Tag Archive | "James E. Strick"

Mary Boyd Higgins 13 October 1925 – 8 January 2019

Mary Boyd Higgins 13 October 1925 – 8 January 2019

Mary Boyd Higgins was born on 13 October 1925 into a well-to-do family in Indianapolis, Indiana.  Educated at Vassar College, she graduated in May 1946 with a degree in Theater (Dramatic Production).  In January 1947 she moved to New York City and became involved in the theater scene, with a goal of becoming an actress.  She also lived in Paris for a year, 1950-1951, and upon her return continued piano studies with a teacher in New York City.  Her piano teacher first gave her Wilhelm Reich’s The Function of the Orgasm to read, a book she felt "made a lot of sense."  Later when in some personal difficulties she called the Orgone Energy Clinic in NYC and began therapy, 1953-1956, with Dr. Chester Raphael.

After Reich’s death, his daughter Eva became the Trustee of his estate; however, after a year she stated she no longer wanted the job.  For several weeks no one stepped forward, causing a perilous legal limbo for the fledgling Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust created in Reich’s Will.  Ms. Higgins had never met Reich in person, though she had attended his 1956 trial in Portland, Maine.  But because she deeply felt the injustice of how Reich was treated, she volunteered for the job as Trustee.  Dr. Raphael at first opposed this, thinking it was far too great a responsibility.  But Higgins persisted as no one else offered, and eventually it was decided she should try it.  In later years she said, "I had no idea how huge a task I was getting into.  It’s so much more than a full-time job."  After meeting with Eva Reich, who legally transferred the role, Higgins became Trustee in March 1959—a job she continued to execute faithfully for almost 60 years.  She also said in later years, "You can see how bad things were at that point, when no one who knew Reich wanted or was willing to take this job.  So that in the end it was taken up by a total stranger."

The Trust faced many legal challenges under Higgins’ leadership.  The first was that Reich’s entire archives had been stolen by Aurora Karrer, a woman Reich was romantically involved with leading up to the time of his imprisonment and death.  Karrer flatly denied having anything that belonged to Reich; two lengthy legal battles were required to force her to return the vast majority of the material—though some items, most notably Reich’s diaries from 1922-1934, remain missing.

The FDA’s Injunction against Reich was breathtakingly sweeping in legally sanctioning the destruction of orgone energy accumulators and the burning of Reich’s soft cover scientific journals.  It did not, however, sanction the burning of Reich’s hardcover books, instead only demanding they be withdrawn from circulation until "all reference to orgone energy was deleted."  Nonetheless, when FDA officials arrived at the Orgone Institute Press warehouse in New York City in August 1956, they insisted that Reich’s employees also load the hardcover books onto a truck and throw them into the fire at the Gansevoort Street Incinerator Plant.  Tragically, Reich’s employees did not push back on this egregious violation of an Injunction whose provisions were already draconian enough.

In 1960, FDA officials discovered another New York City warehouse still contained some of the journals slated for destruction and the banned books, and they alerted Higgins of their plan to destroy these materials also.  Knowing of the previous episode, she met them at the warehouse with her lawyer.  When the FDA agents again tried to take the hardcover books along with the journals, the 34-year old Higgins said "Put those back, they don’t belong to you."  They meekly complied.  So often, all it takes for evil to happen is for good people to stand by and say nothing.

Ms. Higgins repeatedly credited several figures as crucial in helping the Trust in its early years.  One was Tom Ross, Reich’s longtime caretaker at Orgonon, from whom Higgins says she learned an enormous amount about Reich’s way of working and thinking.  More than that, Higgins credited the human warmth, hospitality and support Ross and his wife Bea offered her.  Lawyer Leonard Kolleeny served as the Trust’s legal counsel, almost entirely pro bono, for decades.  New York publisher Roger Straus knew little about Reich’s work but committed to help Higgins bring his works back into print, beginning in 1960, because of his hatred of censorship.  Dr. Chester Raphael offered her a lot of help as well, especially in editing Reich’s works for publication and in opening the Wilhelm Reich Museum—in the former Orgone Energy Observatory building.  Richard Wolfe, Rare Books Librarian at Harvard’s Countway Library of Medicine, also helped Higgins arrange the safe preservation of Reich’s archives there, beginning in 1973.  While Straus and Kolleeny knew little or nothing about Reich’s work, each was struck and inspired by the force of Higgins’ personality and the depth of her commitment to protecting Reich’s legacy, according to the instructions left in his Will.

Over the sixty years since becoming Trustee, Higgins worked long and hard to learn copyright law, museum design, and a hundred other areas of expertise.  Among her many accomplishments are:

  • Opening and maintaining the Wilhelm Reich Museum and maintaining the property at Orgonon.
  • Creating a complete catalog for Reich’s Archives—many thousands of items—and assuring their safe preservation.
  • Bringing back into print and keeping in print all of Reich’s previously destroyed and banned books.  Without her labors and the help of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, many of us might never have been able to read Reich’s work.
  • Publishing previously unpublished manuscripts from archives, and English translations of German-language works that Reich had prepared for publication but never completed (e.g. The Invasion of Compulsory Sex-Morality, The Bion Experiments, The Bioelectrical Investigation of Sexuality and Anxiety, Early Writings, v. 1, Genitality). Additionally, protecting Reich’s works from plagiarism, attempts at pirating his books, etc.
  • Creating a new journal, Orgonomic Functionalism, as the venue for publishing archival manuscripts.  In addition, organizing publication of The Reich-A.S. Neill correspondence (Record of a Friendship) and four volumes of selections from Reich’s diaries and letters: Passion of Youth, Beyond Psychology, American Odyssey, and Where’s the Truth?
  • Arranging and supervising new foreign translations of Reich’s works into more than 20 languages.
  • Initiating in August 1980 annual summer conferences devoted to different aspects of Reich’s work.  These went on continuously through 2007, then occasionally between 2008-2014.  The conferences have picked up again on an annual basis since 2015.
  • Assisting the Kickstarter campaign that launched the new documentary film by Kevin Hinchey and Glenn Orkin, "Love, Work and Knowledge: The Life and Trials of Wilhelm Reich."

When asked once if she recalled anything in her upbringing or education that might have prepared her to be such a fierce defender of Reich’s legacy—indeed to devote most of her life to that effort—Higgins replied: "Growing up, I was very aware and was always haunted about what happens to unusual, creative people, how generally they are destroyed….I sensed it personally and I read a lot of books about unusual people.  That’s something I understood very early and to this day understand.  And that played a role in my horror of what was going on with Reich, and my feeling for this country.  I was horrified by what was going on.

"And I think I brought something else to it.  I certainly didn’t bring any knowledge of science.  In fact I had avoided science…it didn’t interest me at all.  It really wasn’t until I began to study Reich that I began to realize that science and art, the humanities…were joined.  But I was capable of standing on my own.  I didn’t need a lot of people to approve of me.  And I think that has served me very well….These things don’t look like anything if you were to put them on a curriculum vita—I have nothing on my curriculum vita that would mean anything….But I have these human experiences which have enabled me to do the best I can with it.  And I think everyone, whether they know it or not, functions on that basis."

At the beginning of the New Year Mary Boyd Higgins suffered a stroke and died peacefully a few days later in the company of a dear friend on 8 January 2019.  This unique and remarkable woman will be greatly missed.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be sent to the Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust, Orgonon, PO Box 687, Rangeley, ME 04970.

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Wilhelm Reich, Biologist.

Harvard University press recently released a catalogue copy of a new book written by James Strick, PhD on Reich&#39s bion experiments. The title of the book is Wilhelm Reich, biologist. This book is written on Reich&#39s bion experiments soon to be published by Harvard University press. The catalogue states:

Wilhelm Reich, Biologist
James E. Strick

Wilhelm Reich (1897-1957) gained fame and notoriety in the course of an unusually adventurous career. Psychoanalyst, political theorist, pioneer of body therapies, prophet of the sexual revolution—all fitting titles, but Reich has never been recognized as a serious laboratory scientist, despite his experimentation with bioelectricity and unicellular organisms. Wilhelm Reich, Biologist is an eye-opening reappraisal of one of twentieth-century science&#39s most controversial figures. Refuting allegations of "pseudoscience" that have long dogged Reich&#39s research, James Strick argues that Reich&#39s lab experiments in the mid-1930s represented the cutting-edge of light microscopy and time-lapse micro-cinematography and deserve to be taken seriously as legitimate scientific contributions. Strick also sets Reich's work in the context of other 1930&#39s work on origin of life, such as Herrera, Oparin and others, including the influence of dialectical materialism.

Trained in medicine and a student of Sigmund Freud, Reich took to the laboratory in 1934 to determine if Freud&#39s concept of libido was a quantitatively measureable substance. His electrophysiological experiments confirmed Reich's concept of biological pulsation and his tension-charge formula. This work became the conceptual basis for experiments in which Reich discovered microscopic vesicles (he called these "bions"), which Reich hypothesized were transitional stages in originating life from nonliving matter. Studying Reich&#39 laboratory notes from recently opened archives, Strick offers a detailed account of the bion experiments, tracing how Reich eventually concluded he had discovered an unknown type of biological radiation he called "orgone." The bion experiments were foundational to Reich&#39s theory of cancer and later investigations of orgone energy.

Reich&#39s experimental findings and interpretations were considered discredited, but not because of shoddy lab technique, as has often been claimed. Scientific opposition to Reich&#39s experiments, Strick argues, was based largely on resistance to Reich&#39s unorthodox sexual theories and his Marxist political leanings.

This is an important book in introducing Dr. Reich&#39s biological experiments on living organisms. Mainstream biology and science never has given fair chance to replicating the experiments and never in an unbiased way considered his conclusions. In fact in the book The Function of the Orgasm, Reich quotes one of his close scientist helpers and colleagues, du Teil, stating "Scientific objectivity is not of this world. Indeed its existence is all together doubtful". In the same book Reich regarding to his own method of thought states, "A general hypothesis was derived from a series of clinical observations. There were gaps in it here and there; it was open to objections which appeared justified. One&#39s opponents seldom fail to ferret out such gaps and on the basis of them, to reject the hypothesis as a whole." Dr. Strick, himself a biologist and science historian, discusses Reich&#39s experiments and points out biased approaches to his scientific work by contemporary scientists.

James E. Strick
James E. Strick

Dr. Reich, in Function of Orgasm, states that his work as a psychiatrist and his research on human psychic function led him to series of discoveries that are all connected with each other. In the process of furthering and expanding Freud&#39s sexual theory—the libido theory, the theory of energy—Reich entered into the realm of biology. For those who are familiar with his theories and have worked on the clinical aspects of his psychiatric approach, the accuracy of his theories of human psychological structure is unquestionable and every treatment case is a testament to correctness of his theoretical understanding of the human psyche. Each and every scientific verification of his findings is another proof in the chain of experiments that demonstrates the correctness of his human psychological and physical functioning based on the concept of energy. Dr. Reich as a psychiatrist recognized the significance of human sexuality and the role of the function of the orgasm as a basic and central function. A function that is based on the principle of pulsation, charge and discharge of energy, constitutes a central importance in the organism. These discoveries led him into realm of biology and biophysics and his discoveries after that is related to his psychiatric theories. Dr. Reich in the book The Function of Orgasm states, "To most people it is a riddle that I can be active simultaneously in disciplines as different as depth psychology, sociology, physiology and now even biology"…. Then he continues "The subject of sexuality virtually cuts through all scientific fields of research. In its central phenomena, the sexual orgasm, we meet the questions driving from the fields of psychology as well as from the physiology from the field of biology no less than from the sociology. Natural science offers hardly another field of research that is so well equipped to exhibit the fundamental unity of everything that lives and guards against narrow, fragmentation specializations."

Dr. Reich in pursuing and furthering the libido theory of Freud recognized and discovered the pulsating nature of the life energy in every living organism and called it orgone energy. In The Function of Orgasm, Dr. Reich says, "In an unusual way the knowledge of the biological tension- charge function led me to the discovery of energy process in bions, in the human organism, and in the radiation of the sun."

"The bions are microscopic vesicles charged with orgone energy; they are developed from inorganic matter through heating and swelling. They propagate like bacteria. They also develop spontaneously in the earth or as in cancer, from decayed organic matter. My book, Die Bione, 1938 shows the importance of the tension-charge formula for the experimental investigation of the natural organization of living substance from nonliving matter."

As mentioned earlier, Reich&#39s theories of human psychic structure, its function, its development, and the discovery of bions and orgone energy are interrelated, constituting a chain of knowledge, each link reinforcing the entire field of Orgonomy.

The atrocities, violence, abuse, torture and murder; the disregard for all life, that we are witnessing today, and to which history has attested for millennia are all a consequence of the distortion of the human psyche stemming from a disturbance in the natural flow of energy with the natural charge and discharge function that a healthy organism is ordained to have. This disturbance is caused by the armoring of the human psyche. As students of Reich, it is our belief that as long as the psyche is distorted by armoring, no permanent peace will be achievable and will thus remain only a dream.

We congratulate Dr. Strick in his success; every discussion, introduction and publication focusing on Reich&#39s work is significant to the human race in every aspect of life.

Pre-order this book though Amazon: Wilhelm Reich, Biologist – Hardcover – April 1, 2015

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Be part of the progress. Help to preserve and promote Wilhelm Reich’s legacy and his infant trust fund, the best and only hope for peace, health and prosperity of human race. Make financial contributions to promote orgonomy and its institutions. All contributions are tax deductible.

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The Living Body: Wilhelm Reich’s Influence on Contemporary Psychotherapies


In pursuing the development of psychosomatic medicine and an energetic model of health which respected the importance of psyche and soma equally, Wilhelm Reich created the foundation for what ultimately came to be known as the fields of Body Psychotherapy, Somatic Psychology and others.

Building upon the conference we presented in the summer of 2021, Wilhelm Reich and Psychoanalysis, the goal of this conference is to map the field of body-centered therapy today. Speakers from the Americas, Europe and Australia, representing Reich’s Orgone Therapy as well as a variety of schools which are heirs to Reich such as Radix, Bioenergetics, Biodynamic Therapy, Biosynthesis, Gestalt, Navarro, Core Energetics and other modalities based in important ways on his approach, will present and describe their respective theories, training processes and therapeutic methods.

Historians will present an overview of Reich’s evolution from psychoanalysis to character analysis, to the more body-centered character analytic vegetotherapy, and beyond.

By exploring this field through the common denominator, the theories and techniques developed by Wilhelm Reich, we hope to generate interaction and exchanges and highlight the similarities, differences and relationships between traditions.

With so many schools of therapy represented, there are bound to be some differences of opinion about theory and practice. By bringing them together, we hope to give participants a comprehensive overview of the field and build bridges between individuals and groups who have much in common and might benefit from direct, respectful interaction with one another.

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Wilhelm Reich – Founder of Orgone Therapy

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