Tag Archive | "Orgonon Radioactivity"



After the conclusion of the Oranur Experiment(2) Reich stored the three needles of radium (one milligram/mg each)(3) , used in the testing, within heavy lead shielding, in a place about three-quarters of a mile from the Observatory at Orgonon. However, about a year afterwards, on March 31st, 1952, due to a recurrence of the Oranur reaction in the Orgonon area, he decided to remove the radioactive sources and to bury them in a gravel pit. This was located in a field a hundred feet away from the road from Oquossoc to Rumford, Maine, eleven miles from Orgonon(4). On April 22nd and 23rd, 1952, Reich carried out measurements of the radioactivity over a large area in order to determine the borderlines of the Oranur field and of the high atmospheric activity which occurred after the removal of the radioactive sources from Orgonon. Figure 1 depicts graphically the results of a 230-mile round trip which Reich made on this occasion. In the figure the point where the 3 mg of radium were buried, RA, is also shown.

Figure 1 – Radioactivity measurements around Orgonon, April 22-23, 1952

From the above figure an area of about 50 miles in diameter, which was characterized by high values of radioactivity, can be seen. The radioactivity in this area varied from 400 up to 800 CPM (Counts Per Minute on a Geiger radiation counter). It was observed that the counts decreased down to normal with the distance from Orgonon towards the South. However, Orgonon did not register the highest values even though it was the site where the Oranur Experiment was carried out.

This was a clear sign that the Oranur reaction was proceeding again at Orgonon with an even higher strength than that observed at the beginning in 1951, when the Oranur Experiment was first being carried out. The value of radioactivity measured at the time of the experiment, in January, 1951, was around 100 CPM, on average, while now Reich found values as high as 6-8 times above that. Possibly, this recurring event was due to the instability of the nuclear source after it was subjected to the Oranur reaction in 1951, even though the nuclear material was shielded and buried in a safe place far from Orgonon. Maybe, concurrent events could have triggered such a high reaction, such as the Oranurization of all the materials used to build the orgone devices available at Orgonon, which kept the Oranur charge dormant for all that time. Or maybe DOR-clouds, coming from West(5), could have stimulated or increased this dormant activity which required only a push in order to start again.

The 3 mg of radium needles remained buried in the ground for more than two years, and no one, for all that time, went to recover them.

On September 1954 Reich was about to leave Orgonon for Tucson, Arizona, with the aim of studying the causes that led to the formation and development of deserts. In that period he worked out a theory of desert formation based on the persisting and very prolonged, chronic infestation of DOR(6) in the environment, and in the atmosphere. He decided, before leaving, to test the nuclear material that was buried in the field close to Route 17 to Rumford. On September 21st, 1954, the box containing the 3 mg of radium was unearthed and brought back to the observatory at Orgonon. An immediate background count of the general area was made with the SU-5 survey Geiger meter. A value of 150 CPM was obtained. Reich then tested the nuclear material with the unshielded counter tube of the survey meter, held one meter away from the box containing the radium: the count was 800-900 CPM. With the tube laid on the top of the box, it was 8,000-9,000 CPM. One 1 mg radium needle was then tested with the larger and more sensitive Geiger-Muller 2.3 mg/cm2 counter tube and the 4096 Tracerlab Auto-scaler(7). With the needle naked at a distance of 1 cm the count was 2,457.6 CPM (against its original rate of 16,000 CPM in 1951)(8). With the radium needle reinserted into the lead case that it had been enclosed in, and the counter tube held at a distance of 1 cm from the case, the count was 163,840 CPM (against its original rate of 7,000 CPM in 1951).

Reich realized the radium 1 and 2 needles (those directly used in the Oranur experiment) had lost much of their former activity of 1951. Even the counts of the third needle, which had not been treated with concentrated orgone energy, was much lower than its own original rate of 16,000 CPM (naked at 1 cm distance from the counter tube). Reich also observed that the activities of the radium needles, without shielding, varied greatly all through, ever since 1954, according to place, climate, and transportation.

Reich ascribed the fact that the counts at the Geiger-Muller counter were higher, when the needle of radium was located inside its lead tube, to the reaction of the orgone energy in the atmosphere to the radioactivity emitted by the nuclear material(9):

“FIRST: the naked NR material gave a much lower count (one tenth) than the same material enclosed in heavy lead shielding.

SECOND: The ten times higher count in the atmosphere around the shielded NR material is a function of the OR energy fighting against NR.

THIRD: As soon as the interaction between OR and NR is stopped, the high OR activity vanishes and sinks down to the normal atmospheric level.

FOURTH: OR energy alone does not react severely unless irritated by NR.”

The overall results, obtained from the measurements in 1954, were then compared with those recorded after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment, made on April 28th, 1951. He found substantial differences in the radioactivity emitted by the three needles of radium. Indeed, from the two series of measurements Reich found basically new phenomena, mainly characterized by a very strong activity of the nuclear material when it was located within its heavy lead shielding; while the radioactivity when naked was much less than that in 1951.

The following table 1 shows the data recorded after the measurements which were carried out on radium needles 1 and 2 in April 1951, a few months after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment(10).

Table 1

The following Table 2 shows the results of the second set of measurements made on September 26th, 1954, on the three mg of radium, after bringing them back to Orgonon from the location where they were left buried for around two and a half years(11).

Table 2

As can be seen from Tables 1 and 2 above, a substantial difference does exist between the radioactivity emitted by the needles of radium when measured naked in April 1951 (a few months after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment), and in September 1954 (after many months of burial in the ground). If we make an average of the values measured in 1951 by the GM 4096 Auto-scaler on the naked samples (at 1 cm distance) we obtain a value of 64,239 CPM; while by the same GM counter in 1954 we have 702 CPM. A very drastic reduction of the radioactivity can be observed from the two sets of measures. If we take the measures made by considering the same GM counter, but using a different scale of 256, we can again observe a drastic decrease of the values, even though less marked; and particularly we have in 1951 a value of 38,400 CPM, and in 1954 an average value of 1,212 CPM. The same phenomenon, seen with the naked samples, was observed also for the shielded samples (measured at 1 cm distance) that were characterized by an average value of 291,840 CPM in 1951, and of 97,143 CPM in 1954(12).

The following Table 3 shows the above calculated values, as well as the ratio between the radioactivity measured with the GM 4096 Auto-scaler on the radium needles inside the lead container and the naked one. The original values of the untreated samples, before starting the Oranur experiment, are also shown.

Table 3

As can be observed from the values reported in Table 3, apart from the significant decrease of the radioactivity of the radium needles (both naked and shielded) from 1951 to 1954, the value of the ratio provides a further indication of the change in the behaviour of the radioactive material after around three years of burial in the ground subsequent to the Oranur Experiment. A substantial increase of this value can be noted against the time, which highlights the much higher reaction of the radium needle in 1954, when inserted in its leaden container and when compared to the naked value. The increase of the radioactivity of the shielded radium compared to that of the unshielded (naked) needle was about 4.5 times in 1951, while it was around 138 times in 1954. The above ratios can then be compared to the ratio of the original and untreated samples, before they were used in the Oranur experiment, where a much lower value of 0.44 was obtained. It seems from the above data and trend that the exposure of the radium needles to high concentrations of orgone energy might have reversed their natural behavior, making them very sensitive and reactive when in contact or proximity with metallic materials. Besides, a decrease of the natural radioactivity can also be observed.

In addition to the variation of the radioactive behaviour as above reported, the three mg of radium, after being removed from the ground, revealed further extremely powerful qualities. Reich observed that, if one of the radium needles, which he called Oranur radium or Orur, was used for only a few seconds, from two to five, in combination with a cloudbuster, it might clear the sky of DOR (Deadly Orgone). The DOR that was hovering low and dark over the landscape, especially in the valleys at Rangeley, seemed to be eliminated and the atmosphere turned blue-gray from horizon to horizon. If used from 20 to 60 seconds, depending on the weather, clouds began to form almost instantly, and rain fell a few hours later. The reaction of the atmosphere seemed to be more effective when the radium needle was moved in and out of the lead container. At first, the Orur was used apart from the cloudbuster, but later its use was combined with the device making it an integral part. The combination of the Orur and the cloudbuster gave rise to a new apparatus that was called a spacegun (figure 2)(13).

Figure 2

This new type of arrangement dramatically improved the performances of the cloudbuster, which was conceived and developed by Reich a few years earlier to eliminate the DOR clouds from the atmosphere, and restore the atmospheric pulsation at Orgonon(14). By using the newly-developed spacegun an immediate change in the atmosphere could be observed, even in very difficult situations such as the presence of dirty-steel gray DOR clouds which seemed to fill up and become white and bluish-gray in a brilliant, sparkling, formerly dull, stale, black, and nauseating atmosphere. This was a change that normally might take hours or even days to occur when using the cloudbuster alone.
Reich soon realized, from the many tests he did with the spacegun (which were above all aimed at breaking the DOR clouds and restoring the atmospheric pulsation), that the DOR could be much more easily removed when the Orur, brought close to the pipes of the apparatus, was kept inside its lead container. By doing this, an increase of the potential from 40,000 to 60,000 CPM could be artificially created in the cloudbuster, and this might substantially increase the performances and shorten the duration of the interventions by the apparatus. With the cloudbuster alone very low values of radioactivity could instead be obtained, thus requiring much more prolonged operations(15).

In one episode Sobey, along with Baker, visited Reich at Little Orgonon, Tucson, during his Orop Desert expedition. Reich showed them the Orur. According to Sobey, the Orur was kept in a pail or a can, on a long rope. Reich made it to swing around his head using the rope near the cloudbuster’s pipes. Sobey reported that it looked like magic, but it worked in that the effect on the atmosphere was enhanced. There was nothing about putting the Orur in the base of the cloudbuster.

Reich commented on the dramatic improvement in the performances of the interventions by using the spacegun, equipped with the shielded Orur, as follows(16):

Principle: irritated OR causes Expansion. Sky clears, blue within minutes.
This was a tremendous step forward. Heretofore, the clearing of the atmosphere had been done by drawing off the DOR clouds into a lake. Now, within a few seconds, the sky cleared and became blue in zenith and far around the horizon upon
Orurization. The name ORUR was later coined to distinguish this operation from Oranur. In the latter, original nuclear material (NU) irritated concentrated atmospheric OR energy, making it run amok or change to DOR. Now, on the other hand, NU, rendered harmless by Oranur and weakened in radioactivity, was changed to OR behavior in the opposite direction from Oranur, as ORUR. It was low energetically when not within lead or metal of other kind. However, as soon as it was put into lead the counts climbed instantly outside the lead container up to dozens of feet to 40,000 or even 100,0000 CPM measured with the SU-5 Survey meter. This was news, indeed: The atmosphere could be charged, “Orurized,” directly by ORUR.
I repeat: The Oranur material gave naked no, or only a negligible, GM reaction. The lead container, too, gave no reaction. But the moment the two were brought together as far away as from two to three feet, the GM counter (SU-5) soared to 40,000-100,000 CPM.”

Recently, Southgate replicated Reich’s experiment with the spacegun by using an apparatus similar to the one Reich used(17). It consisted of a rack of short, hollow steel alloy pipes that were at first placed next to a closed, oranurised, orgone accumulator at an inclination of 45° or 90°, and later on placed next to the open cabinet, and then finally within the open cabinet itself. Four to eight pipes were used. The pipes were heavy types such as used in scaffolding. A small amount of radioactive source, within an ionising smoke alarm, had previously been placed near the device in a prior experiment, the device then remained oranurised. In terms of radioactivity, the alarm used in the prior experiment contained 0.9 microCurie of americium which corresponds to an amount of 0.26 microgram of americium material. This amount was at approximately 1000th of Reich’s set up in the Oranur experiment. The experimental radioactive source had been used by Southgate in a controlled Oranur experiment some months beforehand. However the mild, controlled Oranur reaction of the cabinet appeared to be steady and ongoing. Perhaps because the large accumulator had been subjected to a mild Oranur field for some months it might have developed some small Orur qualities.

Southgate observed that the prototype device he developed seemed to create an energetic interaction between itself and the sky which appeared to result in an increase in the liveliness and sparkle, the apparent health, of the local environment. Monotonous ceilings of oppressive formless cloud-cover tended to dissipate and to be replaced by livelier, formed, more natural looking clouds. Vision in the environment seemed to improve as though a clarity dial had been turned up. In other occasions, clouds cleared and a bright, crystal clear, azure sky became apparent. Southgate also noted the device seemed to work much more slowly than that of Reich’s. A period from an hour to few hours of operating appeared to approximate to operating Reich’s spacegun for about 1-3 seconds. Occasionally, the device was run for a number of days. According to Southgate, the Oranur cabinet, although not containing a fully-developed Orur material, approximated a much weaker, ‘energy field’ version of the effects of the Orur material used by Reich. The use of the device seemed to have coincided with the changing of weather. On a number of occasions continual rain was forecast by the weather services which changed to brighter, sunnier weather. Sometimes rain occurred during the operation but generally it was of short duration and followed by finer weather. The increased clarity and liveliness seemed to continue for some time afterwards. The effect was sometimes slow to appear (a number of hours) but the number of occasions it has been noted seemed beyond coincidence to Southgate. On occasion the pipes had been unwittingly touched by hand (usually thick gloves were worn). When this happened a tingling sensation occurred for some time afterwards in the whole arm(18). No other untoward effects had been noted. On one time a ‘burn’ was noticed on a hand when a glove tore but it was not painful and went after some days(19). Around two dozen operations had been conducted in the North West of England near Liverpool, so far over the last two years approximately, with the large Oranur set up. All appeared to have had an effect on the locale. Most operations were in Summer and Autumn. It appeared the set up might work slower again in winter but not enough operations had been done at this time to yet tell(20).

Parallel to the aforementioned behaviour, Reich and his collaborators also observed other extremely important effects of the use of the Orur. They felt a striking improvement in their biological sensations, characterized by a general feeling of a deep well-being. Besides, they witnessed also a reverse of the color of the leaves of the trees in the surrounding area of the interventions by the spacegun, from brown and yellow, to green; or the greening of the desert land near Tucson, after some time of using the spacegun:

“WR [Wilhelm Reich] had the box of NR [Orur] placed touching the cables of the Cloudbuster. Immediately following this, a general feeling of well-being was marked in two persons. There was a sudden brightening of the rocks and vegetation; distant mountains which had been black, suddenly became blue; the sky cleared and the west wind started. WR remarked that his organism seemed to be filling up. RMC [Robert McCullogh] noticed that his hands were filling out to their former fullness. Deep full breathing could again be enjoyed. WR’s dog Troll showed no aversion to the box of NR.”(21)


“The morning of September 31st was striking. We had cleared the sky. An extreme, fast-forming humidity deposited heavy moisture on the window panes, on cars, on rocks and on meadows. The temperature and climate felt subtropic. Brown and yellow leaves were turning green as we looked at them, observed by McCullough, Tom Ross, an old woodsman, and myself, raised on a farm. All weather reports were upset that day.”(22)


“We would then draw from that spot and orurize the atmosphere toward that region of the sky; the atmospheric situation improved within a few minutes for human, animal and vegetation alike … To put forth another example: When the DOR removal operations in the Tucson region were finally successful, prairie grass began growing again; …”(23)(Italics are mine, RM)

Reich soon realized the power of the Orur was tremendous. He was puzzled by the way the Orur behaved when it was put into a heavy lead shielding, with the characteristic high increase of counts. He argued that when the Orur was naked, without metal shielding, it was peaceful, inactive, with a behavior corresponding to a foggy type of existence. When put into a lead container, its field was apparently restricted, confined, and so it changed from a fog-like to a pointed form of existence. Reich thought that this variation was responsible for the high Geiger-Muller action characterized by counts as high as 100,000 CPM. According to Reich, it was the restriction of its peaceful activity which caused its warlike behavior. Reich compared the behavior of the Orur to that of a wild animal. A peacefully-living wild animal, if forcefully restricted, would suddenly act in exactly the same way; or rather the orgone energy within the animal would act the same way as the Orur within a lead tube.
According to Reich all biological motions, inner as well as locomotion, appeared to be the reaction of the orgone energy to the restriction of its free motility, making its behavior change from the fog-like to the pointed state of existence. Reich observed that this latter state was characterized by some typical phenomena. One of these was fever. In general, to Reich, fever or high temperature indicated a severe reaction expressed in a rise of body temperature to certain kinds of irritation of a non-material, non-bacterial disturbance in energy equilibrium. Since for Reich the basic energy functions in the organism were the same as in the atmosphere, he transferred and applied the same concepts and conclusions from one realm to the other. In this way, a change from the foggy to the pointed form of existence, obtained by exciting the orgone energy in the atmosphere, might give rise to an increase of temperature as well. However, Reich observed that under certain circumstances even a motor force of a mechanical nature might alternatively develop. Nevertheless, the circumstances under which such a change might produce either a higher temperature or a motor force were unknown. Overall, the heat variant might be considered an alternative to the motor variant, each one produced by a specific set of circumstances(24):

If the OR energy in its pointed, excited form finds no objects to move mechanically it will cause high temperature of gases or solid substances by inner friction. …. The clicks at the Geiger counter are doubtless expression of single OR energy points charging a vacuum, a grid of an electronic tube or moving the membrane of a mechanical sound amplifier.”

The pointed state of existence of the atmospheric orgone energy was the consequence of its excitation to some factors in the nearby environment. And such excitation might be also detected at the GM counter with higher counts. Reich thought that factors such as the spreading of atomic radiations during an atomic explosion; or also DOR rising from the atmospheric energy when its envelope was dying, might be considered factors that could lead to an excitation of the orgone energy in the atmosphere(25).

When an atomic bomb explodes, a huge amount of nuclear material (NU) suddenly irritates in concentrated form an unprepared, unconcentrated atmospheric Life Energy. On the other hand, when Oranur is operating a very small amount is irritating a highly concentrated Life Energy.
In the first case the OR energy falls victim to prostration and decay. In the second case, the OR energy reacts after a brief period of consternation or paralysis with a fierce motor force.”

Based on the above considerations, the high background counts beyond a narrow area around the point of an atomic explosion were thus quite understandable. However, in the case of an Oranur reaction, produced by a small amount of a nuclear material with low counts in an orgone-rich atmosphere, many hundred thousand counts per minute could be instead detected in the surrounding atmosphere. Orurization of the atmosphere by using the spacegun presented only a variant of the latter case. When the atmosphere was orurized, by putting a small amount of Oranur nuclear material into one of the spacegun tubes, or by swinging such material to and fro near the spacegun’s metal base or pipes, the atmosphere reacted fiercely as in Oranur conditions. Orurization of the atmosphere could clean out any DOR clouds that might be present, and DOR might disappear completely independently of whether the DOR energy was reconverted into orgone energy, or changed into water vapour, absorbed into the ground, or into a well.

A phenomenon related to the reconversion of DOR to orgone energy was observed by Reich around the end of his work in the Arizona desert. On March 15th, 1955, in the free atmosphere, the GM counter gave values higher than 100,000 CPM. He wondered what could cause the 100,000 +++ counts. He thought that it was quite logical to assume that the surface of the globe developed, in agreement with the identical process in living beings, a shell or an armour between the ground and the ceiling DOR. This armour, after weeks of work with the cloudbuster first, and then with the spacegun, was cracking up, and the high counts at the GM counter represented the energy discharge and sudden release of this highly pent up energy. According to Reich, orgone energy in discharge was always motoric and in the state of pointed existence, thus creating high counts at the Geiger-Muller counter. As soon as the rain started, the counts came down from 100,000 to 15,000 CPM. When the rain stopped again, the counts went up again to more than 100,000 CPM.

According to the above considerations and analysis, Reich laid down a very basic rule concerning the orgone motor functioning by relating the pointed state of existence of the orgone energy to its radioactivity reaction to the excitation(26):

“The luminating points (see “Oranur Experiment, First Report,” p. 195 and Fig. 8, p. 42 above) are mechanical discharges and thus constitute the source of a motor force. The action of the OR motor belongs here: An even sequence of impulses, registered on the GM counter, at a rate of at least 3,000 per minute, sets a motor into motion (see “Orgone Energy Bulletin,” 1948).”

In addition to the above considerations, regarding a possible use of orgone energy as a motor force, Reich also realized that the same change in the state of existence of the orgone energy, from a foggy-like to a pointed state, would have had practical applications also in weather engineering, as he had already experienced by using the spacegun in the Tucson region(27):

“1. Increasing the energy potential in the atmosphere by way of ORUR was now available in addition to the old technique of lowering the potential at will by way of drawing off energy with the Cloudbuster.
2. “Decrease” and “Increase” of potential could be interpreted in terms of functional physics simply as a change in the form of the atmospheric energy from the foglike (unexcited, low) to the pointed (excited, high) state of existence and vice versa, Only the “pointed” state of OR [orgone energy] registers on the GM counter.
3. There was little doubt left: One could now reach far into space with ORUR: the range was limitless theoretically, since the orgone energy ocean is endless and most sensitive to stimuli as demonstrated by the processes of dawn, dusk, and our actual operations over vast stretches of space.

4. The change from the “cloudy” to the “pointed” state of existence, or activation of OR was now possible by simply impeding its freedom of “lazy” motion or by direct irritation such as friction, sparking secondary coil systems, nuclear material, heat, etc.”

One of the problems Reich had to face with the discovery of the Orur was how to transport it. He realized that the usual commercial means of transportation could not be safely used, since there was no protection whatsoever against the Orur. It was safer when naked, as it reacted fiercely when shielded or brought near metals. The problems arose when Reich decided to use two of the three Orur needles to study the genesis of desertification during the expedition to Tucson. This meant that he had to transport the Orur material from Orgonon to Tucson, and the only way to transport it was by towing it 50 or 100 feet behind a plane. A special container of wood, looking somewhat like a football or an egg, was constructed; it was hollow inside, with a suitable opening to insert the Orur material. The two units of Orur were put inside individual plastic containers, packed in cotton, and then placed inside the wooden container. In turn, this latter was placed into a canvas bag and laced up securely. The canvas bag was towed at the end of a 100 feet long strong nylon rope (with a resistance to traction of 1,000 lb). The other end of the rope was arranged in such a manner that the container could be kept trailing in flight at a distance of 100 feet.

Reich did not know how the atmosphere would react to the transportation of the Orur. And what worried Reich most was whether the Orur material would directly or indirectly affect the navigating instruments. He wrote out a set of instructions to be followed during the handling and transportation by plane(28):

Instruction for Towing of Material (ORUR) from Maine to Tucson, Arizona, Given 12-8-1954
1. Never take the material being towed into the airplane.
2. Keep the material being towed away from metal; distance of at least 5 feet, further whenever possible.

3. Keep persons away from material.

4. Be observant of personnel in plane during flight, pilot, etc., for biological reactions, possible excessive redness, etc.
5. In case anything goes wrong, land and telephone Orgone Institute, Tucson, Arizona, Tel. No. 3-8263.

6. Place material in safe place away from metal with warning danger signs.

7. In case towing container is lost: Drop smoke flare, locate the area. Land nearest place, inform State Police. Telephone Orgone Institute, Tucson, Arizona, or Hudgin Air Service, Tucson, Arizona, 3-1121.
8. Keep watch on tow container during flight.

9. Keep observation on instruments during flight for possible reaction.

10. Observe atmosphere during flight when material is being towed from Maine to Arizona. It is unknown what effect the material, being towed rapidly through the air may have on atmospheric conditions.
11. Landing and Taking Off: Have plastic towing tube extend 4 or 5 ft. back of plane. Pull towing container back away from plane as soon as possible after landing. Let out away from plane as soon as possible after taking off.
12. Guard material: When plane on ground, have material, away from plane, away from metal, guarded with Danger-Keep-Off signs posted. (If signs are metal have them 10 ft. away from material.)
13. Landing in Tucson: Pilot should inform Hudgin of arrival time: with as much advance notice as possible. Hudgin inform Orgone Institute of landing time. Landing will be at Gilpin Airport, Tucson.”

Indeed, Reich found that the Orur material might affect the instruments of the plane, such as the compass, but also the weather conditions in the flight area, the temperature above the ground, and in the vicinity of the plane, and even the conditions of the people inside the plane. An increase of the CPM rate were also observed when the two Orur units were reeled in, both for landing and take-off, reaching around 60 CPM with the Orur at the end of the mycarda (plastic) tubing, about 5 feet from the tail tip of the plane. After unreeling, the counts fell again to a normal rate of about 20 CPM. This recurred regularly; except that later, after many hours of flight, the counts did not fall so rapidly or so completely.

Reich summarized the effects of the Orur observed during the transportation from Lewiston airport, Maine, to Tucson airport, Arizona, as follows(29):

1. ERROR: Silvert [Reich’s collaborator] took the lead container along in plane, risking loss of OR [Orur], personnel and plane by intense Oranur interaction between OR and lead, with effects on people, instruments and ignition system. For short periods, LC [lead container] and OR were within 25 ft., but mostly were 100 ft. apart.

2. Effects on instruments: 20° compass deviation after leaving Pittsburgh after delay in take-off. Deviation gradually subsided in an hour.

3. Effects on people: Some confusion while approaching Pittsburgh. At various other times, drowsiness, irritability, impatience, burning of eyes, aches and pains, euphoria.

4. Effects on atmosphere: Weather cleared at Pittsburgh unexpectedly, permitting an earlier departure than anticipated by perhaps 24 hours. Thick blue haze around plane, especially marked out of Pittsburgh. … Higher temperature around plane in flight than on the ground, lasting longer than expected.

5. CPM: in plane with OR reeled out, on ground or in the air, about 20, rising to 40 near end of trip. As OR reeled in, on ground or in the air, CPM would rise to 60, beginning to rise when OR 2/3 reeled in. Approaching OR on the ground, CPM would begin to rise within 25 ft. to over 60,000 within 3 or 4 ft. Toward end of trip, CPM would fall more slowly than before, when OR unreeled.”

The radioactivity of the Orur material was measured on December 14th, 1954 soon after the arrival at Little Orgonon, the 50-acre headquarter Reich set-up eight miles from Tucson for the period of his stay in Arizona. The activity with the Orur within the container was:

at 100 feet     100,000 CPM

at 60 feet     100,000 CPM

while with the Orur outside the container was:

on ground     100,000 CPM

in 1″ lead      100,000 CPM

The Orur material calmed down the day after, on December 15th to an activity of:

200 CPM at 5 feet     (100,000 CPM on December 14th)

1200 CPM at 3 feett     (100,000 CPM on December 14th)

2400 CPM at 1 foot     (100,000 CPM on December 14th)

80,000 CPM on contact     (100,000 CPM on December 14th)

Reich deduced that the very high and unusual values were an indication that the Orur material was highly excited. At Orgonon, Maine, it yielded only low counts when not kept inside its lead container, while the radioactivity in Tucson, in the same experimental conditions, was extremely high. The Orur lost its zero reaction, and its field stretched upon arrival at Tucson to several hundred feet. However, Orur calmed down slowly during the following 24 hours after the arrival in Tucson, and its radioactive field diminished gradually from 100,000 CPM at 100 feet to 200 CPM at 5 feet. But close by it still gave without metal 100,000 CPM. It appeared that the transport from Maine to Tucson, through the orgone energy ocean, and the atmosphere at about 250 miles per hour over 3,000 miles, had an exciting effect upon it. Reich came to the conclusion that it behaved, as he had already hypothesized, like an excited animal that calmed down after a while.

On the whole, as the reader may have realized, Orur had many wonderful and, and above all, unexpected qualities inexplicable to traditional physics. The following is a good summary of all the most important characteristics of Orur, which was included by Reich in the material submitted to the US Court, as a defense material after the legal complaint by FDA(30):

“ORUR is denaturized nuclear material. I should like briefly to explain what Oranur and Orur mean. They designate nuclear material which has been treated with concentrated massfree cosmic (atmospheric) Orgone Energy. I shall not describe here the exact process: it has been described in some detail in the first report of the Oranur experiment. I shall only give an idea of the result.
By treating nuclear material (NU) with concentrated Orgone Energy (OR) NU changes into a very powerful but peaceful energy. NU is replaced within the nuclear material by OR. A radium needle which gave 16,000 counts per minute on a certain Geiger Counter naked at 1 cm. distance affected the same GM counter up to 300,000 counts per minute at a far greater distance within heavy lead shielding.
NU can be shielded by lead. ORUR cannot. On the contrary, any shielding by way of metal or even more vicinity of metal will excite ORUR into high-pitched activity, foreign to NU material. Therefore ORUR had to be transported from Maine to Arizona outside the plane, towed along in a special container 100 feet away from the metallic walls. There are many other such differences.

ORUR, that is, orgonized, denaturized nuclear material adapted to peaceful uses, had been used by the Orgone Institute for several years now in atmospheric research, specifically in destroying DOR clouds, the black, deadly, dehydrating blankets of so-called “Smog”; it has been used furthermore in creating rain and stopping rain, and lately also in an attempt to withdraw energy from hurricanes. These experiments are very promising. They are all connected with OR energy accumulation, since it is accumulated, concentrated OR energy which denaturizes nuclear material and makes it usable for peaceful purposes. The desert work in Arizona was of such kind. Green pastures and prairie grass appeared in formerly completely barren sand stretches after systematic removal of the deadly DOR blankets.”

However, the most important information about Orur might be found in these few lines(31):

“This fact is important: an alleged U.S. FDA inspector, Holliday, turned up in Arizona on December 30th, 1954. Two weeks earlier some critical pre-atomic material, called ORUR, had been flown down by Dr. Silvert from Maine to Arizona on December 12th, 1954. … The ORUR material had been flown down by Dr. Silvert: it actually effectuated the great success of the expedition in combating Desert. … They were at the same time probably out to destroy the discoverer of the Life Energy and to steal his process of denaturization of nuclear energy. … It was towed outside, 100 feet behind the plane and had been reported on the Tucson radio and on television as somewhat of a sensation, on the 20th of December.”

Reich referred to Orur as pre-atomic material. This might be understood as matter with a high concentration of orgone energy units, and the Oranur process might have been able to transform the nuclear material in an orgone-rich material with extremely benign qualities.

After the arrival of the Orur in Tucson, Reich started experimenting with the spacegun in order to investigate the reasons that might lead to the formation of desertification. He elaborated, after some months of field work in the region around Tucson, a theory that could explain the formation of deserts in the planet. He found out that the mass-free, pre-atomic, primordial cosmic energy played a fundamental role, and was at the very roots of the formation and existence of deserts. Depending on the circumstances, the life-giving energy could be transformed into dead life energy or DOR. And according to Reich, DOR was the main cause for the formation and the development of desertification. Actually, the same primordial cosmic energy which might create, sustain and reproduce life, under a definite set of circumstances, behaved as a killer of life when these conditions were absent, and became even a destroyer of lifeless matter, as happened in the disintegration of solid rock, granite, etc., to desert sand during and after the Oranur experiment in the period 1951-1954.
According to Reich, life energy creates in the biological realm its own material carriers, such as the organic building stones H, O, C, and N and their various compounds, H2O, O2, CO2, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. However, the carriers of life energy may form membranous structures of life only in a narrow range of pH, and specifically between approximately 7 and 7.4. This range does exist between two other killing realms, defined by acid (H+) on the one side (pH 1-6), and by base (OH) on the other side (pH 8-12). As a matter of fact, life was, under the given circumstances, existing on the razor’s edge between two kinds of death, and characterized by a very narrow range or domain in the infinite vastness of the cosmic energy ocean. Considering a human organism, organismic life energy metabolized from and into the cosmic energy ocean. Respiration, feeding and direct radiation (“heat”) were the basic vehicles of the metabolism of life energy between the organism and the environment. Within, the organism metabolized freshly absorbed orgone energy into DOR energy which was being expelled in the form of CO2, urine (NH3 products), feces, sweat and gaseous exudations. Energy equilibrium between charge and discharge could easily be maintained in the healthy organism. However, during sickness Reich observed that more orgone energy than usual seemed to be converted into DOR, and also more DOR seemed to be retained in the tissues. Thus, Reich argued that a prevalence of DOR energy in an organism would be a basic feature of all diseases, and many consequences would be derived from this situation. For instance, a greater inclination to exudate and to retain fluid in cavities, within the interstitia of tissue, in the abdomen, extremities in the form of edema, ascites, parenchymatous swelling, etc. Reich argued that a close relation between DOR and water, or rather to a change of H2O into DOR, and viceversa, might exist. DOR prevalence meant the need for more fluid, foremost being water. The water was being absorbed wherever it could be obtained by the thirsty DOR energy. Dehydration of tissues went parallel to a reduced ability to move and metabolize fluids. Reich inferred that dehydration of tissues, stagnation of metabolism; to which later was added lack of oxygen intake, and the resultant CO2 surplus, as in cancer, in edema of the lungs, lividity, and cyanosis, recession of vitality, on the whole were the basic disturbances of the orgone energy metabolism in an organism. In a vicious circle, inhibition of orgone energy functions led to a prevalence of DOR functions, and the latter led to a steady increase in the decay in orgone energy functions, and thus to death.

According to Reich, DOR functions were also characterized by a silent, invisible and inaudible gnawing away and insidious consumption, of the life force of a host or organism. DOR worked like a tapeworm, within the intestines of the host, be it emotionally or materially, by way of sapping and then swelling up its strength and energy. DOR was hungry above all for nourishment, for water, and for oxygen. However, in doing this DOR was destroying its own host, and its own source of nourishment(32):

“At the very basis of these life functions we find the dying of the Life Energy itself; the change from OR [orgone] energy into so-called DOR, i.e., the dead Life Energy. …. The process of dying of an organism seems, ultimately, to be no more than the dying of the Life Energy itself, the change from OR to DOR. With this basic change all secondary functions of life, energy metabolism, economy, integration of functions, cohesion of tissue, continuous reproduction of living matter and sap, also cease. In other words, the common functioning principle of all “Death” is immobilized Life Energy (cosmic primal energy) ….”

Reich came to the conclusion that the common functioning principle of all death processes was immobilized life energy, which for the lifetime of the specific organism had directed its material carriers, the membranous structure and the life fluids, constantly in exchange and metabolizing with the orgone energy ocean outside.

Reich then applied these observations and conclusions to the environment and the atmosphere. This explained the genesis of desertification as he assumed that DOR energy could be found in man, animal and plant; in the atmosphere; and in outer cosmic space. All of these were identical and the products of metabolizing primordial cosmic OR energy.

Accordingly, the process of disintegration of trees and whole forests was due to the progressive prevalence of DOR clouds in the atmosphere. He saw a slight DOR prevalence might cause lack of moisture and dryness, which in turn might increase DOR. Thus, in a vicious circle, the water-hunger grew together with diminishing precipitation. The process was slow, and not easily perceptible. When the atmosphere became droughty, causing clouds increasingly to lose their cohesion, and to weaken more easily, the level of atmospheric moisture sank, and the land began to parch. Water levels, too, sank. The life energy in the atmosphere had fewer and fewer resources of moisture. In addition, DOR caused the sun’s heat to turn into a burning or parching heat. Thus, the life energy turned, thirsty in the extreme, toward the moisture present within the vegetation because of a lack of moisture in the atmosphere. DOR penetrated the trees slowly from the top downward, and from the bark inward. The moisture, at first, was now being obtained from the bark, then upon further penetration of the tree structure, also from the deeper rings or layers. At first the bark got blackish; then the bark disintegrated, and disappeared. The process never set in from the roots upward, but the disappearance of the bark regularly began at the tree tops, working its way downward towards the roots. Also, the blackening and ensuing disintegration of the bark began on the upper sides of the branches. After some time, when the bark was almost completely off the attacked tree, and the disintegration had progressively advanced towards the roots, the inside of the tree substance disappeared, too. Then the tree would become hollow. Subsequently, due to loss of energy and substance, the tree bent, or curled up like a corkscrew. The branches sank down and fell off, until the whole tree collapsed. Therefore, DOR, under the form of Melanor(33), robbed the tree of all its moisture, its live OR energy, and its substance. At this stage the surface of the barkless stem and branches turned white. Melanor changed into white Orene, exactly the opposite of the alive. White Orene was nothing else than the formerly black Melanor. Later on, white Orene turned black and hardened upon loss of moisture.

Parallel to this, the blackness of the Melanor (DOR) would be eating its way into the rock, as well, causing it to form holes, first small holes, then larger ones. In other places the besieged rock reached a state where it crumbled into pebbles and rough sand. A whitish hue of Orite might be seen to settle gradually over such stretches of initial sand dunes. Rounded, smooth sand hills were the ultimate results of the gnawing away of rocks and dry loam by DOR and Melanor. Where traces of life remained, they were converted into secondary growth, which was vegetation of a harsh, spiny, tough, and juiceless character. As a whole all the above phenomena might be briefly summarized as follows:

1. DOR is the basic drought-causing and desert-supporting factor. There is some obscure relationship of DOR to water. DOR “eats mountains and levels them off to sand dunes.
2. Sahara sand is caked, crystallized soil mixed with Orite.”(34)


“The static landscape turned into a functional succession of events as it were, revealing its history: Green vegetation, → drought due to DOR attack, → dying of vegetation, → more DOR turning into Melanor on rocks, → eating out rocks, → Melanor turning white, → rocks changing into clay and finally sand.”(35)

Reich underlined that these processes were characterized by silence, and by slow attrition and wearing down of the victim. The life force, having been sapped from the victim, slowly became paralyzed and finally gave up. Reich drew a parallel with an emotionally-plagued character that showed the same type of behavior. A pestilent character often feels dark inside and often is actually at the skin. He saps juicy, emotionally-rich people, depriving them of their strength, akin to the behavior of a tapeworm within the host victim. The pestilential character flourishes on the energy loss in the victim, but in the end he perishes with the host.

According to Reich, a great significance for the mastery of our future might lie in the management of DOR accumulations and conditions, in that DOR surplus is causing deserts in the landscape as well as in the organism. In turn, this points to the fact that desert souls will enhance desert development; and desert development will increase DOR or staleness in the human emotions.

The management of the presence of DOR, wherever it can be located, hinges clearly on to what extent, and at what step, the decay process has arrived, so that DOR energy may be converted again into orgone energy or life energy.

Reich did find that the process of disintegration was clearly and indubitably reversible. Indeed, he experimentally achieved this in his desert work in the period 1954-1955 in Arizona, when completely barren desert land was turned into green pastures again, after thousands of years, through removal of DOR accumulations from the atmosphere(36):

“Deserts were shown to be able to green without rain. Secondary cholla vegetation like secondary drives on the armor was dying upon return of primordial life. Killer Atom had been converted to peaceful use.(37)


“It seemed incredible that systematic removal of DOR over a few days was sufficient to change the tide of death, to make green life appear again in such desolation. It was still more incredible that this had been unknown to man for ages.”(38)

A situation that continued even after many months was the conclusion of the desert greening experiment(39):

“Reich concluded his desert operations on March 1955. Six months later (September 1955) Dr. Michael Silvert surveyed the Tucson area by plane and by car. His findings were published in CORE (Vol. VII, December 1955). In general, Dr. Silvert found that green grass was apparent to a distance of 50 miles from Tucson itself. Grassy areas also showed a diminution in the growth of cactus. Grass around Mount Oracle was reported as “hip deep”, an unprecedented height. Tucson residents remarked also on the “unusual” amount of moisture and rainfall.”

The above conditions were confirmed also by local newspapers such as the Arizona Star that in September 1995 reported as follows(40):

“Despite the flooding that occurred, it was reported that the increased rainfall generally had a positive effect on the economy since there was such a tremendous increase in grazing. The Arizona Star reported on September 2, 1955: “Crops appeared to be approaching last year’s record yield – damage not as bad as expected,” and on September 18, 1955: “Arizona’s economy generally derived tremendous benefit from near record July and August rainfalls this year, according to Louis R. Jurwitz, meteorologist in charge of the state’s weather center here. The average rainfall in the state during the two months was 6.70 inches. This figure has been exceeded only twice in 60 years. Once in 1919, when state average was 8.04 in., and once in 1921, when average was 8.40 inches”.”

As a whole, the self-regulatory metabolic cycle process of OR → DOR energy → Rain → OR energy was restored and took charge of the desert. And in this process reconversion of DOR to orgone energy went in parallel to the return of water from DOR(41):

“Water was not being absorbed by DOR. Water changed into DOR. This became quite obvious. It explained the well-known desert phenomenon of rain coming down from clouds, but stopping in the atmosphere, never reaching the ground. Water changes into DOR. And, the next thought logically followed: DOR changes into water, too. In form of an orgonometric equation:

Finally, we may wonder what happened to the Orur, after it had been used in the experimental study of desert genesis by Reich. Presently, no official information is available about where the two units of Orur, used by Reich during the expedition to Arizona, and the one left at Orgonon, Maine, after being recovered from internment, might be located. Brief information is available from a letter, Moise, an associate and at the time son-in-law of Reich, wrote to Hoover, Director of the FBI, when they left Tucson after the conclusion of the desert greening experiment in Arizona, in April 1955(42):

“We wish to inform you that two milligram of Oranur treated and changed radium, used by the Orgone Institute in experimental weather control operations, have been deposited by the OIRL, Inc. at Jacumba, California in the custody of Mr. William Ketchum(43). This Oranur treated radium has been deposited in California for future experimental Oranur weather control operations.”

However, from that period on we can only speculate about where the three units of Orur might be. According to Reich’s granddaughter, Renata Moise, some units came to Hancock, Maine, and were buried in a field by her parents (Eva Reich, Reich’s daughter, and William Moise). However, the spot was lost, and gone forever(44).


  1. The article is an abridged version, with the addition of some new material, of the chapter Reich and the Orur included in the book The Legendary Shamir published by the writer in 2017.
  2. Oranur is orgone energy stimulated by radioactivity or other sources.
  3. Of the three milligrams of radium one was physically used in the Oranur experiment, the second one was considered as a control, and the third milligram was the last control needle that Reich had ordered after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, pages 324-325).
  4. Reich W, The Blackening Rocks, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol. 5, N° 1-2, Orgone Institute Press, March 1953, pages 52-53. In Contact with Space Reich reported that the distance from Orgonon to the uninhabited area on route 17 toward Rumford, where the radioactive material was buried after the conclusion of the Oranur Experiment, was about 15 miles to southwest (Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 23).
  5. Reich was thinking that the DOR-clouds coming from the West and hovering over Orgonon, in the period of the Oranur recurrence, originated from atomic blasts carried out in the western United States. However, it was later ascertained that there were no atomic denotations in the Usa in March, 1952. Thus, the origin of those DOR-clouds remained a mystery to Reich. He later speculated that they were possibly of cosmic origin.
  6. DOR is deadly orgone energy that is orgone energy lacking oxygen and water. DOR is black, lusterless, toxic, and carries a high charge. It appears as black specks in the atmosphere, as though someone had sprinkled the air with black pepper. One can clearly see the sun through it, but photographs appear as though they were taken in shadow. DOR attacks anything, animal, vegetable, or mineral, in order to obtain the needed oxygen and water. Leaves droop and lose their luster, birds and insects become quiet, and even the air is still. Humans become uncomfortable, the skin blue, mouth parched, and the scalp tight, causing headache and nausea. Reich called this DOR sickness, that is Oranur sickness under high power. Reich’s work demonstrated that DOR and orgone energy are deadly antagonists, being antithetical, mutually exclusive, energies. Reich indicated nuclear energy as the most potent man-made irritant in exciting the atmospheric orgone energy into Oranur and DOR. Other irritating sources of the orgone energy continuum that might lead to the formation of DOR, are high-voltage electrical and electronic equipment (radar, sonar, microwaves of all types, X-rays, TV-sets, VHF and VLF radio frequencies, etc.), and electrical, chemical and thermic energy. According to Reich, the build-up of planetary smog might be instigated and aggravated by worldwide DOR. Industrial particulates and noxious gases do not disperse when DOR is in the atmosphere.
  7. The Geiger-Muller 4096 Tracerlab Auto-scaler was equipped with a counter tube with a mica window thickness of 2.3 mg/cm2, while the counter tube of the SU-5 survey meter was characterized by a mica window with a wall thickness of 30 mg/cm2. This means that the 4096 Auto-scaler was approximately ten times more sensitive than the SU-5 survey meter (Kent K, The Oranur Experiment, Journal of Borderland Research, Vol XLII, N° 6, November-December 1986).
  8. Measurements of the original radioactivity of a one milligram unit of naked radium (16,000 CPM or 8.3 Roentgens per hour) was done in New York City, away from the highly-charged atmosphere of Reich’s laboratory, at Orgonon, Maine. Reich also observed that at the opening, one of the three water-tight lead radium containers was found almost full of what appeared to be water. The screw cap was greased before burying it and Reich had no plausible reason to explain the presence of the water inside that container.
  9. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 25.
  10. Reich W, Ibid, page 24. The value of 43,000 CPM (last column in table 1) had been corrected by Reich (as reported in the Errata of the Oranur Experiment book, October 1951) to be 38,400 CPM. Besides, Reich reported also the CPM should be read as Approximate CPM.
  11. Reich W, Ibid, page 27.
  12. In the calculation here I neglected the value of 4,096 CPM in table 2, as it seems extremely low, and out of range when compared to the order of the other measured values.
  13. The drawing in the figure was attached to a letter (dated February 13, 1956) Moise sent to Kelly, superintender of the National Capital Parks (United States Department of Interior), Washington DC, in order to get permission to permanently mount a Reich spacegun in the city on a location in the East Potomac Park, close to the Washington channel, along Ohio Drive to Hains Point, with the aim to carry out atmospheric research experiments. The experiments were related to the atmospheric conditions causing smog, a major problem on those part of the nation, including Washington DC. The experiments with the spacegun had a duration each of about 1 ½ hours to be carried out for several times weekly. For the record, permission to operate in the area was issued by the competent authorities on January 24th, 1956. However, Moise around a week later asked the National Capital Parks for a permanent placing in the East Potomac Park of part of the apparatus (the spacegun). A request that was formalized in written on February 13, 1956, where a drawing of the apparatus to be placed on the Park was attached (figure 2 in this paper). Few days after, on February 17th, 1956, the National Capital Parks requested Moise to suspend all the experiments and revoked the permit until further notice. All of this occurred before the FBI was informed, so the suspension of the first permission to drive through the park and the refusal to grant the second request to place the cloudbuster on the park property had nothing to do with the FBI. It was only on March 2nd that the whole incident was sent to Hoover of the FBI (Bennett P, Personal Communication, December 7th, 2020). Besides, it is important to note from the drawing and the information provided from the letter exchange between Moise and the National Capital Parks, that Moise still needed a source of running water to ground the flexible cables the spacegun was equipped, even though the atmosphere might be mostly affected only by the action of the Orur. See Federal Bureau of Investigation, Dr Wilhelm Reich, Part 5 of 6, Section 2.
  14. Maglione R, Wilhelm Reich and the Healing of Atmospheres. Modern Techniques for the Abatement of Desertification, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Oregon, 2007.
  15. According to the experience of the writer, from moderate to good variations of the radioactivity in the closeness of an operating cloudbuster and at some distance from it can be observed. Measurements were performed in a period between March 11, and December 03, 2010, on a standard apparatus consisted of a rack of 10 pipes of galvanized iron (6-m long) connected via a collector to two flexible aluminium cables (9-m long). The apparatus was located on the bank of the Betsiboka River, Mahajanga, Madagascar. The measures were taken by a Radalert 100 GM counter (International Medcom, Usa) during the on/off interventions both at the cloudbuster’s site, and at distances of 100 and 250 m. The three measurement sites belonged to the same straight line. In most of the cases, each measurement lasted for the duration of the specific planned activity (grounded or ungrounded flexible cables). Duration of the measurements ranged between about 9 and 24 hours. It was determined that close to the cloudbuster an average value of 16.1 CPM (average of 37 readings) was recorded during the drawing times with the flexible cables grounded into the river’s waters; while during periods where interventions were suspended an average value of 15.8 CPM (average of 46 readings) was obtained. At a distance from the apparatus (and from the river’s bank) of 100 m a value of 16.5 CPM (average of 8 readings) was recorded when the cloudbuster was not operating. No reading was taken during the drawing operations at this distance. At a distance of 250 m from the apparatus a value of 20.0 CPM (only one measurement was done) was obtained when the cloudbuster was operating. While a value of 17.7 CPM (average of 7 readings) was recorded when the flexible cables were ungrounded. The natural background before starting all the operations was about 14.0 CPM.
    Table 1 below shows all the averaged data, and the number of measures taken (reported in parenthesis).

    Table 1

    From the above data a good increase of the radioactivity during the operations compared to the natural background can be seen. A percentage increase of 15.0 % and of 42.8 % were recorded at the cloudbuster’s site, and at 250 m distance, respectively. Yet, it seems that the radioactive field developed around the apparatus during the drawing operations did not reduce to the natural background values when it was not operating. Indeed, a percentage increase when compared to the natural background of 12.9 % at the apparatus’ site, of 17.9 % at 100 m distance, and of 26.4 % at 250 m distance was respectively observed during inactive periods. Besides, the radioactive field around the cloudbuster seemed increase against the distance. Unfortunately, measurements were not taken at distances higher than 250 m from the site of the apparatus, and hence it was not possible to determine how far the radioactive field extended from the cloudbuster’s site. Recalling the results of the Oranur experiment carried out at Orgonon in 1951 by Reich, it can be argued that around the cloudbuster a mild Oranur field (increase of radioactivity) might have formed during the interventions because of the orgone energy flow from the atmosphere through the pipes, and then through the flexible cables into the river. And this Oranur field extended for at least 250 m from the drawing site, and its strength was noted to increase against the distance from the apparatus’ site.

    Another interesting phenomenon that was observed in the same period of the operations was the increase of the potential difference between the electrodes of a voltmeter (Mastech R multimeter, Hong Kong) when immersed in the running water of the river (close to the bank) at different distances from the grounded flexible cables of the apparatus. During an intervention, at around 50 m upstream the grounded cables a potential difference of about 10 mV was measured; while at about the same distance by, this time downstream of the cloudbuster’s site, the potential difference was about 30 mV. In another intervention (and hence with the flexible cables grounded into the water of the river) a potential difference between the electrodes immersed in the river’s water of about 10 mV 50 m upstream, 70-180 mV in the proximity of the grounded flexible cables, and 25-40 mV 50 m downstream was found. Again, in another intervention, a tension of 100-200 mV was measured in the water around the grounded flexible cables. The following table 2 reports the averaged values of the potential difference measured at the different points. In parenthesis the number of measures taken is also shown.

    Table 2

    It is evident from the above data that a change in the electric current transmitted by the river’s water took place during the interventions, and this might be attributable to the orgone energy absorbed and discharged into the water by way of the etheric circuit determined by the rigid metal pipes and the flexible cables. A dramatic change of the potential difference, when compared to the value measured upstream, was observed in the river’s water around the grounded flexible cables (+1275%); while downstream a substantial increase (+212%) was seen.

    In a specific episode the potential difference of the soil close to the cloudbuster was also measured. Before the intervention it was 20 mV, while during the intervention the potential difference increased to about 40 mV.

    The variation of the potential difference in the running fluid in which the orgone energy, drawn from the atmosphere by the rigid pipes, had been discharged, and the formation of a radioactive field around the drawing structure may involve that during the interventions the amount of orgone energy around the cloudbuster and discharged into the running water of the river, had given rise to the fluctuation of physical parameters secondary to the pre-atomic orgone energy such as radioactivity, and electricity conducted by the fluid. This explanation can also be considered valid for the potential difference variation of the soil close to the drawing structure. Also in this latter case the variation might be ascribable to the flow of orgone energy around it. If the above phenomena are confirmed by further measurements in other experiments, the variations of the above parameters can be an indication of and useful to check the quality of the drawing during the operations. And in case no change in the above parameters is found, this can be considered a clear sign that the absorbing structure is not working properly due to operational reasons.

    For more details on the Mahajanga operations see Glielmi N, Fontana M, Maglione R, Valleri T, Argomenti Reichiani, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Italy, 2012; Maglione R, Restoring Natural Atmospheric Pulsation in Northwestern Madagascar with the Reich Cloudbuster, Syntropy, N° 2, 2013, pages 179-185; and Maglione R, Recovering Natural Atmospheric Pulsation from Reich to the Present Day, presented at the International Conference on Orgonomy, October 04, 2013, Rome, Italy.

  16. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 29.
  17. Southgate L, A Preliminary Investigation into a Prototype Device Based Upon Reich’s Spacegun, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, May 10, 2020.
  18. Southgate L, Personal Communication, December 11th, 2020.
  19. Southgate L, Ibid, December 11th, 2020.
  20. Southgate L, Ibid, December 11th, 2020.
  21. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 26.
  22. Reich W, Ibid, pages 33-34.
  23. Reich W, Ibid, page 91.
  24. Reich W, Ibid, page 218
  25. Reich W, Ibid, page 219.
  26. Reich W, Ibid, page 44.
  27. Reich W, Ibid, pages 45-46.
  28. Reich W, Ibid, pages 186-187.
  29. Reich W, Ibid, pages 194.
  30. Reich W, History of the Discovery of the Life Energy. Atoms for Peace vs the HIG Documentary, Supplement N° 3, A-XII-EP, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, Maine, 1956, page 14.
  31. Reich W, Ibid, page 12.
  32. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, pages 148-149.
  33. Melanor, Orite, and Brownite were substances related to the disintegration of matter when subjected to elevated Oranur conditions, and DOR clouds. They were belonging to a new field of the Orgonomic science Reich had opened with the study of Oranur, or pre-atomic chemistry. Reich found Melanor was a black, acidic (pH 3-5), corrosive, and soluble in acid substances, which settled over living beings and rocks; Orite, was a white, basic (pH 8-11), and soluble in water and bases powder, in which the rocks disintegrated; and Brownite, a brown and neutral (pH around 7) powder which could be seen to emerge from a mixing of, and contact between Melanor and Orite. It was also discovered that Melanor was a reducing and dehydrating agent (it had a powerful hunger for oxygen); while Orite and Brownite were not. Melanor had predominately acidic cations and anions; Orite had basic cations and anions; while Brownite had a mixture of both. Orene is the designation Reich gave to the pre-atomic substance, discovered in 1953 during the continuing course of the Oranur experiment, which appeared to be a transitional stage in the development of mass from energy. It showed many functional qualities of both living and non-living material. See Reich W, Melanor, Orite, Brownite and Orene. Introduction, CORE, Vol. VII, N° 1-2, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, Maine, March, 1955; and McCullough RA, Melanor, Orite, Brownite and Orene. Preliminary Chemical Analysis, CORE, Vol. VII, N° 1-2, Orgone Institute Press, Orgonon, Maine, March, 1955.
  34. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 165.
  35. Reich W, Ibid, page 239.
  36. For a detailed critical review of the Reich’s Arizona expedition see Huthsteiner C, Weather Engineering in Contact with Space: Global Warming and the Planetary Emergency, Annals of the Institute for Orgonomic Science, Vol. 10, N° 1, December 2005, pages 1-42.
  37. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 202.
  38. Reich W, Ibid, page 239.
  39. Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press, New York, 1973, page 152.
  40. Quoted in Huthsteiner C, Weather Engineering in Contact with Space: Global Warming and the Planetary Emergency, Annals of the Institute for Orgonomic Science, Vol. 10, N° 1, December 2005, pages 9-10.
  41. Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 258.
  42. Moise W, Letter to Hoover JE, Orgone Institute Research Laboratory, Orgonon, Maine, April 7, 1955.
  43. I could not find information in the Orgonomy literature about Ketchum. He is never mentioned by Reich nor by his biographers. The only information I could find that might have some sense is that related to William Ketchum, US Representative from California. He was born in Los Angeles in 1921, and died in Bakersfield in 1978. In the period in which Reich was in Tucson, Arizona, Ketchum was a salesman, and was also engaged in cattle ranching and farming. However, the hypothesis that he was the owner of the ranch, 10 miles north of Tucson, Magee road, Route 6, where Reich established his headquarter during the desert greening period, renaming it Little Orgonon, should be discarded, in that the owner was an oil man whose name was Thompson, living in Florida (Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, NY 2012, pages 175 and 176; see also Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 143). However, given the fact that the house was found with the help of the head of the South Arizona Bank and Trust Company, Mr Douglas, who was also one of the members of the advisory board to President Eisenhower (Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 132), it is reasonable to presume that, both Douglas, and Ketchum being involved in politics, the latter was introduced to Reich by Douglas, and became interested in his desert greening work.
  44. Renata Reich Moise, personal communication, October, 2016.

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Wilhelm Reich (oil on canvas) by Morton Herskowitz, D.O.

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Wilhelm Reich – Founder of Orgone Therapy

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