Ca V (putrid decomposition) cells belonging to phase 2 of the cancer process, no images have been reported in this present collection since they are well-known from official oncology and a large selection is available in the mainstream scientific literature. The reader can refer to that for reference.

Images regarding the blood are instead of RBCs only. For them the distinction is simpler because we can observe only two different behaviours:

  1. The B-reaction, an expression of the good energetic charge of the RBC, characterised by the presence of large bluish bions embedded in the stroma of the cell like pearls in a ring.4
  2. The T-reaction, an expression of a low energetic charge of the RBC, characterised by a contracted and thorny (or T-spikes) cell.5

As far as the pictures taken at the autoclavation test is concerned they refer only to the macroscopic aspect of the autoclaved blood samples, and how they appear at the end of the autoclavation test in keeping with their energetic charge.

The present collection of images starts with a brief overview of healthy cells. This compendium might be useful to scholars to realise what might be the standard aspect of energetically-charged cells so as to have a baseline when pathological variations, such as those occurring in the Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III steps, appear over time. A comprehensive compendium of the latter is reported thereafter. Finally, a brief presentation of some examples of RBCs from the Reich blood test and of blood samples after the autoclavation test, is also reported. 

Healthy Cells

Figures 1 through 4 in this section show healthy or energetically-charged cells. The images were taken by a 800x-1000x microscope. Only a membrane that contains a substance called cytoplasm in which the cell nucleus floats can be clearly observed.

Figure 1 – Healthy or energetically-charged cell
Figure 2 – Healthy or energetically-charged cells
Figure 3 – Healthy or energetically-charged cells
Figure 4 – Healthy or energetically-charged cells

Ca I cells

The Ca I cells are those that show bionous disintegration. Reich explained how the bionous disintegration is directly activated by the action of the T-bacilli on the weakest cells of the tissues.6 In the previous section of healthy cells of a human organism, observed in-vivo at the optic microscope, it could be seen to show a clear cytoplasm. The Ca I cells instead appear granulated because of the presence of vesicles (bions) and/or tiny T-bacilli.

In this first step the affected cells generally tend to get rounder because of contraction. In the epithelial cells this contraction can be clearly seen in the corners of the cell that become more and more rounded making the cell gradually lose its pentagonal shape.

When the Ca I cells follow also a T-reaction (thorny) of the RBC, a diagnosis of Ca I step of the cancer process might be done.

This is the first step of the cancer process and the organism starts to move forward along a cancer pathology. This first step, as well as the successive steps Ca II and Ca III are still unknown to classic oncology. It does not understand their meanings being not able to interpret the above-mentioned behaviours.

Following Figures 5 through 22 show examples of Ca I cells. Figure 17 shows an example of a set of healthy cells and cells that are about to disintegrate.

Figure 5 – Ca I cells
Figure 6 – Ca I cell
Figure 7 – Ca I cell
Figure 8 – Ca I cells
Figure 9 – Ca I cell
Figure 10 – Ca I cells
Figure 11 – Ca I cell
Figure 12 – Ca I cell
Figure 13 – Ca I cells
Figure 14 – Ca I cells
Figure 15 – Ca I cells
Figure 16 – Ca I cells
Figure 17 – Healthy and Ca I cells
Figure 18 – Ca I cells
Figure 19 – Ca I cell
Figure 20 – Ca I cells
Figure 21 – Ca I cell
Figure 22 – Ca I cell

Ca II cells

In this second step of the phase 1 process bions (or vesicles) start to aggregate and the energy concentrates itself in the bionous clusters both inside and outside the cells. These bionous clusters reorganise themselves by producing a cellular membrane that wraps them and evolves into structures that sometimes develop at the expense of the old cell.

Both inside and outside the affected cells the presence of new varyingly defined tapered or ovoid shapes can be observed. In some cases the remaining part of the affected cell breaks up into small fragments, small vesicles or T-bacilli. The arrows in some of the following images show the formation of new structures that are the result of the previous fusion of bions clusters. The whole is a Ca II cell.

In this step again, classic oncology does not recognise the presence of cancer cells, and hence to it no cancer pathology is attached.

Following Figures 23 through 57 show examples of Ca II cells.

Figure 23 – Ca II cells
Figure 24 – Ca II cell
Figure 25 – Ca II cells
Figure 26 – Ca II cells
Figure 27 – Ca II cell
Figure 28 – Ca II cell
Figure 29 – Ca II cell
Figure 30 – Ca II cell
Figure 31 – Ca II cells
Figure 32 – Ca II cells
Figure 33 – Ca II cells
Figure 34 – Ca II cell
Figure 35 – Ca II cell
Figure 36 – Ca II cells
Figure 37 – Ca II cell
Figure 38 – Ca II cells
Figure 39 – Ca II cells
Figure 40 – Ca II cells
Figure 41 – Ca II cells
Figure 42 – Ca II cells
Figure 43 – Ca II cells
Figure 44 – Ca II cell
Figure 45 – Ca II cells
Figure 46 – Ca II cell
Figure 47 – Ca II cells
Figure 48 – Ca II cells
Figure 49 – Ca II cells
Figure 50 – Ca II cell
Figure 51 – Ca II cell
Figure 52 – Ca II cell
Figure 53 – Ca II cells
Figure 54 – Ca II cells
Figure 55 – Ca II cell
Figure 56 – Ca II cells
Figure 57 – Ca II cells

Ca III cells

Once the Ca II cells have been formed they continue to evolve and, in their progressive development they rearrange and give rise to the Ca III cells. The Ca III cells are the last step of the evolutionary stage of the clusters (phase 1). They are called also club-shaped or caudate cells and are the prelude to the tumour mass (phase 2 of the cancer process). They are cells completely new and foreign to the organism in that they do not belong to any human tissue.

Following figures 58 through 120 show examples of Ca III cells.

Figure 58 – Ca III cell
Figure 59 – Ca III cell
Figure 60 – Ca III cell
Figure 61 – Ca III cells
Figure 62 – Ca III cell
Figure 63 – Ca III cell
Figure 64 – Ca III cell
Figure 65 – Ca III cells
Figure 66 – Ca III cell
Figure 67 – Ca III cells
Figure 68 – Ca III cell
Figure 69 – Ca III cell
Figure 70 – Ca III cell
Figure 71 – Ca III cell
Figure 72 – Ca III cell
Figure 73 – Ca III cell
Figure 74 – Ca III cell
Figure 75 – Ca III cells
Figure 76 – Ca III cell
Figure 77 – Ca III cell
Figure 78 – Ca III cells
Figure 79 – Ca III cell
Figure 80 – Ca III cells
Figure 81 – Ca III cell
Figure 82 – Ca III cell
Figure 83 – Ca III cell
Figure 84 – Ca III cell
Figure 85 – Ca III cells
Figure 86 – Ca III cell
Figure 87 – Ca III cell
Figure 88 – Ca III cell
Figure 89 – Ca III cell
Figure 90 – Ca III cell
Figure 91 – Ca III cell
Figure 92 – Ca III cell
Figure 93 – Ca III cell
Figure 94 – Ca III cell
Figure 95 – Ca III cells
Figure 96 – Ca III cells
Figure 97 – Ca III cell
Figure 98 – Ca III cell
Figure 99 – Ca III cell
Figure 100 – Ca III cell
Figure 101 – Ca III cell
Figure 102 – Ca III cell
Figure 103 – Ca III cell
Figure 104 – Ca III cell
Figure 105 – Ca III cell
Figure 106 – Ca III cell
Figure 107 – Ca III cell
Figure 108 – Ca III cell
Figure 109 – Ca III cells
Figure 110 – Ca III cell
Figure 111 – Ca III cells
Figure 112 – Ca II (above) and Ca III (below) cells
Figure 113 – Ca III cell
Figure 114 – Ca III cells
Figure 115 – Ca III cell
Figure 116 – Ca III cells
Figure 117 – Ca III cells
Figure 118 – Ca III cell
Figure 119 – Ca III cell
Figure 120 – Ca III cell

The Reich Blood Test

The test is a method for determining the status of a patient’s health, and the onset and progress of a cancerous process at work within the organism. It focuses on the different response of the RBCs when made to disintegrate in physiological salt solution. The cells show two different reactions according to the orgonotic charge they possess. In case the RBC presents a strong orgonotic charge, it is taut and shows a strong and well delineated membrane, the stroma is filled by bluish vesicles that look like pearls set in a ring. Conversely, if the RBC possesses a low orgonotic charge, the cell is energetically weak and the volume of the stroma gets smaller, somewhat shrunken, and has a thorny appearance like the hedgehog of a chestnut, or a medieval spherical flail covered in spikes. Reich called this latter configuration a T-spikes cell.

The overall evaluation of the energetic charge of the RBCs in a blood sample depends on how many of them are energetically strong (vesicles set like pearls in a ring) and how many are energetically weak (thorny appearance). As a consequence, the overall orgonotic charge may vary between the two above extremes with all the possible combinations in between.

Figures 121 through 124 show examples of a B-reaction of the blood (energetically strong RBCs); while in figures 125 through 127 examples of blood samples characterized by a T-reaction (energetically weak RBCs) are seen.

Figure 121 – B-reaction of the blood
Figure 122 – B-reaction of the blood
Figure 123 – B-reaction of the blood
Figure 124 – B-reaction of the blood
Figure 125 – T-reaction of the blood
Figure 126 – T-reaction of the blood
Figure 127 – T-reaction of the blood

The autoclavation test

The autoclavation test is a cohesion-type test based on an assumption that healthy RBCs withstand the autoclavation better than cells with a low orgonotic charge. Energetically-charged blood after the autoclave appears as a compact agglomeration surrounded by a clear supernatant liquid. An energetically weak blood shows a turbid fluid in which a various degree of fraying can be observed. In the worst cases the appearance of the fluid might reach that of a greenish murky mush. As observed for the blood test, the result obtained by the autoclavation test is never characterised by a single condition. Rather, many intermediate forms between the two extremes can be found. A correct evaluation might be done only by a well-trained and expert orgonomist.

Figures 128 through 130 show examples of energetically-charged bloods where a dense clumping can be seen, while picture in figure 131 reports two vials showing how it appears an energetically-weak blood after the autoclavation test.

Figure 128 – Energetically-charged blood
Figure 129 – Energetically-charged blood
Figure 130 – Energetically-charged blood
Figure 131 – Energetically-weak bloods


The author wishes to thank Roberto Maglione and Leon Southgate for their suggestions in writing the paper.


1 The only available material graphically or pictorially describing the cancer cell formation Reich made public was contained in the book The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973; and in the following articles: 1) The Natural Organization of Protozoa from Orgone Energy Vesicles (Bions), International Journal of Sex-Economy and Orgone-Research, Vol 1, N° 3, Orgone Institute Press, New York, November 1942; 2) Experimental Orgone Therapy of the Cancer Biopathy (1937-1943), International Journal of Sex-Economy and Orgone-Research, Vol 2, Orgone Institute Press, New York, 1943; 3) “Cancer Cells” in Experiment XX, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol 3, N° 1, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, January 1951; and 4) Orgonomic Diagnosis of Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol IV, N° 2, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, April 1952 (paper compiled by Raphael CM and MacDonald HE based on a course on cancer given by Reich at Orgonon in July and August 1950). As to the biological blood tests that included the Reich blood test, originally called by Reich T-blood test, and the autoclavation test, called by Reich also biological resistance test, information could be found scattered in the above papers even though drawing and pictorial material was rarely reported. It can be found especially in 4).

2 Lassek H, Gierlinger M, Blutdiagnostik und Bion-Forschung Nach Wilhelm Reich. Teil 1, Emotion, Berlin, May 1984; Cantwell AR, Blasband R, Bionous Tissue Disintegration in Three Patients with AIDS, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 22, N° 2, November 1988; Cantwell AR, Bionous Disintegration in Degenerative Disease, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 25, N° 2, November 1991; DeMeo J, The Biophysical Discoveries of Wilhelm Reich, Pulse of the Planet #4, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 1993; Blasband RA, Transformationen in Mikrobiologischen Organismen, in DeMeo J, Senf B (Ed) Nach Reich. Neue Forschungen zur Orgonomie, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt, 1997; DeMeo J, Bion-Biogenesis Research and Seminars at OBRL: Progress Report, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002; and Reich W, Bion Experiments on the Cancer Problem, Abstract of a Lecture Given to the Norwegian Society of Medical Students in Oslo, June 1938, Orgonomic Functionalism, Volume 7, Spring 2019, Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust, Rangeley, Usa. As to the biological blood tests drawing and pictorial material can be found in Bradbury P, Blue Armour and the Reich Blood Tests, Energy and Character, Vol 4, N° 3, September 1973; Baker CF, Dew RA, Ganz M, Lance L, The Reich Blood Test, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 15, N° 2, November 1981; Lassek H, Gierlinger M, Blutdiagnostik und Bion-Forschung Nach Wilhelm Reich. Teil 1, Emotion, Berlin, May 1984; Lappert PW, Primary Bions Through Superimposition at Elevated Temperature and Pressure, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 19, N° 1, May 1985; Bauer I, Erythrocyte Sedimentation: A New Parameter for the Measurement of Energetic Vitality, Annals of the Institute for the Orgonomic Science, Vol 4, September 1987; Opfermann-Fuckert D, Berichte Uber Behandlungen Mit Orgonenergie, Emotion, Berlin, Vol 8, 1987; Opfermann-Fuckert D, Reports on Treatments with Orgone Energy, Annals of the Institute for the Orgonomic Science, Vol 6, September 1989; Baker CR, Burlingame PS, The Reich Blood Test, Annals of the Institute for the Orgonomic Science, Vol 6, September 1989; Blasband RA, Cappella R, Crist PA, Dunlap S, Foglia A, Konia C, Reich E, Schleining J, Radiation Victims and the Reich Blood Test, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 24, N° 1, May 1990; Frigola C, Castro P, The Reich Blood Test and Autoflorescence, Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 25, N° 2, November 1991; DeMeo J, The Biophysical Discoveries of Wilhelm Reich, Pulse of the Planet #4, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, 1993; Blasband RA, Transformationen in Mikrobiologischen Organismen, in DeMeo J, Senf B (Ed) Nach Reich. Neue Forschungen zur Orgonomie, Zweitausendeins, Frankfurt, 1997; and DeMeo J, Bion-Biogenesis Research and Seminars at OBRL: Progress Report, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, 2002.

3 An optic microscope with an incorporated camera or video camera was used. In-vivo microscope examinations of the biological samples were performed by an Optika binocular optical microscope with 10x-20x-40x-100x objectives, and 15x eyepiece. A Panasonic NV-GS50 digital video camera, equipped with timer, was used in the recording of the microscope examinations.

4 The bions are primordial life forms-transitional structures between inorganic, non-motile forms and living, moving creatures capable of being cultured. They are preliminary stages of life and not completely forms of life. They can form from whatever substance be it human or animal tissue, earth, coal, moss, etc. (see Reich W, The Bion Experiments on the Origin of Life, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1978).

5 The T-reaction is named by Reich after ‘Tod’ the German for death.

6 Reich W, Orgonomic Diagnosis of Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol IV, N° 2, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, April 1952 (paper compiled by Raphael CM and MacDonald HE based on a course on cancer given by Reich at Orgonon in July and August 1950).

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Armando Vecchietti, MBiol

The paper reports and discusses a test for early cancer diagnosis. The test was developed by Reich and is based on his research on cancer biopathy, and on a new way to understand cancer mechanisms and processes. It can diagnose cancer greatly in advance of what the traditional tests can do and in addition in a period where no clues to the disease are supposed to exist by traditional oncology. It is focused on microscopic examination of biological samples such as blood, urine or sputum. Results of microscope laboratory examinations performed in-house on different biological samples, taken from patients with different health conditions, are shown and discussed in the paper. All the above materials belong to the laboratory’s archive of the writer.

The results fully confirm Reich’s assumptions and findings and evidence an early onset of the cancer disease even in people that are considered healthy and with no indication of the disease by classical oncology. In addition, it was observed that the development process of the precursors of the cancer cells (Ca I, Ca II, Ca III cells and T-bacilli) is common in humans and animals and it is irrespective of sex, age, and type of oncological pathology, being a universal process.

Introduction and background
Reich was the first to study in-vivo the behavior of living cells and tissues from a bioenergetic perspective by extensively investigating samples taken from healthy and cancer patients. He found that the bio-energetically weaker cells of the organism undergo, before the occurrence of the actual cancer disease as we characterize it today, slow but progressive changes that lead them finally to develop into the future cancer cell (1).

Reich found that the first phase in the formation of the cancer cell is characterized by indicators or precursors, such as bionous disintegration of the healthy cell and the associated development of the T-bacilli.
First studies date back to the late 1930s when he was in Oslo:

"3. Infusions of dried moss or grass collected in autumn show, if observed continually with a magnification of from 400x to 4000x, the following sequence of events: vesicular disintegration, after soaking and swelling separation of the vesicles in the form of cocci, concentration and organization (via formation of a membranous margin) into unicellular protists of vesicular structure ….

4. Exactly as protists develop out of swelled disintegrated moss, the cancer cells organize themselves in vesicular disintegrated animal and human tissues. The most important steps of this development are according to observations until now: Swelling of the tissue, vesicular structuring, formation of spindle-shaped organisms, strongly light-refracting and biologically stainable heaps of vesicles, and finally further development into mobile ameboid, creeping "mature" cancer cells." (2)

"These organisms [T-bacilli] result from degeneration of certain types of bion cultures, and from experimental degeneration of certain proteins. They are called T, i.e. "Tod" (Death) bacilli because of their origin and their deadly effect on mice. They are short flitting rods of about 0.25-0.6 μm. …. They have a sharp acid and ammonia-like smell. In large doses they kill mice within 24 hours. In small doses they produce in the course of from 8 to 15 months infiltrating and destructive growths in the form of tumors, or only cellular growths without a circumscribed primary tumor in kidneys, lungs, liver, glands, etc. They can be cultivated in pure culture from the cardiac blood of mice which died or were killed, and if again inoculated, they produce the same pathological changes as before." (3)

The identification, observation and study of the bionous disintegration and the formation of T-bacilli led Reich to understand the mechanism of the formation of the cancer cell and to provide a tool to make a very early diagnosis of cancer in a patient. This is in sharp contrast with classical oncology methodologies that require, in order to make a reliable cancer diagnosis, the cancer cell or the tumor to be already present in the patient.
Reich found the cancer cell formed and developed according to the following five different steps:

  1. Vesicular disintegration of cells (Ca I)
  2. Aggregation and reorganization of vesicles (Ca II)
  3. Evolution and development of caudate cells (Ca III)
  4. The mature cancer cell (Ca IV)
  5. The final phase of the cancer tumor: putrid disintegration (Ca V)

He called the cell characterizing each of the above steps Ca I, Ca II, Ca III, Ca IV, and Ca V respectively.

Each step is characterized by a specific cell shape and configuration. The full cancer process can be represented by two main distinct phases. Phase 1 is consisting of the steps Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III that Reich considered precursors of the future cancer cell and tumor mass as we know it today by classical oncology. While, phase 2 is characterized by the steps Ca IV and Ca V, where the cancer cell and the tumor mass are at this point well developed. It is noteworthy that the presence of Ca I, Ca II and Ca III cells allow us an early diagnosis in a period when, according to classical oncology, the disease does not exist yet.

Reich found this process common to all solid tumors and evidence that all types of tumor are characterized by the same mechanisms that at last lead to the formation of the characteristic cancer cell. In particular Ca I, Ca II, Ca III cells are the precursors of all solid tumor cancer cells and the different cancers are not different pathologies but the same pathology characterized by the same manifestations. In addition, Reich found that this process is typical of a human organism, without distinction of sex and age, and also of animals.

It is clear from the above classification that the working area of classic oncology is represented only by phase 2 of the full cancer process (Ca IV and Ca V steps), where the cancer cell and the tumor mass is present and developed at different degree. While, in phase 1 there is no recognition of potential indicators or precursors of a future insurgence of the cancer cell and disease.

According to these findings, Reich could develop a powerful tool for an extremely early diagnosis of cancer and determine, much in advance of the insurgence of the future cancer cell, all the concurrent conditions that could then give rise to the formation of the classical cancer cell. He observed that the blood played a key role in the early diagnosis process as, by circulating throughout the body, it might provide precious and first-hand information about the general energy condition of the organism.

The main characteristics and peculiarities of the steps grouped in phase 1 and 2 of the cancer cell formation, and development are briefly summarized in Figure 1.

Cancer consists of two phases. The 1st phase, completely unknown to classical oncology, consists of the transformation of healthy cells into the precursors of the cancer cells. While in the 2nd phase it is characterized by death and putrid decomposition of the mature cancer cells. The early diagnosis test identifies the transformations that occur in the 1st phase characterized by the presence of particular cellular formations that Reich called cells: Ca I – Ca II – Ca III.

The identification of these precursors, which appear much before the tumor mass or the mature cancer cells, allows the making of a very early diagnosis of cancer that anticipates by many years the common tests used today by classical oncology.

Figure 1 – Summary of the Cancer Process

Ca I cell. In this first step of the cancer process the low energetic level of the organism may affect the energetic qualities and characteristics of blood and tissues. Peculiar and meaningful alterations of the basic health conditions of blood red cells and tissues can be evaluated at the optical microscope. As far as the tissues are concerned, the tendency to a rapid vesicular reaction and the presence of T-bacilli are one of the most important indicators of the impending development of the cancer cell. As far as the blood red cells are concerned they show the two following features:

  • When they are energetically charged, they are visible at the microscope as bright, bluish spheres embedded like pearls in the stroma. Figure 2 shows an example of energetically charged red blood cells of a human blood examined at the microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive).
Figure 2
  • When their energy is very low, the red blood cells shrink and form thorns like chestnuts in their husk. Figure 3 shows an example of energetically weak red blood cells of a human blood examined at the microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive). This condition takes place much earlier than the formation of the first classical cancer cell, and is the very first indication of the potential formation of the future cancer cell.
Figure 3

Ca II cell. This step is characterized by an acute inflammatory condition. The vesicular reaction of the cells continues and evolves while the T-bacilli do not change and maintain the same characteristics throughout the cancerous process. The T-bacilli continue to trigger the vesicular reaction of the cells. The Ca II step is characterized by the fact the vesicles are starting to aggregate inside the cell along the cell membrane. The aggregations lose their vesicular feature to form a new structure that develops at the expenses of the original cell. Figure 4 shows an example of regrouping of bions inside a cell from a human urinary sediment (picture from writer’s lab archive). The arrow in the figure shows the vesicles that are starting to aggregate and merging.

Figure 4

Ca III cell. This step is characterized by a variety of features. The cells can appear spindle-shaped or club-tailed, with caudate, oval or round shape. Figure 5 shows an example of Ca III cell from a human urinary sediment (picture from writer’s lab archive). They also show a large variety of sizes, and an extraordinary variety of natural colors, in contrast with samples of artificially-colored tissues. They reproduce quickly as can be observed at the microscope.

Figure 5

All the cells above described generally have a low motility and are not too dangerous. However, the Ca III diagnosis contemplates a cluster of club-shaped cells that then are going to create the first tumor mass. This is the turning point of the early diagnosis. These cells are the last stage of early diagnosis.

With the presence of the Ca III cells, the formation of the tumor mass starts which only now becomes visible and recognizable and therefore can be diagnosed by classical oncology.

Reich found that the Ca III step was the most critical in the whole process, in that:

  1. patients that have Ca III cells but do not still have materialist evidence of cancer will develop the disease in the following period (months or years)
  2. all cancer patients show in their biological samples Ca III cells
  3. Ca III cells do not belong to any of human tissue.

The cancer process continues with two other steps, Ca IV and Ca V. Actually, we can speak of very early cancer diagnosis test only for Ca I – Ca II – Ca III cells which are characteristic of phase I and present much earlier than the mature cancer cells. With the formation of the tumor mass, however, the disease enters phase II and at this stage the cancer can be easily identified and diagnosed even with the normal tests currently used by classical oncology.
What follows (phase II with the Ca IV and Ca V steps) therefore does not fall within the frame that deals with the very early diagnosis but helps to briefly complete the picture and the description of the cancer process as a whole.

Ca IV cell. The formation of cancer cells and the tumor mass marks the beginning of phase II. In this phase the cells can have a round and elongated shape or become mobile due to the formation of pseudopodia which can sometime be filamentous.

In some cases, the vesicular aggregations develop a membrane that surrounds and envelops them thus developing a protozoa. The mobile protozoa is typical of the Ca IV step. Traditional oncology has repeatedly noted this protozoa but considers it just a parasite. If the body does not die sooner, these formations would become amoebae. At this stage, the malignancy of cancer depends on the degree of maturity of the cancer cells and on the speed at which the tissue is destroyed and decomposed.

Ca V cell. The Ca V step is characterized by necrosis namely a deadly and putrid decomposition of the cells of the tissues. It is the terminal phase of the cancer disease. When very mobile, tailed cells are found the cancer is very advanced. Microscopic image of the tissue in the Ca V step shows the presence of many debris, fragments of cells, vesicles, bacteria and, to higher magnifications, the T-bacilli. The Ca V step is determined and characterized almost exclusively by dying cancer cells that reached the end of their short lifecycle. While the body is still alive the decomposition of the tissues is comparable to the after-death necrosis. It results in a bacteremia and a generalized toxemia of the body. When the cancer does not affect vital functions, the death occurs by generalized putrefaction. This explains why, at last, the disease usually worsens rapidly into death. At this stage, any therapy is unsuccessful.

T-bacilli is a name coined by Reich from the German tod that stands for death, to recall the exceptional degree of danger these micro-organisms take once present and circulating in the living organisms. Cancer research has repeatedly noticed them but has always regarded them as an infection resulting from cancer and never understood their significance. T-bacilli are not new germs. Their most important biological characteristic is to attack the energetically weaker cells and stimulate their vesicular reaction. Indeed, T-bacilli attack healthy but energetically weak cells, forcing them to disintegrate vascularly. In this way, they close the circle of the cancer process triggering the formation of new Ca I cells. The presence of T-bacilli can be detected at the microscope with the darkfield technique on whatever cell, fluid or tumoral mass is obtained. Fresh material for fixing and staining that contains a great amount of T-bacilli can be easily aspirated from the center of a tumoral mass where the tissue is more decomposed.

Samples of very advanced tumor tissue, fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under the microscope, show large areas in the center of the tumor filled with T-bacilli in the form of tiny red dots. T-bacilli are Gram-negative (red-stained), with size of 0.2-0.5 μm. In comparison, vesicles (bions) are Gram-positive and blue-stained, with sizes of few μm.

In terminally-ill patients or in culture they produce a stink typical of an organism in putrefaction. In darkfield they appear as tiny lighted dots and when alive and active they show very fast zig-zag movements. They circulate freely inside the blood flow and in such a way they can reach and hit any cell in whatever part of the body. T-bacilli cannot be obtained directly from the air. Figure 6 shows T-bacilli observed at 400x darkfield microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive).

Figure 6

Materials and Methods
Over the last 30 years a large variety of biological samples were taken by the author from different patients with no clue of the cancer disease or with the cancer already present and developed at different degree and examined at the microscope. All cancer patients followed a course of treatment as prescribed by public or private hospital oncologists. The most taken samples were urinary sediment, blood and sputum. The biological samples were subjected to an in-house microscopic examination being the most suitable technique for this test.

An optic microscope (magnification between 400x and 800x) with an incorporated camera or video camera was used. The biological sample under testing was located on a slide and tested in-vivo as soon as possible. Microscope examinations were performed by an Optika binocular optical microscope with 10x-20x-40x-100x objectives, and 15x eyepiece. A Panasonic NV-GS50 digital video camera, equipped with timer, was used in the recording of the microscope examinations.

Results and Discussion
In this section images from different biological samples examined in-house by the author at the optical microscope are reported for each stage of the cancer cell formation and development process.

Figures 7 shows a healthy reaction of the red blood cells of an energetically healthy and charged patient.

Figure 7

Pictures in Figure 8 shows a magnification of healthy red blood cells.

Figure 8

The step 1 of the cancer process (Ca I) is represented by red blood cells with thorns similar to chestnuts. The cells are characterized by a low degree of bioenergy.  The Figures 9 and 10 show red blood cells from a bio-energetically weak organism and blood.

In the 400x magnified image (Figure 10) the typical appearance of low bioenergy red blood cells characterized by thorns similar to chestnuts in their husk can be observed.

Figure 9
Figure 10

When this framework occurs, and is associated to a pronounced spiky appearance of the red blood cells, a very first diagnosis of Ca I cancer cell (step 1) can be done. For classical Oncology no cancer is present at this time because no cancer cell is detectable yet.

The following Figures 11 and 12 show Ca I cells. These are the first cells that, losing energy, start the vesicular disintegration and produce vesicles.

Figure 11
Figure 12

The following Figure 13 and 14 show the two extreme limits of the red blood cells behavior. In Figure 13 all the red blood cells are energetically-charged, while in Figure 14 they are highly energetically-weak. However, in the daily-practice a limit situation alone can be rarely detected. Most often, an intermediate picture between the two above extreme conditions, where charged and weak red blood cells coexist in different percentages, is found.

Figure 13
Figure 14

If the red blood cells can display a smooth or thorny appearance, the vesicles formed in the Ca I cells are subjected to substantial modifications. They merge and aggregate themselves as shown by the arrows in Figures 15 through 18 giving rise to the formation of Ca II cells obtained from microscopic examination of a whatever vascularly disintegrated cells or from tissues of a bioenergetically-weak organism.

Particularly, in Figure 18, a vesicular aggregation, and evolution with the destruction of the original cell, can be observed.

Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18

The step Ca III is characterized by the presence of club-shaped cells as shown in the pictures of Figure 19 taken from microscopic examination. These cells can be observed in any biological tissue. These latter were originally Ca II cells that underwent modifications, by extending themselves. At this stage it is not difficult to find splitting cells.

a b
c d
e f
Figure 19

The club-shaped cells, typical of the step Ca III, are universally present in all patients and in all solid tumors. They cannot be confused with the other cells of the organism because they do not belong to any human tissue. They are the precursors of the tumoral mass. In case the tumoral mass is not present yet at the moment of the test it will appear in the following months.

While in Orgonomy, the developments and the steps towards an oncological pathology can be diagnosed many years in advance by detecting and monitoring the presence of the Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III cells, and of the thorny red blood cells, traditional oncology, in the same conditions, is not able to do a reliable cancer diagnosis in that does not see and recognize any cancer cell (and the presence of the tumoral mass).

The step 4 (Ca IV) is characterized by the presence of ameboid, mobile cells. Figure 20 shows an example of a Ca IV mobile cell taken from sputum of a terminally-ill male patient with a lung cancer.

Figure 20

These Ca IV cells are no longer belonging to those cells of the phase 1 that allow an earlier cancer diagnosis to be done. Indeed, when they appear, the cancer process is in the phase 2 and is already well advanced. At this point cancer can be also diagnosed by the standard methods of classical oncology.

The Ca V cells represent the last step of a terminally-ill patient. In a sample of a patient at this stage all the cells of the different steps above-described can be found. Being an ongoing process, we can find Ca I cells in vesicular disintegration, bionous re-organization into Ca II cells, club-shaped Ca III cells, T-bacilli, all available in a mush or mixture that does not give much hopes to the patient.

Figure 21 shows blood cells and tissues in Ca V taken from the blood of a female dog operated on for breast cancer.

Figure 21

According to the results above reported and obtained by examining at the microscope biological samples of healthy and cancer-ill patients, we were able to ascertain that blood and cells in a bioenergetically-weak organism are morphologically different and distinguishable from those of a bioenergetically-charged organism.

Red blood cells in the blood, too, show two different reactions according to the energy level of the organism.

Bioenergetically-charged red blood cells at the microscope examination exhibit more and more large and turgid bluish vesicles inside the stroma that appear like pearls nestled around a ring. While, bioenergetically-weak red blood cells are instead much smaller, more wrinkled and thorny. As far as cells are concerned, they undergo very clear morphological modifications that reflect the level of the proper bioenergetic charge.

The first signal is the vesicular reaction of the whole cell. In this first step the cytoplasm of the weaker cells fill up of small vesicles (bions) and sometimes even of T-bacilli. Such cells, belonging to the Ca I step, represent the first indication and warning of a scarce or low energetic charge. Over time, being as these vesicles are active, they aggregate and merge themselves thus forming new conglomerates and structures that are surrounded by a membrane. Cells found in this condition are belonging to the Ca II step.

These structures further develop forming oblong cells that Reich called club-shaped cells, belonging to the Ca III step of the full process. Ca III cells are alien to the organism, they do not belong to any human tissue and anticipate the formation of the tumoral mass.

Figure 22 shows pictures of possible cells that can be found when examining at the microscope biological samples of a cancer patient.

Figure 22

The following Figure 23 represents a comparison between pictures of cells that can be found in a healthy organism and in a cancer patient.

Figure 23

The results so far obtained in more than three decades of in-house microscope examinations on a significant number of patients or pets strikingly confirmed Reich’s findings and assumptions. All the modifications observed at the microscope related to the red blood cells and the cells in urinary sediments or sputum occurred exactly as Reich described and reported in his writings. Examinations confirmed that Ca I and Ca II cells appear much in advanced of the time the tumor is detectable.

These cells are the first sign of an ongoing cancer process and can be detected even decades earlier than the actual insurgence of the tumoral mass.

Ca III cells are the precursors of the tumoral mass that in some cases is already present at the time of the test while in other cases can be found some months later.

As above mentioned, the procedure that Reich developed for an early diagnosis of cancer is valid for all solid tumors.

This evidences the fact that all tumoral cells have the same origin and, as a consequence, all kinds of known cancers are indeed one and the same disease. It has also been determined that the process is universal and occurs similarly both in female and male human organisms, independent of age, and similarly, in animals.

The author wishes to thank Roberto Maglione and Leon Southgate for their suggestions in writing the paper.


  1. Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar Straus & Giroux, New York, 1973; see also Reich W, "Cancer Cells" in Experiment XX, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol 3, N° 1, January 1951, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Usa
  2. Reich W, Bion Experiments on the Cancer Problem (dated July 1939), Orgonomic Functionalism, Usa, Volume 7, Spring 2019, page 38
  3. Reich W, Ibid, page 52


Armando Vecchietti

Vecchietti has been studying Reich’s theories since the early 1970’s, and has been doing research on cancer cell development and the Reich blood test for more than 40 years. He is performing routinely Reich blood test for the early diagnosis of cancer in his private practice. Vecchietti presented the results of his investigations in many Conferences both in Italy and abroad, and wrote many papers on the above subjects. He holds a degree in biology taken at the University of Camerino, Italy, in 1977.

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The Living Body: Wilhelm Reich’s Influence on Contemporary Psychotherapies


In pursuing the development of psychosomatic medicine and an energetic model of health which respected the importance of psyche and soma equally, Wilhelm Reich created the foundation for what ultimately came to be known as the fields of Body Psychotherapy, Somatic Psychology and others.

Building upon the conference we presented in the summer of 2021, Wilhelm Reich and Psychoanalysis, the goal of this conference is to map the field of body-centered therapy today. Speakers from the Americas, Europe and Australia, representing Reich’s Orgone Therapy as well as a variety of schools which are heirs to Reich such as Radix, Bioenergetics, Biodynamic Therapy, Biosynthesis, Gestalt, Navarro, Core Energetics and other modalities based in important ways on his approach, will present and describe their respective theories, training processes and therapeutic methods.

Historians will present an overview of Reich’s evolution from psychoanalysis to character analysis, to the more body-centered character analytic vegetotherapy, and beyond.

By exploring this field through the common denominator, the theories and techniques developed by Wilhelm Reich, we hope to generate interaction and exchanges and highlight the similarities, differences and relationships between traditions.

With so many schools of therapy represented, there are bound to be some differences of opinion about theory and practice. By bringing them together, we hope to give participants a comprehensive overview of the field and build bridges between individuals and groups who have much in common and might benefit from direct, respectful interaction with one another.

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