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Temperature And Electric Measurements On An Organism Exposed To A Concentrated Orgone Energy Field

Co-Author: Luca Piergentili


Body temperature, body resistance and skin voltage were measured before and after a 20-minute daily ORAC session, carried out in the period April 5th-December 10th, 2021, on a male patient aged 62.

Total number of daily sessions was 226. The difference of the temperature and electrical parameters was found by a t-Student test to be highly statistically significant. This means effects were unlikely to have occurred by chance. During an ORAC session the organism, in addition to energy dissipation through the well-known basal metabolic rate process, might be subjected to two further processes in which energy variation might occur. These are related to the variation of thermal energy, and of electrical energy. Healing processes observed in an ill organism during the use of ORACs might be closely related in some still unknown ways to the action of the variation of the above energies.

Introduction and background

The orgone energy accumulator (ORAC) is a device, conceived by Wilhelm Reich in the ‘40s of the last century, whose peculiarity is to concentrate a specific kind of energy from the atmosphere.1 According to Reich this kind of energy, called orgone energy, can be found everywhere and fills the Universe and all things in Nature and is the primary component of matter. In high concentrations, such as those found inside an ORAC, it has many beneficial effects on living organisms and it might be useful in medical therapies of several diseases, including cancer. Orgone energy is said to be a pre-atomic energy as matter is formed by the superimposition of two or more orgone energy waves.2 This phenomenon marks the line beyond which formation of secondary physical phenomena, recognised by traditional physics as electricity, magnetism, gravity, etc., occur. Reich remarked that the qualities of the orgone energy continuum he discovered, made of an infinite number of units and filling the Universe, might be compared with those of the well-known aether of the scientific revolution (called also luminiferous aether) and of that of the Ancient’s, and it can be identified with them.3

Indeed, the presence of the aether in Nature and its qualities had been thoroughly investigated and discussed in the past few centuries by a long list of scientists. They conceived it as a very dense medium either composed of discrete, separate parts or grains, or perhaps made of a jelly or continuous substance.4 Supporter of the first hypothesis were for example Reynolds (1842-1912),5 and Todeschini (1899-1988);6 while amongst the many of the other group we find Kelvin (1824-1907)7 and Lodge (1851-1940)8 that promoted a continuous and partless aether similar to an infinite liquid. Reich’s orgone energy continuum or ocean might belong to the first school of thought in that Reich made many examples from direct observations and experiments in which the orgone energy continuum was found to be made of tiny, dynamic, and sometimes visible dots or points or particles.9 In addition, the tiny orgone particles were endowed by Reich with life-giving and therapeutic or syntropic qualities. These latter properties were less considered by the scientific circles of the 18th and 19th centuries in that scientists were more committed to consider the aether as a medium fundamental to explain the ‘action-at-a-distance’ of bodies and various physical phenomena rather than the biological and medical properties. According to Reich, orgone energy was also responsible for metaphysical phenomena in that he thought that the oranur state (one of three characterising the orgone energy continuum) might help to promote higher states of consciousness.10

In the period of the scientific revolution we find many important scientists that devoted their existence to elucidating the secrets of the aether conundrum. Amongst them we find Ciolkovskij (1857-1935), Lorentz (1853-1928), Hertz (1857-1894), Maxwell (1831-1879), Faraday (1791-1867), Fresnel (1788-1827), Ampere (1775-1836), Young (1773-1829), Bernoulli (Johann, 1710-1790), Euler (1707-1783), Huygens (1629-1695), and also Descartes (1596-1650) who was the first in the 17th century, to develop and to bring into science a modern concept of aether, constituted of subtle particles moving in vortexes.

Going further back in time, there is a period of relatively scarce evidence of interest in the aether where the only few enquiries were advanced by theologians and philosophers of the medieval Islamic East tradition.11 After this we find the philosophical schools of the Ancients. Amongst the many we may consider the work of Lucretius (1st century BCE) and Epicurus (about 3rd century BCE) and above all of Leucippus and Democritus, the founders of the atomist school in the 5th century BCE. They conceived an aether characterized by a continuous granular structure and called its basic constituents atomos or atomom (indivisible or indestructible), or ideai (shapes or forms).12 These basic components were thought to be made of different shapes and sizes and to be eternal. Democritus considered the visible objects of the world of appearance to be brought about by clusters of these atomos that were dynamic and characterized by whirling movements. Before them an aether with similar characteristics was discussed by Anaximander (that he called apeiron)13 and Pythagoras in the 6th century BCE, and then by Moschus of Sidon, in the 13th-14th century BCE.14 Possibly, the properties of this aether were already known to the ancient Egyptians, as proposed by Maglione,15 and even further back in time to the Chinese (Qi) and Indians (Prana) of the 5-10 millennia BCE who were the few to endow it with therapeutic qualities.

Reich’s orgone energy continuum might be considered the most complete conception of the aether today available endowed with both physical and biological qualities, and directly connected to the metaphysical realm. And, one of the most important results of Reich’s investigation might be the law of the orgonomic potentials from which one very important natural law can be deduced, i.e. the orgasm formula from which the pulsation of an organism follows.16 Indeed, the law of the orgonomic potentials is a powerful tool to explain the evenness, the equilibrium and the resilience of the orgone energy continuum in that each unit or particles of the continuum might be subjected to the attractive force of the surrounding units (constituting a higher orgonomic potential when compared to that of the single unit) thus making the continuum a homogeneous and stable structure unless a higher orgonomic potential is applied somewhere to the system from the outside.

The concrete and tangible orgone energy continuum might match quite well also with the philosophical view the late Planck expressed at a lecture in Florence, Italy, in 1944. A conception totally against the view of physics of the time he contributed to develop:17


“As a man who has devoted his whole life to the most clear-headed science, to the study of matter, I can tell you as a result of my research about atoms this much:
There is no matter as such.
All matter originates and exists only by virtue of a force which brings the particle of an atom to vibration and holds this most minute solar system of the atom together.
We must assume behind this force the existence of a conscious and intelligent mind.
This mind is the matrix of all matter.”


By and large, it seems that the granular structure of the aether, a conception that has been constantly found along the history of mankind’s thought, might be the most credible and promising position in order to clarify the characteristics of this substance and to give it a final identity.

The mathematical modelling work of the aether developed by Reynolds and Todeschini based on laboratory physical experiments, and the experimental work of Reich in the biology and medical fields might be an invaluable and priceless body of knowledge available today to continue and develop the Great True Science based on the presence in the Universe of a ubiquitous and granularly-structured aether that, according to the Greek philosophers might be eternal, with no beginning nor end. It is a science that can be called without presumption Eternal Science or Scientia Aeterna in which there is no place for a void cosmos.

The medical and therapeutic properties the aether had been found to be endowed are clearly evident in the use of the ORAC. Its function and healing qualities had been investigated both by Reich and many scholars and researchers after his death. Reich and his associates observed strong biological effects from the ORAC, publishing results of controlled experiments suggesting a strong stimulus of the parasympathetic nervous system of human beings,18 and delayed tumour development in cancer mice and human beings.19

In the period following Reich’s death (1957), a number of physicians and scientists replicated many of his experiments. Noteworthy, are the double-blind controlled trials on human physiology undertaken by Muschenich and Gebauer,20 and by Hebenstreit.21 These experiments showed an evident stimulus of the parasympathetic nervous system in organisms exposed to the high orgone field of an ORAC, with a statistically significant increase of skin and body core temperatures, and heart rate. Mazzocchi and Maglione22 carried out body temperature and Ryodoraku23 measurements on 20 test subjects after exposure to the orgone field of an ORAC. They found a statistically significant increase of body temperature interpreted as a slight healing fever, while the Ryodoraku measurements revealed a parasympathetic nervous system activation, consistent with increased peripheral blood circulation to dissipate the slight heat increase. Other studies on cancer mice performed by Grad,24 and by Blasband25 showed a delayed development of tumour mass of the ORAC-exposed cancer mice groups. Aprile et al26 observed a complete regression of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma mass in a human organism after exposure to systematic concentrated orgone fields performed in parallel to traditional chemotherapy. Senf27 published results of research aimed at evaluating the effects of orgone devices on acupuncture points. Southgate28 found statistically significant effects (p=0.03) of an ORAC on acupuncture sensation in a population of 72 patients, in a double-blind controlled investigation.

Currently, there is a growing interest in the ORAC for treatment of various diseases and several new books have been published on the clinical applications of the orgone energy accumulator.29

Objectives of Present Study

In this present research the authors considered whether the ORAC would change the behaviour of body electrical resistance, voltage and temperature measurements of a human organism when it is systematically exposed to a concentrated orgone energy field.

Materials and Methods

The investigation was performed on a patient (male, age 62) with no major diseases. Measurements of electric resistance and voltage between the hands of the patient and of axillary body temperature were taken. Then the patient entered and was seated in the ORAC for a 20 minute-session. Soon after the ORAC session was concluded, the patient came out of the ORAC, and electric resistance, voltage and body temperature were measured again.

The ORAC used was a human-sized orgone accumulator made of five alternating layers of sheep wool and steel wool, with the outer layer made of masonboard, and the inner layer of a galvanized metal sheet.

The electric resistance was measured by an analog tester to which the test leads had been replaced by two handles lined each by a 1-mm copper sheet. Each handle was held by a patient’s hand and reading recorded when stabilized. To avoid any error in the measurements due to variation of humidity of the patient’s palm hands before and after ORAC session the measurements were done with the two copper handles held by the patient immersed each in a glass bowl filled with tap water. The aim was to standardise the adherence surface between readings to reduce as much as possible any error in the measurements.

The voltage measurement was carried out by using one of the copper handles, while the other had been replaced by a handle lined by a zinc sheet. Readings were recorded when stabilized. Temperature measurements were taken by a digital thermometer. To reduce any possible error in the readings three consecutive measurements were taken before and after each ORAC session. The reference temperature before and after each session was the average of the three readings.

In addition, temperature and humidity of the room in which the ORAC was located were also taken during each session. Humidity was regulated by a dehumidifier to be 50%; while temperature was proportional to the seasonal temperature since no heater or air conditioning system was on inside the room. The 20-minute ORAC sessions were performed from April 05 to December 10, 2021. In total 226 sessions were done.

Theoretical background

Based on the measures of temperatures, and of electric resistance and voltage between patient’s hands, it emerges that the exposure of the organism to the concentrated orgone energy field of the ORAC results in the dissipation of a certain amount of energy into other forms of energy. As largely known from literature, an organism at rest dissipates energy into heat through the basal metabolic rate process. However, this amount is general and not dependant on the use of the ORAC. When an organism undergoes an ORAC session, energy is dissipated as variation of body temperature (TA-TB) and in some unknown way due to the variation of the electric parameters, Resistance and Voltage – (RA-RB) and (VA-VB). This means that during the exposure inside the ORAC the energy dissipated by the organism during a session can be identified into the following:


  1. basal metabolic rate
  2. increase of body temperature
  3. increase of body resistance and decrease of body voltage.


The energy converted into heat by the organism while being at rest is known as basal metabolic rate (QBMR),30 and is determined by applying the following expression given by Quenouille et al:31



Where QBMR denotes the basal metabolic rate in [kcal/day]; w the weight of the subject in [kg]; h the height of the subject in [cm]; s the surface area of the subject in [cm2]; and T the temperature in [°C] and H the humidity in [%] of the environment in which the test subject is. In our study temperature and humidity are those of the room where the ORAC is located. The surface area of the body’s subject can be calculated by the following Dubois and Dubois’ equation:32


Where s denotes the surface area of the subject in [cm2], w the weight in [kg], and h the height in [cm].

The energy dissipated by the organism into heat, as a consequence of the variation of temperature during a session inside the ORAC33 might be supposed to be function of the change of temperature of the water content inside a human organism. Therefore, the amount of dissipated heat is directly proportional to the mass of water of the subject and the variation of temperature, as follows:


Where cw denotes the specific heat of water, 4182 J/kg∙°C, mw the mass of water of the organism in [kg], and (TA-TB) the temperature difference as measured before and after the ORAC session in [°C]. The mass of water in the organism has been estimated to be mw = 0.6∙w, where w is the weight of the organism in [kg].34 The above equation (3) can be rewritten as follows:


The third amount of energy involved is the electric energy produced in the organism during one ORAC session. It can be determined by the following equations:


Where PB and PA denote the electric power of the organism before and after the ORAC session, respectively, in [Watt]; VB and VA the potential difference (voltage) before and after the session in [mV]; and RB and RA the electrical resistance before and after the session in [kOhm].
The difference between PA and PB gives the amount of electric power (P) involved during the session inside the orgone accumulator:


Knowing the duration of the exposure (t) of the organism to the concentrated orgone energy field of the ORAC the variation of electric energy (W) during a session can be determined as follows:




Where t denotes the duration of the orgone session (20 minutes).

Results and data analysis

Figures 1 through 3 show the behaviour of the body electric resistance (RA-RB), the body voltage (VA-VB), and the body temperature (TA-TB) differences, respectively, between after (A) and before (B) the ORAC session for the whole period of testing (226 days).


Figure 1


Figure 2


Figure 3


All the above differences showed a prevailing behaviour. Body electrical resistance (RA-RB) recorded a mainly positive difference between readings recorded after (A) and before (B) sessions (figure 1), with an average increase of 0.874 kOhm.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that these differences were highly statistically significant (p=8.6077∙10-19) for a significant level of p<0.05

Figure 4 shows the frequency of the values of the resistance difference. The most frequent value was 0.30 kOhm with a frequency of 3.54%.


Figure 4



Voltage differences (VA – VB) showed a negative trend for the monitored period (figure 2), with an average decrease of -15.5 mVolt. Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this difference was highly statistically significant (p=3.1552∙10-56) for a significance level of p<0.05.

Figure 5 shows the frequency of the values of the voltage difference. The most frequent value was -15.0 mV °C with a frequency of 11.50%.


Figure 5


Body temperature difference (TA–TB) showed a positive trend (figure 3) with an average increase of 0.146 °C.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this temperature difference was highly statistically significant (p=2.381∙10-37) for a significance level of p<0.05.

Figure 6 shows the frequency of the values of the temperature difference. The most frequent value was 0.20 °C with a frequency of 10.18%.


Figure 6


Figure 7 reports the behaviour of the Basal Metabolic Rate (QBMR) for each session. Obviously, the value is all the time negative since the process always involves a dissipation of heat. As reported above, this is function of the characteristics of the test subject (weight and height), and of the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) where the subject is located. An average value encompassing all the tested period of -0.1108∙106 Joule was found.35


Figure 7


Following figure 8 reports the heat dissipated or acquired by the organism (Qw) as increase or decrease of body temperature after the ORAC session. As can be observed from the figure, the trend is practically always negative apart from a few cases in which it was positive. An average value encompassing all the tested period of -0.0311∙106 Joule was found.


Figure 8


Following figure 9 shows the trend of the variation of electric energy into the organism during each ORAC session. It can be remarked that the trend of (WA-WB), determined by eq. (9), is practically all the time negative. The average value was -0.3077∙10-3 Joule.



Statistical analysis, carried out according to the t-Student test, showed that this difference in electrical energy was highly statistically significant (p=3.6595∙10-35) for a significance level of p<0.05.


Figure 9


Statistics Summary Analysis

Table 1 below reports the average values of the experimental parameters and their statistical significance.


Table 1


Table 2 shows the variation of the measured and calculated data against weather conditions during ORAC sessions. From Table 2 an increase of the average value of (TA-TB), (RA-RB), and a decrease of (VA-VB) can be remarked when the ORAC session is done in clear or clear-like weather (151 days). Conversely, in case of bad weather (rain) or of a highly cloud-covered atmosphere (75 days) the corresponding average values are lower.


Table 2


From the data reported in Table 2 it is evident the variation of resistance, voltage, and temperature followed weather conditions. In days with a homogeneous distribution of orgone energy into the atmosphere (clear, scattered clouds, and windy weather) resistance, and temperature were higher (+19.3% and +15.0%, respectively), while voltage was lower (-13.6%) than in days with a high concentration of orgone energy at the ground (foggy and rainy weather), or in mostly cloudy and overcast days.

The above results are telling us that the variation of the measured parameters, and hence of the related energies, are a function of the amount of orgone energy available inside the ORAC. This is fully in agreement with the law of the orgonomic potentials that states in days where the distribution of orgone energy into the atmosphere is low and homogeneously-distributed the amount of concentrated orgone energy inside an ORAC is higher than in days with a high concentration of orgone energy at the ground.


The life-positive qualities of the orgone energy continuum, whose equivalence with the aether was very briefly described in the introductory chapter,36 seems to be a well founded and solid reality. In the Orgonomy literature we may find many experiments and research conducted in the last 80 years that produced a large deal of experimental data and publications that might confirm the above assertion. Aether’s therapeutic characteristics have been known since ancient times, even though precise and accurate information were not passed on to us. Presently, orgone energy’s (or aether’s) life-enhancing as well as physical aspects can be properly defined through the Galilean scientific methods and processes, and peculiarities measured and repeated in controlled experiments. This makes their properties an objective reality whose application encompasses all fields of human knowledge and makes the present science of void and matter a misinterpretation and a distortion, if not an esoteric understanding of the aether’s properties.

The present study aimed at investigating the response of the organism to concentrations of orgone energy in dynamic conditions37 higher than those usually found in the natural environment. The results we obtained highlighted many processes that might be at work during the exposure to these high concentrations, and some of them are still unknown.

Our measures of body electric resistance and voltage, and body temperature before and after exposure evidenced that a certain amount of energy is dissipated by the organism during a 20-minute ORAC session. At least three distinct processes that might involve the metabolism of specific forms of energy have been identified. One process is the well-known basal metabolic rate (QBMR); another process implies the conversion of energy (QW) into heat as evidenced by the increase of body temperature; and the third one involves the variation of electric energy (W) to satisfy still unknown functions.

As for the first process, it is known from the literature that whatever standard relationship available today is used to calculate the BMR, it requires that the subject is 1) not engaged in physical activity; 2) completely rested; 3) fasted for at least 10 hours; 4) free from emotional stress; 5) free from disease or infection; and 6) in a test site not located at high altitudes.38 The above are all conditions met by the test subject during the sessions inside the ORAC. A further condition requires that the temperature of the environment should be thermo-neutral, that it should not fall below 18 °C. In our testing, the heater of the room in which the sessions were done was off, temperature of the room was proportional to the outside environment, and during spring and fall it dropped 108 (out of 226) times below 18 °C. Lowest recorded temperature was 5.2 °C. In order to take into account this latter point we considered for the calculation of the BMR the Quenouille et al equation because in its mathematical structure it contained a term taking into account the variation of the temperature of the location in which the test subject was located during the measures.

As far as the second process, or the increase of body temperature is concerned, the phenomenon had been already observed by other authors. Muschenich and Gebauer39 found, on a limited cohort of patients (10 people), a statistically significant increase of body temperature (p=0.01). Ritter and Ritter40 conducted an experiment on 12 patients by measuring body temperature by a thermometer under the tongue. They observed a body temperature increase (with a maximum of 0.53 °C) in the first 10 minutes of the ORAC session. Correa and Correa41 reported on an increase of body temperature of patients inside an ORAC even in the first 15 minutes of exposure. Oral temperature of a male patient (53 yrs old) showed, after 15 minutes of ORAC session, an average increase of the temperature of 0.38°C with a peak of 0.6 °C during a 10-day observation period. Mazzocchi and Maglione42 found a statistically significant increase (p=0.006) of body temperature of 0.242 °C in a group of 20 persons treated inside the ORAC for 45 minutes. Correa and Ritter’s temperature measurements were partially taken with the patients inside the ORAC possibly affecting the overall results; while Mazzocchi and Maglione’s measurements were always taken with the patient outside the ORAC so as to avoid any interference due to ORAC temperature fluctuations.

In the present study, the authors obtained for one patient daily exposed to the ORAC’s field a highly statistically significant increase of the temperature of 0.146 °C (p=2.3810∙10-37), with a peak of 0.57 °C recorded in a day where the weather was clear. Variation of temperature was observed to follow the law of the orgonomic potentials.

Though the present research was based only on one patient, the average increase of temperature observed agrees very well with that obtained by Reich,43 and later authors with the addition that the long-term research we carried out encompassed all seasonal but winter conditions.

According to the conclusions of the above-mentioned authors a small increase in body temperature or functional fever may support the theory of a parasympathetic stimulation. However, many agree it’s still unclear today what may be the role of this small increase. Buhl and Fischer reported that a mild fever may be a result of the accumulation of vital energy on the organism which stimulates the immune system.44 This heat might interact with latent infections, parasites, etc., of the organism by healing them, and when those latent diseases have healed up the temperature should not increase anymore even though the subject is still having regular ORAC sessions.

In the present study the authors assumed that this functional fever would have to be identified with the increase of the temperature of bodily fluids and more specifically of the water content of the organism. Besides, it can be argued an exposure of the organism to the concentrated orgone field of the accumulator for 20 minutes might be a sufficient time for the bodily water volume to be permeated by the orgone particles thus triggering a spontaneous reaction that is evidenced as an increase of temperature. It is known that when the organism is at rest the immune system increases its temperature as a repairing process by activating structured healing and regenerating mechanisms. It can be hypothesised the orgone particles that flood and permeate the human organism might provide the necessary information to cause a healing process at the expense of a consumption of calories and subsequent dissipation of heat.

As for the third process, the changes in electrical energy, to the authors’ best knowledge nothing had ever been reported in the literature about this observation. The authors have no plausible explanations to clarify the statistically significant variation of the electric energy in the organism during ORAC sessions. The matter needs further and accurate investigations. Research on this direction is ongoing through the analysis of electric potential measurements of the patient when compared to the surrounding electric potential of the environment before and after ORAC sessions. Results will be the subject of a future publication.

Overall Conclusion

From the results of the above 9-month study it can be concluded the exposure of a human organism to the concentrated orgone energy field typical of the interior of a human-sized orgone accumulator for 20 minutes determines certain effects. Chief amongst these is a variation of the electric properties of the biological tissues of the organism, such as resistance and potential difference, and of bodily temperature. Such variations are interconnected and indexes of activation of biological phenomena still unknown, but with beneficial effects to human beings.

The variation of the measured (resistance, potential difference, and temperature), and calculated (heat and electric energy) physical parameters follows and confirms the correctness of the law of the orgonomic potential.

Limitations of the study

This research was conducted on one patient with no major diseases. More studies need to be done in order to compare the above results with patients of different ages, sex, and who have major diseases. However, although the study was limited in terms of patient numbers it was comprehensive in terms of the length of time studying the variables, the repeated measurement points and the control of the variables themselves. Also, it may increase reliability to use the same person as their own control over time.


The authors would like to thank Leon Southgate for his suggestions in writing the paper.


1 The standard configuration of an ORAC involves a structure made of alternating layers of organic and inorganic materials, with the inner wall lined with a thin sheet of galvanised steel. This configuration stimulates an orgone energy flow from the outside to the inside of the device, thus creating in the interior a higher orgone energy concentration than on the outside.

2 According to Reich’s experiments and observations it might be assumed that an orgone energy wave is produced by the movement of an orgone energy unit.

3 Reich W, Ether, God and Devil, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, pages 139-161.

4 Whittaker E, A History of the Theories of Aether & Electricity, Dover Publications, 2017.

5 For the work of Reynolds on the aether see Reynolds O, The Sub-mechanics of the Universe, Cambridge University Press, UK, 1903; Reynolds O, On an Inversion of Ideas as to the Structure of the Universe (The Rede Lecture, June 10, 1902), Cambridge University Press, 1903; and Mackenzie J, The Structure of the Universe Being a Presentation of Professor Osborne Reynolds’ Theory of Gravitation, Journal of the Minnesota Academy of Science, Vol 4, No 3, pages 385-403, 1910.

6 For the work of Todeschini on the aether see Todeschini M, La Teoria delle Apparenze (Spazio-Dinamica e Psico-bio-fisica), Movimento Psicobiofisico Internazionale S. Marco, Bergamo, Italy, 1949; Todeschini M, Einstein o Todeschini?, Movimento Psicobiofisico Internazionale S. Marco, Bergamo, Italy, 1956; Todeschini M, Decisive Experiments in Moderne Physics, Bergamo, Italy, 1966; Todeschini M, Psicobiofisica, Centro Internazionale di Psicobiofisica, Bergamo, 1977; and Borgognone E, La Realtà Fisica dei Fenomeni Elettrici, Magnetici, Luminosi, Accademia Teatina Delle Scienze, Rome, Italy, 1967.

7 Thomson W (Lord Kelvin), On Ether and Gravitational Matter Through Infinite Space, Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, Vol 2, No 8, August 1901.

8 Lodge O, The Ether and its Functions. Part I, Nature, Vol 27, pages 304-306, January 25, 1883; Lodge O, The Ether and its Functions. Part II, Nature, Vol 27, pages 328-330, February 01, 1883; and Lodge O, Modern Views of the Ether, Nature, Vol 75, pages 519-522, March 28, 1907.

9 See for example Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, at pages 105-106 where Reich refers to light dots (Kreiselwelle) that are visible when one stays for a sufficient amount of time inside an ORAC. At pages 112-113 of the same text Reich called moving energy particles those of the orgone continuum that are drawn inside the accumulator and whose movement is restricted and then stopped by the inner metal walls of the accumulator. According to Reich, in this circumstance particles’ kinetic energy is converted into heat and displayed as a rise of accumulator’s temperature. It is important to stress here that being kinetic energy directly proportional to the mass of the particle, and to the square of its velocity, the orgone particles must possess a mass, even though infinitesimally small, otherwise claiming dynamic or kinetic energy can be converted into heat is unsustainable. Reich’s view is that orgone particles and the orgone continuum in general is massless but this is untenable if one wants to resort to classic physics interpretation. In Reich W, Ether, God and Devil (Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973) at page 146 Reich clearly speaks of orgone energy units that form in the orgone ocean by concentration, and others that end their existence by energy dissipation. At page 152 of the same book Reich refers to deep blue-violet luminating dots as one of the form of the orgone energy continuum. And in Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second report, 1951-1956. OROP Desert Ea 1954-1955 (Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957) at pages 37-42 Reich describes the qualities of orgone dots or energy units of different size and intensity that from time to time emerge from the substratum of the primordial cosmic energy continuum.

10 See the discussion on the effects of the Oranur experiment and the connection between physics and metaphysics in Reich W, The Oranur Experiment. First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, Usa, 1951, at pages 326-334; see also Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, Avon Books, New York, October 1969, pages 195-196; and Wyvell L, Orgone and You, Offshoots of Orgonomy, N° 12, page 8.

11 The atomists of the medieval Islamic East tradition maintain that the atom (kalam) is a physically and conceptually minimal unit of magnitude and, when a finite number of these atoms are combined or aggregated together so as to form a body, they continue to exist within the body fully in actuality as discrete articulated units (masfil). The kalam is physically indivisible and has a minimal or non-zero amount of spatial (three dimensions) magnitude that exists in and moves through space, and thus it is distinct from the space it occupies (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021). Prominent atomists were al-Juwayni (1028-1085), al-Ghazali (1058–1111), al-Sharastani (c. 1075-1153), and al-Razi (1149-1210). For more information see Wolfson HA, The Philosophy of the Kalam, Harvard University Press, 1976; Baffioni C, Atomismo e Antiatomismo nel Pensiero Islamico, Series Minor, Istituto Universitario Orientale, Naples, Seminario di Studi Asiatici, 16, Rome 1982; Dhanani A, The Physical Theory of Kalam, Atoms, Space, and Void in Basrian Mu’tazili Cosmology, EJ Brill, Leiden, 1994; van Ess J, 60 Years After: Shlomo Pines’s Beitrage and Half a Century of Research on Atomism in Islamic Theology, Proceedings of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, 8.2, 2002; and Sabra AI, Kalam Atomism as an Alternative Philosophy to Hellenizing Falsafa, in Arabic Theology, Arabic Philosophy, From the Many to the One: Essays in Celebration of Richard M Frank, Edited by Montgomery EJ, Peeters, Leuven, 2006.

12 Taylor CCW, The Atomists: Leucippus and Democritus. Fragments. A Text and Translation with a Commentary, University of Toronto Press, 1999; Berryman S, Leucippus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016; and Berryman S, Democritus, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2016. The work of the atomists was erroneously considered the basis of modern science. In fact, the term atomos of Leucippus and Democritus, first introduced by Gassendi in the first half of the 17th century, was adopted by Dalton to develop the fundamentals of chemistry. The atom was considered to be the smallest part making up matter. However, this was not the case, and subsequent experiments revealed the atom to be made of many smaller particles. Clearly, the atom of traditional physics has nothing in common with that conceived by Leucippus and Democritus. Unfortunately, the atomists are still considered the forerunners of one of the best-known building blocks, the atom, of which matter today is thought to consist. Making a comparison like the above can be argued to be a naive exercise (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021).

13 Maglione R, L’Apeiron di Anassimandro. Un Antesignano dell’Energia Orgonica? In Glielmi N, Maglione R, Wilhelm Reich, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, Italy, 2009. See also Rovelli C, The First Scientist. Anaximander and His Legacy, Westholme Publishing, 2011.

14 Moschus (or Mochus) of Sidon or the lawgiver is identified by many scholars with Moses the Hebrew, the well-known figure of the Pentateuch (in Maglione R, The Aether. Volume 1. A History, Unpublished manuscript, 2021; see also Sailor DB, Moses and Atomism, Journal of the History of Ideas, Vol 25, No 1, Jan-Mar 1964; and McGuire JE, Rattansi PM, Newton and the “Pipes of Pan”, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, Vol 21, No 2, December 1966). A view that Moses was well acquainted in the laws of Orgonomy was recently elaborated and advanced by Maglione developing the work of Isaacs (Isaacs RD, Talking With God. The Radioactive Ark of the Testimony. Communication Through It. Protection From It, Sacred Closet Books, Chicago, 2010) and Reich. According to Isaacs, many words in the Old Testament, and above all in the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Old Testament, used to describe the events and the phenomena related to the Ark of the Covenant had been erroneously translated or were not fully understood in their meaning. What surfaced from Isaacs’ study was a situation totally different from that traditionally depicted, namely an Ark that in certain circumstances was emitting dangerous radiations, a sort of radioactivity, and all the rituals and the sacrifices were developed as safety measures to be followed during the Exodus when approaching the Ark, its interior, or to protect Israelites and the animals of the camp from the radioactivity emitted by the Ark and the Tabernacle. One of the most important methods to protect from the nefarious radioactive cloud was the systematic use of incense’s smoke. The incense was a mixture made of equal parts of storax, galbanum, frankincense, salt and myrrh. Being that the Ark is a device emitting radiation, but at the same time being also an orgone-like accumulator, Maglione applied the laws of Orgonomy. Particularly those laws related to the Oranur state of the orgone continuum were used to study the behaviour of the Ark of the Covenant. He found a striking similarity between what is recounted in the Old Testament and what is described by Reich and his collaborators regarding the Oranur experiment. He identified in the words ruach and kawbode, terms that might potentially represent the orgone energy continuum found by Reich in dynamic flow, and in its Oranur state, respectively. Besides, Maglione found that nefesh, the substance that is present in the blood, could be identified with the orgone units known as bions. Therefore, Maglione considered it logical to think that Moses’ successors such as Joshua, and later Hezekiah and Solomon were accustomed to, and knew very well the laws regulating the use of orgone energy (aether). Maglione believed that for the time being this was a knowledge passed on for centuries to a restricted circle of Jewish initiates. In addition, being that Moses belonged also to the Egyptian elite, where he was brought up and educated, he thinks that this same knowledge was part of the daily practice of a small band of Egyptian initiates (see Maglione R, The legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017). In this context, the similarity is extraordinary, between the Moses of the atomist thought and the Moses of the Pentateuch. The two aspects were contemporary to the same historical period and dealt with the same fundamental theories and issues.

15 Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017.

16 Reich W, The Function of the Orgasm. Volume 1 of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, pages 272-286.

17 Planck M, Das Wesen der Materie (The Nature of Matter), Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797, 1944.

18 Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Usa, 1973.

19 Reich W, The Carcinomatous Shrinking Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, I(2):131-155, July 1942; Reich W, Experimental Orgone Therapy of the Cancer Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, II(1):1-92, March 1943; Reich W, Anorgonia in the Carcinomatous Shrinking Biopathy, International Journal of Sex-Economy & Orgone Research, IV(1):1-33, April 1945; Tropp SJ, The Treatment of a Mediastinal Malignancy with the Orgone Accumulator, Orgone Energy Bulletin, I(3):100-109, 1949; Tropp SJ, Orgone Therapy of an Early Breast Cancer, Orgone Energy Bulletin, II(3):131-138, 1950; Hoppe W, Orgone Versus Radium Therapy in Skin Cancer, Report of a Case, Orgonomic Medicine, I(2):133-138, 1955; Reich E, Reich W, Early Diagnosis of Cancer of the Uterus, Cosmic Orgone Engineering, VII(1-2):47-53, 1955, Raphael CM, Confirmation of Orgonomic (Reich) Tests for the Diagnosis of Uterine Cancer, Orgonomic Medicine, II(1):36-41, 1956.

20 Muschenich S, Gebauer R, The Psycho-Physiological Effects of the Reich Orgone Energy Accumulator, Pulse of the Planet, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, Vol 1, No 2, 1989; and Muschenich S, Einige Zitate und Bemerkungen zur Frage ‘Sind die Begriffe Vagotonie versus Sympathocotonie auf die Wirkungen des Orgons übertragbar?’, Emotion, No 8, pages 68-71, 1987.

21 Hebenstreit G, Der Orgonakkumulator Nach Wilhelm Reich. Eine Experimentelle Untersuchung zur Spannungs-Ladungs-Formel, Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Magistergrades der Philosophie an der Grung- und Integrativ-wissenschaftlichen Fakultat der Universitat Wien, 1995.

22 Mazzocchi A, Maglione R, A Preliminary Study of the Reich Orgone Accumulator Effects on Human Physiology, Subtle Energy & Energy Medicine, Vol 21, No 2, 2010.

23 The Ryodoraku diagnostic technique is based on Nakatami’s research carried out in 1950. He discovered low-resistance electrical points on the human skin (hyper-electric conductive points), located along the longitudinal lines of the body and corresponding to the main energetic meridians of Chinese Medicine and classic Acupuncture. The Ryodoraku technique might be considered well-suited to evaluate ORAC effects on human physiology because it allows an instrumental objective registration (electrical resistance of human skin) of possible changes before and after an ORAC session. These measurements may help to understand physiological changes before and after ORAC exposure, from the viewpoints of both Reich’s orgonomy and that of Chinese Medicine.

24 Grad B, The Accumulator Effect on Leukemia Mice, Journal of Orgonomy, 26(2):199-218, 1992.

25 Blasband RA, The Orgone Energy Accumulator in the Treatment of Cancer Mice, Journal of Orgonomy, 7(1):81-85, 1973; and Blasband RA, Effects of the Orac on Cancer in Mice: Three Experiments, Journal of Orgonomy, 18(2):202-211, 1984.

26 Aprile T, Carlino F, Del Prete S, Angelone I, Cammisa A, Cusani F, Dello Iacovo N, Orgone Blanket as a Complementary Support in the Treatment of an Atrophic-Cancer Biopathy, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, October 02, 2018.

27 Senf B, Wilhelm Reich: Discoverer of Acupuncture Energy? American Journal of Acupuncture, Vol 7 (2):109-118, 1979; Senf B, Wilhelm Reich: Discoverer of Acupuncture Energy? Pulse of the Planet, Vol 1 (2): 25-30, 1989; and Senf B, Die Wiederentdeckung des Lebendigen. Erforschung der Lebensenergie Durch Reich, Schauberger, Lakhovsky u.a., Omega Verlag, Aachen, Germany, 2003.

28 Southgate L, Chinese Medicine and Wilhelm Reich, European Journal of Oriental Medicine, UK, (4) 4:31-41, 2003.

29 Kavouras J, Heilen mit Orgonenergie.Turm Verlag, Bietigheim, 2005; and Buhl H, Fischer J, Energie! Heilung und Selbstheilung mit Lebensenergie, Ulrich Leutner Verlag, Berlin, 2007; Maglione R, Mazzocchi A, Biofisica e Medicina Orgonica, Nuova Ipsa, Palermo, Italy, 2013, and Shapiro N, My Cancer and the Orgone Box, The Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust, Rangeley, Maine, Usa, 2019.

30 The basal metabolic rate (BMR) gives the daily rate of energy metabolism an individual needs to sustain in order to preserve the integrity of vital functions. In a normal free-living person, the amount of energy provided by its diet must cover the demands of basal metabolism plus additional amounts needed for the physical activity associated with essential bodily needs, and also those imposed by the physical work involved in occupation, in engaging in social exchanges and in leisure activities (Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurements and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition; 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2002).

31 Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurement and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2005.

32 DuBois D, DuBois EF, The Measurements of the Surface Area of Man, Archives of Internal Medicine, 1915, 15:868-75.

33 The phenomenon of variation of body temperature during an ORAC session had been observed by many authors and is well documented in the Orgonomic literature (see Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2012, pages 13-82).

34 Spaggiari P, Tribbia C, Le Meraviglie dell’Acqua. Il Mistero Biofisico che ci Dona la Vita, Tecniche Nuove, Milan, 2007, page 40.

35 As average value is intended the ratio of the summation of the daily values to the total number of days (226).

36 A book on the history of the aether is planned to be published by the author in the very near future.

37 For dynamic conditions the authors refer to the condition of orgone energy that is not affected by secondary energies that can create an Oranur or a DOR state.

38 Henry CJK, Basal Metabolic Rate Studies in Humans: Measurement and Development of New Equations, Public Health Nutrition 8(7A), 1133-1152, 2005.

39 Muschenich S, Gebauer R, The Psycho-Physiological Effects of the Reich Orgone Energy Accumulator, Pulse of the Planet, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, Usa, Vol 1, no 2, 1989; see also Muschenich S, Einige Zitate und Bemerkungen zur Frage ‘Sind die Begriffe Vagotonie versus Sympathocotonie auf die Wirkungen des Orgons übertragbar?’, Emotion, No.8, pp. 68-71, 1987; and Müschenich S, Der Gesundheitsbegriff im Werk des Arztes Wilhelm Reich (The Concept of Health in the Works of Dr. Wilhelm Reich), Doktorarbeit am Fachbereich Humanmedizin der Philipps-Universitat Marburg, Verlag Gorich & Weiershauser, Marburg, 1995.

40 Ritter P, Ritter J, Orgonomic Functionalism, Vol II, 1955; see also Sconamiglio R, et al, Piani e Istruzioni Per l’Accumulatore di Energia Orgonica, Quaderni Andromeda, 92:1-15, 2005.

41 Correa PN, Correa A, Transiently Induced Hyperthermia in Humans Exposed to a Controlled Orac Environment, AS2-33: Exp Aetherom.; Series 2, Vol 4 (33):1-27, 2007.

42 Mazzocchi A, Maglione R, A Preliminary Study of the Reich Orgone Accumulator Effects on Human Physiology, Subtle Energy & Energy Medicine, Vol 21, No 2, 2010.

43 Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 1973, page 317.

44 Buhl H, Fischer J, Energie! Heilung und Selbstheilung mit Lebensenergie, Ulrich Leutner Verlag, Berlin, 2007.


Luca Piergentili graduated in computer engineering in 2004 with specialization in databases, data analysis and design of digital communication systems. He is a designer and manufacturer of control units for industrial equipment and atmospheric phenomena.

Piergentili is a founding member and coordinator of the border science department of the Fermo 43° Parallelo association. His interest encompasses research and study of new technologies and new forms of energy. In his free time he does the hiking guide of the Sibillini park.

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Armando Vecchietti, MBiol

The paper reports and discusses a test for early cancer diagnosis. The test was developed by Reich and is based on his research on cancer biopathy, and on a new way to understand cancer mechanisms and processes. It can diagnose cancer greatly in advance of what the traditional tests can do and in addition in a period where no clues to the disease are supposed to exist by traditional oncology. It is focused on microscopic examination of biological samples such as blood, urine or sputum. Results of microscope laboratory examinations performed in-house on different biological samples, taken from patients with different health conditions, are shown and discussed in the paper. All the above materials belong to the laboratory’s archive of the writer.

The results fully confirm Reich’s assumptions and findings and evidence an early onset of the cancer disease even in people that are considered healthy and with no indication of the disease by classical oncology. In addition, it was observed that the development process of the precursors of the cancer cells (Ca I, Ca II, Ca III cells and T-bacilli) is common in humans and animals and it is irrespective of sex, age, and type of oncological pathology, being a universal process.

Introduction and background
Reich was the first to study in-vivo the behavior of living cells and tissues from a bioenergetic perspective by extensively investigating samples taken from healthy and cancer patients. He found that the bio-energetically weaker cells of the organism undergo, before the occurrence of the actual cancer disease as we characterize it today, slow but progressive changes that lead them finally to develop into the future cancer cell (1).

Reich found that the first phase in the formation of the cancer cell is characterized by indicators or precursors, such as bionous disintegration of the healthy cell and the associated development of the T-bacilli.
First studies date back to the late 1930s when he was in Oslo:

"3. Infusions of dried moss or grass collected in autumn show, if observed continually with a magnification of from 400x to 4000x, the following sequence of events: vesicular disintegration, after soaking and swelling separation of the vesicles in the form of cocci, concentration and organization (via formation of a membranous margin) into unicellular protists of vesicular structure ….

4. Exactly as protists develop out of swelled disintegrated moss, the cancer cells organize themselves in vesicular disintegrated animal and human tissues. The most important steps of this development are according to observations until now: Swelling of the tissue, vesicular structuring, formation of spindle-shaped organisms, strongly light-refracting and biologically stainable heaps of vesicles, and finally further development into mobile ameboid, creeping "mature" cancer cells." (2)

"These organisms [T-bacilli] result from degeneration of certain types of bion cultures, and from experimental degeneration of certain proteins. They are called T, i.e. "Tod" (Death) bacilli because of their origin and their deadly effect on mice. They are short flitting rods of about 0.25-0.6 μm. …. They have a sharp acid and ammonia-like smell. In large doses they kill mice within 24 hours. In small doses they produce in the course of from 8 to 15 months infiltrating and destructive growths in the form of tumors, or only cellular growths without a circumscribed primary tumor in kidneys, lungs, liver, glands, etc. They can be cultivated in pure culture from the cardiac blood of mice which died or were killed, and if again inoculated, they produce the same pathological changes as before." (3)

The identification, observation and study of the bionous disintegration and the formation of T-bacilli led Reich to understand the mechanism of the formation of the cancer cell and to provide a tool to make a very early diagnosis of cancer in a patient. This is in sharp contrast with classical oncology methodologies that require, in order to make a reliable cancer diagnosis, the cancer cell or the tumor to be already present in the patient.
Reich found the cancer cell formed and developed according to the following five different steps:

  1. Vesicular disintegration of cells (Ca I)
  2. Aggregation and reorganization of vesicles (Ca II)
  3. Evolution and development of caudate cells (Ca III)
  4. The mature cancer cell (Ca IV)
  5. The final phase of the cancer tumor: putrid disintegration (Ca V)

He called the cell characterizing each of the above steps Ca I, Ca II, Ca III, Ca IV, and Ca V respectively.

Each step is characterized by a specific cell shape and configuration. The full cancer process can be represented by two main distinct phases. Phase 1 is consisting of the steps Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III that Reich considered precursors of the future cancer cell and tumor mass as we know it today by classical oncology. While, phase 2 is characterized by the steps Ca IV and Ca V, where the cancer cell and the tumor mass are at this point well developed. It is noteworthy that the presence of Ca I, Ca II and Ca III cells allow us an early diagnosis in a period when, according to classical oncology, the disease does not exist yet.

Reich found this process common to all solid tumors and evidence that all types of tumor are characterized by the same mechanisms that at last lead to the formation of the characteristic cancer cell. In particular Ca I, Ca II, Ca III cells are the precursors of all solid tumor cancer cells and the different cancers are not different pathologies but the same pathology characterized by the same manifestations. In addition, Reich found that this process is typical of a human organism, without distinction of sex and age, and also of animals.

It is clear from the above classification that the working area of classic oncology is represented only by phase 2 of the full cancer process (Ca IV and Ca V steps), where the cancer cell and the tumor mass is present and developed at different degree. While, in phase 1 there is no recognition of potential indicators or precursors of a future insurgence of the cancer cell and disease.

According to these findings, Reich could develop a powerful tool for an extremely early diagnosis of cancer and determine, much in advance of the insurgence of the future cancer cell, all the concurrent conditions that could then give rise to the formation of the classical cancer cell. He observed that the blood played a key role in the early diagnosis process as, by circulating throughout the body, it might provide precious and first-hand information about the general energy condition of the organism.

The main characteristics and peculiarities of the steps grouped in phase 1 and 2 of the cancer cell formation, and development are briefly summarized in Figure 1.

Cancer consists of two phases. The 1st phase, completely unknown to classical oncology, consists of the transformation of healthy cells into the precursors of the cancer cells. While in the 2nd phase it is characterized by death and putrid decomposition of the mature cancer cells. The early diagnosis test identifies the transformations that occur in the 1st phase characterized by the presence of particular cellular formations that Reich called cells: Ca I – Ca II – Ca III.

The identification of these precursors, which appear much before the tumor mass or the mature cancer cells, allows the making of a very early diagnosis of cancer that anticipates by many years the common tests used today by classical oncology.

Figure 1 – Summary of the Cancer Process

Ca I cell. In this first step of the cancer process the low energetic level of the organism may affect the energetic qualities and characteristics of blood and tissues. Peculiar and meaningful alterations of the basic health conditions of blood red cells and tissues can be evaluated at the optical microscope. As far as the tissues are concerned, the tendency to a rapid vesicular reaction and the presence of T-bacilli are one of the most important indicators of the impending development of the cancer cell. As far as the blood red cells are concerned they show the two following features:

  • When they are energetically charged, they are visible at the microscope as bright, bluish spheres embedded like pearls in the stroma. Figure 2 shows an example of energetically charged red blood cells of a human blood examined at the microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive).
Figure 2
  • When their energy is very low, the red blood cells shrink and form thorns like chestnuts in their husk. Figure 3 shows an example of energetically weak red blood cells of a human blood examined at the microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive). This condition takes place much earlier than the formation of the first classical cancer cell, and is the very first indication of the potential formation of the future cancer cell.
Figure 3

Ca II cell. This step is characterized by an acute inflammatory condition. The vesicular reaction of the cells continues and evolves while the T-bacilli do not change and maintain the same characteristics throughout the cancerous process. The T-bacilli continue to trigger the vesicular reaction of the cells. The Ca II step is characterized by the fact the vesicles are starting to aggregate inside the cell along the cell membrane. The aggregations lose their vesicular feature to form a new structure that develops at the expenses of the original cell. Figure 4 shows an example of regrouping of bions inside a cell from a human urinary sediment (picture from writer’s lab archive). The arrow in the figure shows the vesicles that are starting to aggregate and merging.

Figure 4

Ca III cell. This step is characterized by a variety of features. The cells can appear spindle-shaped or club-tailed, with caudate, oval or round shape. Figure 5 shows an example of Ca III cell from a human urinary sediment (picture from writer’s lab archive). They also show a large variety of sizes, and an extraordinary variety of natural colors, in contrast with samples of artificially-colored tissues. They reproduce quickly as can be observed at the microscope.

Figure 5

All the cells above described generally have a low motility and are not too dangerous. However, the Ca III diagnosis contemplates a cluster of club-shaped cells that then are going to create the first tumor mass. This is the turning point of the early diagnosis. These cells are the last stage of early diagnosis.

With the presence of the Ca III cells, the formation of the tumor mass starts which only now becomes visible and recognizable and therefore can be diagnosed by classical oncology.

Reich found that the Ca III step was the most critical in the whole process, in that:

  1. patients that have Ca III cells but do not still have materialist evidence of cancer will develop the disease in the following period (months or years)
  2. all cancer patients show in their biological samples Ca III cells
  3. Ca III cells do not belong to any of human tissue.

The cancer process continues with two other steps, Ca IV and Ca V. Actually, we can speak of very early cancer diagnosis test only for Ca I – Ca II – Ca III cells which are characteristic of phase I and present much earlier than the mature cancer cells. With the formation of the tumor mass, however, the disease enters phase II and at this stage the cancer can be easily identified and diagnosed even with the normal tests currently used by classical oncology.
What follows (phase II with the Ca IV and Ca V steps) therefore does not fall within the frame that deals with the very early diagnosis but helps to briefly complete the picture and the description of the cancer process as a whole.

Ca IV cell. The formation of cancer cells and the tumor mass marks the beginning of phase II. In this phase the cells can have a round and elongated shape or become mobile due to the formation of pseudopodia which can sometime be filamentous.

In some cases, the vesicular aggregations develop a membrane that surrounds and envelops them thus developing a protozoa. The mobile protozoa is typical of the Ca IV step. Traditional oncology has repeatedly noted this protozoa but considers it just a parasite. If the body does not die sooner, these formations would become amoebae. At this stage, the malignancy of cancer depends on the degree of maturity of the cancer cells and on the speed at which the tissue is destroyed and decomposed.

Ca V cell. The Ca V step is characterized by necrosis namely a deadly and putrid decomposition of the cells of the tissues. It is the terminal phase of the cancer disease. When very mobile, tailed cells are found the cancer is very advanced. Microscopic image of the tissue in the Ca V step shows the presence of many debris, fragments of cells, vesicles, bacteria and, to higher magnifications, the T-bacilli. The Ca V step is determined and characterized almost exclusively by dying cancer cells that reached the end of their short lifecycle. While the body is still alive the decomposition of the tissues is comparable to the after-death necrosis. It results in a bacteremia and a generalized toxemia of the body. When the cancer does not affect vital functions, the death occurs by generalized putrefaction. This explains why, at last, the disease usually worsens rapidly into death. At this stage, any therapy is unsuccessful.

T-bacilli is a name coined by Reich from the German tod that stands for death, to recall the exceptional degree of danger these micro-organisms take once present and circulating in the living organisms. Cancer research has repeatedly noticed them but has always regarded them as an infection resulting from cancer and never understood their significance. T-bacilli are not new germs. Their most important biological characteristic is to attack the energetically weaker cells and stimulate their vesicular reaction. Indeed, T-bacilli attack healthy but energetically weak cells, forcing them to disintegrate vascularly. In this way, they close the circle of the cancer process triggering the formation of new Ca I cells. The presence of T-bacilli can be detected at the microscope with the darkfield technique on whatever cell, fluid or tumoral mass is obtained. Fresh material for fixing and staining that contains a great amount of T-bacilli can be easily aspirated from the center of a tumoral mass where the tissue is more decomposed.

Samples of very advanced tumor tissue, fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and observed under the microscope, show large areas in the center of the tumor filled with T-bacilli in the form of tiny red dots. T-bacilli are Gram-negative (red-stained), with size of 0.2-0.5 μm. In comparison, vesicles (bions) are Gram-positive and blue-stained, with sizes of few μm.

In terminally-ill patients or in culture they produce a stink typical of an organism in putrefaction. In darkfield they appear as tiny lighted dots and when alive and active they show very fast zig-zag movements. They circulate freely inside the blood flow and in such a way they can reach and hit any cell in whatever part of the body. T-bacilli cannot be obtained directly from the air. Figure 6 shows T-bacilli observed at 400x darkfield microscope (picture from writer’s lab archive).

Figure 6

Materials and Methods
Over the last 30 years a large variety of biological samples were taken by the author from different patients with no clue of the cancer disease or with the cancer already present and developed at different degree and examined at the microscope. All cancer patients followed a course of treatment as prescribed by public or private hospital oncologists. The most taken samples were urinary sediment, blood and sputum. The biological samples were subjected to an in-house microscopic examination being the most suitable technique for this test.

An optic microscope (magnification between 400x and 800x) with an incorporated camera or video camera was used. The biological sample under testing was located on a slide and tested in-vivo as soon as possible. Microscope examinations were performed by an Optika binocular optical microscope with 10x-20x-40x-100x objectives, and 15x eyepiece. A Panasonic NV-GS50 digital video camera, equipped with timer, was used in the recording of the microscope examinations.

Results and Discussion
In this section images from different biological samples examined in-house by the author at the optical microscope are reported for each stage of the cancer cell formation and development process.

Figures 7 shows a healthy reaction of the red blood cells of an energetically healthy and charged patient.

Figure 7

Pictures in Figure 8 shows a magnification of healthy red blood cells.

Figure 8

The step 1 of the cancer process (Ca I) is represented by red blood cells with thorns similar to chestnuts. The cells are characterized by a low degree of bioenergy.  The Figures 9 and 10 show red blood cells from a bio-energetically weak organism and blood.

In the 400x magnified image (Figure 10) the typical appearance of low bioenergy red blood cells characterized by thorns similar to chestnuts in their husk can be observed.

Figure 9
Figure 10

When this framework occurs, and is associated to a pronounced spiky appearance of the red blood cells, a very first diagnosis of Ca I cancer cell (step 1) can be done. For classical Oncology no cancer is present at this time because no cancer cell is detectable yet.

The following Figures 11 and 12 show Ca I cells. These are the first cells that, losing energy, start the vesicular disintegration and produce vesicles.

Figure 11
Figure 12

The following Figure 13 and 14 show the two extreme limits of the red blood cells behavior. In Figure 13 all the red blood cells are energetically-charged, while in Figure 14 they are highly energetically-weak. However, in the daily-practice a limit situation alone can be rarely detected. Most often, an intermediate picture between the two above extreme conditions, where charged and weak red blood cells coexist in different percentages, is found.

Figure 13
Figure 14

If the red blood cells can display a smooth or thorny appearance, the vesicles formed in the Ca I cells are subjected to substantial modifications. They merge and aggregate themselves as shown by the arrows in Figures 15 through 18 giving rise to the formation of Ca II cells obtained from microscopic examination of a whatever vascularly disintegrated cells or from tissues of a bioenergetically-weak organism.

Particularly, in Figure 18, a vesicular aggregation, and evolution with the destruction of the original cell, can be observed.

Figure 15
Figure 16
Figure 17
Figure 18

The step Ca III is characterized by the presence of club-shaped cells as shown in the pictures of Figure 19 taken from microscopic examination. These cells can be observed in any biological tissue. These latter were originally Ca II cells that underwent modifications, by extending themselves. At this stage it is not difficult to find splitting cells.

a b
c d
e f
Figure 19

The club-shaped cells, typical of the step Ca III, are universally present in all patients and in all solid tumors. They cannot be confused with the other cells of the organism because they do not belong to any human tissue. They are the precursors of the tumoral mass. In case the tumoral mass is not present yet at the moment of the test it will appear in the following months.

While in Orgonomy, the developments and the steps towards an oncological pathology can be diagnosed many years in advance by detecting and monitoring the presence of the Ca I, Ca II, and Ca III cells, and of the thorny red blood cells, traditional oncology, in the same conditions, is not able to do a reliable cancer diagnosis in that does not see and recognize any cancer cell (and the presence of the tumoral mass).

The step 4 (Ca IV) is characterized by the presence of ameboid, mobile cells. Figure 20 shows an example of a Ca IV mobile cell taken from sputum of a terminally-ill male patient with a lung cancer.

Figure 20

These Ca IV cells are no longer belonging to those cells of the phase 1 that allow an earlier cancer diagnosis to be done. Indeed, when they appear, the cancer process is in the phase 2 and is already well advanced. At this point cancer can be also diagnosed by the standard methods of classical oncology.

The Ca V cells represent the last step of a terminally-ill patient. In a sample of a patient at this stage all the cells of the different steps above-described can be found. Being an ongoing process, we can find Ca I cells in vesicular disintegration, bionous re-organization into Ca II cells, club-shaped Ca III cells, T-bacilli, all available in a mush or mixture that does not give much hopes to the patient.

Figure 21 shows blood cells and tissues in Ca V taken from the blood of a female dog operated on for breast cancer.

Figure 21

According to the results above reported and obtained by examining at the microscope biological samples of healthy and cancer-ill patients, we were able to ascertain that blood and cells in a bioenergetically-weak organism are morphologically different and distinguishable from those of a bioenergetically-charged organism.

Red blood cells in the blood, too, show two different reactions according to the energy level of the organism.

Bioenergetically-charged red blood cells at the microscope examination exhibit more and more large and turgid bluish vesicles inside the stroma that appear like pearls nestled around a ring. While, bioenergetically-weak red blood cells are instead much smaller, more wrinkled and thorny. As far as cells are concerned, they undergo very clear morphological modifications that reflect the level of the proper bioenergetic charge.

The first signal is the vesicular reaction of the whole cell. In this first step the cytoplasm of the weaker cells fill up of small vesicles (bions) and sometimes even of T-bacilli. Such cells, belonging to the Ca I step, represent the first indication and warning of a scarce or low energetic charge. Over time, being as these vesicles are active, they aggregate and merge themselves thus forming new conglomerates and structures that are surrounded by a membrane. Cells found in this condition are belonging to the Ca II step.

These structures further develop forming oblong cells that Reich called club-shaped cells, belonging to the Ca III step of the full process. Ca III cells are alien to the organism, they do not belong to any human tissue and anticipate the formation of the tumoral mass.

Figure 22 shows pictures of possible cells that can be found when examining at the microscope biological samples of a cancer patient.

Figure 22

The following Figure 23 represents a comparison between pictures of cells that can be found in a healthy organism and in a cancer patient.

Figure 23

The results so far obtained in more than three decades of in-house microscope examinations on a significant number of patients or pets strikingly confirmed Reich’s findings and assumptions. All the modifications observed at the microscope related to the red blood cells and the cells in urinary sediments or sputum occurred exactly as Reich described and reported in his writings. Examinations confirmed that Ca I and Ca II cells appear much in advanced of the time the tumor is detectable.

These cells are the first sign of an ongoing cancer process and can be detected even decades earlier than the actual insurgence of the tumoral mass.

Ca III cells are the precursors of the tumoral mass that in some cases is already present at the time of the test while in other cases can be found some months later.

As above mentioned, the procedure that Reich developed for an early diagnosis of cancer is valid for all solid tumors.

This evidences the fact that all tumoral cells have the same origin and, as a consequence, all kinds of known cancers are indeed one and the same disease. It has also been determined that the process is universal and occurs similarly both in female and male human organisms, independent of age, and similarly, in animals.

The author wishes to thank Roberto Maglione and Leon Southgate for their suggestions in writing the paper.


  1. Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy. Volume II of the Discovery of the Orgone, Farrar Straus & Giroux, New York, 1973; see also Reich W, "Cancer Cells" in Experiment XX, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Vol 3, N° 1, January 1951, Orgone Institute Press, Rangeley, Usa
  2. Reich W, Bion Experiments on the Cancer Problem (dated July 1939), Orgonomic Functionalism, Usa, Volume 7, Spring 2019, page 38
  3. Reich W, Ibid, page 52


Armando Vecchietti

Vecchietti has been studying Reich’s theories since the early 1970’s, and has been doing research on cancer cell development and the Reich blood test for more than 40 years. He is performing routinely Reich blood test for the early diagnosis of cancer in his private practice. Vecchietti presented the results of his investigations in many Conferences both in Italy and abroad, and wrote many papers on the above subjects. He holds a degree in biology taken at the University of Camerino, Italy, in 1977.

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Wilhelm Reich and Psychoanalysis

Psychiatric orgone therapy is a type of psychiatric treatment pioneered by Dr. Wilhelm Reich.

Dr. Wilhelm Reich

The basic principle of this treatment is the establishment of the orderly flow and metabolism of energy in the body. In this type of treatment, the clinician tries to establish the flow of energy in a way that is natural and physiologically ordained from the ocular segment toward the pelvis. Any hinders in the flow of this energetic stream, based on the orgonomic theories,causes psychiatric and physical illnesses. The hinders in the flow of this energy are a consequence of armoring in different segments of the body. The elimination of armoring in the body becomes the main task of the psychiatry orgone therapy. The technique of dissolving the armor is based on character analysis and vegetotherapy. The character analysis functions in the realm of psychology and vegetotherapy functions in the realm of the body. Combination of character analytic technique and vegetotherapy is called psychiatric orgone therapy.


The physiological process and function of the flow of this energy in the body is not understood in conventional medicine, psychiatry, or psychology. Clinicians who understand orgonomic theories and techniques, and understand the physiological function of the energy flow and its significance are also able to discover in their patients, the symptoms and revelations that surfaces in the process of treatment. One of my patients who had episodes of brief psychotic state, once told me the following; “Doctor, sometimes I start to feel as if waves originating from my pelvis are coming up towards my head, at that time I know that if the wave reaches to my head I will fall apart and become psychotic and end up in the hospital. As if my pelvis is my base and sometimes I feel disconnected from my base and I start to flow in space and I feel lost. When the waves start to come up from my pelvis toward my head, I try to make movements of my eyes in some strange ways so I can block it and avoid falling apart”.

From the point of view of conventional psychiatry, psychology or medicine, this statement does not make sense. A clinician unfamiliar with Reich’s theories and Orgonomy will dismiss these statements as “crazy” or “nonsense”. A physician familiar with psychiatric orgone therapy and the theories behind it easily understands this process and is fascinated with the patient’s ability to describe it. Sometimes patients with episodes of psychosis or borderline psychotic state are more in touch with the feelings and sensations in their body than a heavily armored neurotic person who cannot relate with those sensations or physical feelings in their body. Understanding the patient by the principles of the energetic flow and explaining it to her was comforting and reassuring for her. This patient was quite relieved when I explained that her sensations are real and true and I described the theory behind it. She realized that she’s not “crazy” or losing touch with reality. On the contrary, this was validating her sense of reality. I described to her that this wave of energy that she was experiencing in a natural state is supposed to travel in the opposite direction of what she was sensing, from head to pelvis but because of the blocking that she has in her structure, the flow of the waves of energy are blocked and are re-rerouted toward the opposite direction of its natural flow- from pelvis towards the head, consequently causing problems. She felt strengthened and her fear of disintegration diminished. This woman was molested as a child, and when she tried telling her mother about the molestation, she remembered that she was confronted with a harsh and punitive attitude and she was frightened. From there on she was confused sexually, she developed shame and anger but was antagonizing her own mother by acting out sexually. She was promiscuous and was having affairs with different people but never fully enjoyed it, partly because she was using sexual act as contempt toward her mother rather than a loving act with mutual pleasure. Although she was promiscuous however, she was never able to fully discharge her sexual pent-up energy and never had full satisfaction. The armoring in the pelvis was expected in this particular patient and could have been traced back to the traumatic events in her childhood.

Wilhelm Reich was a student of Freud and in the book of “Function of Orgasm” he states:

I had been apprehensive in going to him—I went away cheerful and happy. From that day on, I spent fourteen years of intensive work in and for psychoanalysis. In the end, I was severely disappointed in Freud. Fortunately, this disappointment did not lead to hatred and rejection. Quite contrary; today I can appreciate Freud’s achievement in a far better and deeper way than I could in those days of youthful enthusiasm. I am happy to have been his student for such a long time, without having criticized him prematurely, and with complete devotion to his cause. (2)

The development of psychiatric orgone therapy was based on Freud’s Libido Theory. A theory which was soon abandoned by Freud’s students.

Freud, Sigmund: with Hall, Jung, Brill, Jones, and Ferenczi

Reich, however, considered the libido, the theory of Energy, as the most important theory of psychoanalysis which is the basis of other theories. In the book “Reich Speaks of Freud”, Reich says:

Basically, Freud discovered the principle of energy functioning of psychic apparatus. The energy–functioning principle. This was what distinguished him from all other psychologists. Not so much the discovery of unconscious. The unconscious, the theory of unconscious, was, to my mind, a consequence of a principle he introduced into psychology. That was the principle, the natural scientific principle, of energy—the “libido theory.” You know today very little is left of it. I consider my bio-energetic work with the emotions to be a direct continuation of that energy principle in psychology. (3)

The social and political consequences of the libido theory are in contradiction with the bases of social and political institutions in our society, therefore scientific circles have ignored and suppressed the consideration of this theory and unfortunately deprived medicine, psychology and sociology from the rich results which can be attained from the elaboration of orgonomic science.

Reich, in the book of “Function of Orgasm”, says:

One after the other, they discarded or watered down the libido theory. Freud was well aware of the difficulties involved in championing the libido theory. But, in the interest of self-preservation and the consolidation of the movement, he could not permit himself to say what, in a more honest world, he would certainly have stood up for all alone. (4)

However, the psychological, medical and social consequences of these theories are undeniable.


  1. Reich W.: Function of Orgasm, translated by Vincent R. Carfango (page 266).
  2. Ibid: (page 35).
  3. Reich W.: Reich Speaks of Freud, 1954 (page 15).
  4. Reich W.: Function of Orgasm, translated by Vincent R. Carfango (page 215).

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Wilhelm Reich and Revolution

Wilhelm Reich and Revolution

In the book of Function of Orgasm, in relation to changes that happened after World War I, Dr. Reich says the following:

After World War I, which had destroyed many compulsive authoritarian institutions, the European democracies wanted “to lead people to freedom”. But this freedom striving European world committed a major assessment error. It failed to see what thousands of years of suppression of the vital energies in man had bred beneath the surface. It failed to see the far reaching universal defect of character neurosis. The severe catastrophe of the psychic plague, i.e. the catastrophe of the irrational human character structure swept over large parts of the world, in the form of the victory of dictatorship. (1)

The major assessment error that Dr. Reich talks about in this paragraph keeps repeating over and over and therefore we see similar catastrophes again and again.

In the book Listen Little Man, Reich states:

From time to time you lift your head out of muck and shout hurrah! A frog croaking in a swamp is closer to life. (2)

In the book Children of the Feature, Dr. Reich says:

During the past century, our parents and grandparents have repeatedly tried to penetrate the wall of social evil with all kinds of social theories, political programs, reforms, resolutions and revolutions. They have failed miserably every time; not one attempt at an improvement of the human lot has succeeded. More than that or rather worse than that the misery became deeper and the entanglement worse with every new attempt. The present generation, i.e. those who are in their maturity today, the thirty to sixty year olds, have inherited the confusion and tried hard but in vein to get out of it. Some have been able to raise their heads above the chaos; others have been dragged into the whirlpool, never to emerge again. In other words, we have failed miserably as builders of a new orientation in life. We were too much burdened with our own past entanglements. We have carried chains on our legs while we tried desperately to jump into freedom. We fail and as a generation we shall never make it. (3)

Is there, then, no hope at all? There is hope, much hope, if only we muster, the courage and the decency to realize our miserable failure. Then, and only then, shall we be able to see where and how we can pitch in and help….We cannot tell our children what kind of world they will or should build. But we can equip them with the kind of character structure and biological vigor which will enable them to make their own decisions, to find their own ways to build their own future and that of their children, in a rational manner. (4)

Here let’s explore a bit about what Dr. Reich means by "chains" that has been carried on our legs which has prevented us as a human race to jump into freedom, and what does he mean when he says to provide our children the "character structure" which will enable them to progress. Dr. Reich does not talk about chains just as a figure of speech. He implies a deeper concept behind it. The chains that he talks about are the human character deformities that in Orgonomy we know it as character armor. In the previous articles in this journal we have explained how antisexual and authoritarian upbringing of children causes them to become armored. Dr. Herskowitz in his previous articles and speeches explained the character armor as the following:

Armoring converts free laughter into a chuckle or twitter; it may cause a woman to speak in a little girl’s voice. It does not merely change a function by degree but by a kind. It renders behavior more predictable, more stereotyped. Armoring puts life in constraint. Armoring is most often revealed in muscular tension but it is also revealed in eyes that are glazed, in excessive body fat, etc. [Armoring] is a dynamic event and it entails the consumption of energy. It constrains us physically, emotionally, and ideationally. It is a cocoon to which we gradually become accustomed. (5)

A society that is composed of the individuals with distorted character will be prone to fascistic ideologies, discrimination based on differences of any kind, deception and violence, etc. Dr. Reich in the book of The Mass psychology of Fascism states the following:

Extensive and pain steaking therapeutic work on human character has led me to the conclusion that as a rule we are dealing with 3 different layers of biopsychic structure in the evaluation of human reactions. As I demonstrated in my book Character- Analysis, these layers of the character structure are deposits of social development, which function autonomously. On the surface layer of his personality the average man is reserved, polite, compassionate, responsible, and conscientious. There would be no social tragedy of the human animal if this surface layer of the personality were in direct contact with the deep natural core. This unfortunately is not the case. The surface layer of the social cooperation is not in contact with the deep biological core of one’s self hood; it is borne by a second an intermediate character layer, which consists exclusively of cruel sadistic, lashivishes, ruptiousius and envious impulses. It represents the Freudian "unconscious" or what is repressed; to put it in a language of sex economy it represents the sum total so called "secondary drives". (6)

In the book The Function of Orgasm, Dr. Reich says:

Sexual suppression biological rigidity, moralism and asceticism are not confined to certain class or strata of the population. They are found everywhere". (7)

In Numerous writings Dr. Reich asserts the fact that real democracy will evolve by understanding of human structure and healthy upbringing of children free of harsh oppression of healthy psychosexual forces. To this end he indicates that to understand orgonomic principles of healthy upbringing of children and to bring human psychology to sociology and politics one has to revamp his thinking.

In the book Reich Speaks of Freud Dr. Reich states:

You have to revamp your whole way of thinking, So that you don’t think from the standpoint of the state and the culture and this or that, but from the standpoint of what people need, what they suffer from. Then you arrange your social institutions accordingly. Not the other way around. Now, that is foreign to the mind of a Marxist politician today. They only think in terms of "productive forces". They think in terms of the state. I think in terms of human beings and what they need. If I had anything to say politically, everything which exists would be arranged in accordance with what the child needs, the infant needs, the adolescent needs, you need, I need and everybody needs. Now, here, sociology becomes separated from politics for the first time. (8)

Therefore the fundamental change of human social structure based on orgonomic principles will not happen by continuation of contemporary upbringing and education of the children which makes them grow up armored, with chains on their legs and restrictions in their character. Any social change which is built upon defected and ruined human character will eventually crumble as history attests to this.

Dr. Reich in the book Reich Speaks of Freud states the following:

But I assure you that there is no solution to this world’s problems unless this point is cleared up, sociologically, politically, economically, psychologically, structurally, characterological, in every single respect. "I don’t believe that there will be any solution of any social problem as long as children and adolescents grow up with the stasis of biological energy". (9)

Philosophers, poets and writers have recognized the repetition of human atrocities with one predicament or other throughout the history. A contemporary Persian poet Ahmad Shamlou has a poetry titled "What a Slaughter House is this History of Humanity". In this poetry he depicts through Persian history of how one group is always killing others under different predicaments until today. This is also true in the history of all other countries. Therefore it is our opinion to help materialize every child’s earliest wishes "to save the world from war, destruction, evil and unhappiness". It is imperative, to study orgonomic theories in raising the children all over the world to help create a better world, where children can grow as they are ordained to.


(1). Reich W.: Function of Orgasm, translated by Vincent R. Carfango (page 235).

(2). Reich W.: Listen Little Man, translated by Ralph Manheim with illustrations by William Steig (page 99).

(3). Reich W.: Children of Future, translated by Derek and Inge Jordan (page 5).

(4). Ibid (page 6).

(5). Herskowitz M.: Excerpts from lecture in Germany, December 1993. Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy

(6). Reich W.: The Mass Psychology of Fascism, third edition (page xi).

(7). Reich W.: Function of Orgasm, translated by Vincent R. Carfango (page 11).

(8). Reich W.: Reich Speaks of Freud, 1954 (page 50).

(9). Ibid (page 26).

Posted in SociologyComments (1)

My Cancer and the Orgone Box

Article by David Silver

In August of 1962, Norman Shapiro was diagnosed with inoperable lung cancer. Ten years later, he wrote a book—a truly unique first person account of his experiences with both classical medicine and orgone therapy in the treatment of his illness.

Thanks to the generous donation of the manuscript to the Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust by Ann Shapiro, daughter of Norman Shapiro, we hereby announce the publication of this fascinating, detailed, historical record of one man’s life and death struggle to navigate his way through the emotional and physical consequences of a cancer diagnosis in the year 1962 using all means available to him at the time.

Especially poignant, given that the story took place in the years just after Dr. Reich died in federal prison, where he found himself as a result of a legal morass initiated by the United States Food and Drug Administration’s accusation that his experiments with the orgone energy accumulator on patients constituted "peddling" of a fraudulent medical device.

Norman Shapiro was not a "Reichian" zealot. In fact, he was quite pessimistic about his fate and did not really believe that orgone therapy or the orgone energy accumulator would benefit him. Rather, he was urged by his wife to fight for his life by giving this form of treatment a chance after the harsh cobalt radiation treatment he received weakened him without producing any improvement in his condition.

Whether Shapiro’s recovery resulted, in fact, from his use of the orgone energy accumulator, or whether he was simply a "miracle case," as he was described by his cancer doctor, we can never know for certain. But it is not a matter of belief. Only conscientious and bona fide scientific research can provide answers relevant to this question.

Regardless of what one believes, this story is like a time capsule which serves the function of giving a human voice to critically important feelings and attitudes about cancer and its treatment which are as relevant today as they were a half-century ago.

Available for purchase via the Magcloud.

Posted in Biopathies & Physical Orgone TherapyComments (1)

Love, Work and Knowledge – The Life and Trials of Wilhelm Reich

It was a combination of inspiration and disgust that motivated me to make this film.

The inspiration, of course, came from Wilhelm Reich himself whose books I began reading in 1972 when I was 18 years old.

The disgust came from the continual distortions and false narratives about Reich that persist to this day in books, articles, museum exhibits, art exhibits, academic lectures, television programs and films. Among the more recent examples, which finally moved me to action, were two poorly researched films from Vienna a few years ago that recklessly and irresponsibly played fast and loose with the facts.


Which begs the obvious questions that I’ve been asking for decades: Why have all films and TV segments about Reich been so careless with the facts? Why have all previous filmmakers and TV producers squandered their opportunities to create accurate and intellectually honest narratives about Reich, when the facts about his life and work are publicly available in thousands of pages of primary sources and other credible materials?

These are rhetorical questions, of course, for which I can offer no definitive answers in terms of personal motivations. But I feel perfectly justified in describing all of these filmmakers and TV producers as intellectually lazy and guided by reasons and agendas other than simply presenting the truth.

For those of us who are profoundly touched in anyway by Reich’s life and work, the inevitable question arises: "What can each of us do-given our individual skills and talents-to present factually accurate narratives about Reich to new and younger audiences?"

My background and skills are in film, writing and teaching. And so, in 2010 at the age of 56-having spent 38 years studying Reich, plus eight years as a director of the Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust (from which I would resign six years later in 2016) plus three years helping to manage Reich’s archives at Harvard’s Countway Library of Medicine (which I would also end in 2016)

-I decided that there needed to be at least one factually-accurate documentary film about Reich, a film that could be used as an intellectually-honest learning tool for all kinds of audiences today and in future generations.

And since no one else had ever made such a film, I decided that I would do it. This became a process and a journey that would take seven years, starting in November 2010 and ending in December 2017.

In November 2010, I began to research and write the basic storyline-what was essentially my road map and my "Bible"-for a factually-accurate documentary about the life and work of Wilhelm Reich. And I did this for several years with absolutely no idea of how or where or if I could ever get the money to make this film.

This, I think, is what sets this film apart from all other films about Reich: the extensive research and writing I did prior to raising a single penny, prior to going out with camera crews to shoot a single frame.

This included re-reading over 7,500 pages of Reich’s published books and research journals, studying hundreds of pages of the U.S. government’s files on Reich (State Department, FBI, Immigration & Naturalization Service, and Food & Drug Administration); and reading hundreds of pages of Reich’s archival materials at the Countway Library of Medicine. I also listened to dozens of Reich’s original voice recordings from the 1940s and 1950s, all of this to write out a comprehensive storyline and chronology, a roadmap that would guide me through the production and post-production of this project.

From 2010 to 2014, I stayed motivated by one single thought: If somehow I could get the money to make this film, then I needed to be completely prepared to take that money and start production. During this time I also spoke with many people in the documentary film world, seeking any kind of financial or institutional support for this project. I was turned down by all of them, which really came as no surprise.

The turning point came in early 2013, and quite by accident: During a routine visit to my local library to peruse the shelves of new books that had recently come in, I found a small yellow paperback entitled The Kickstarter Handbook: Real-Life Crowdfunding Success Stories. While I had vaguely heard of Kickstarter, I knew nothing about crowdfunding.

I took the book home and read it. And immediately I thought, "Maybe, just maybe, this is the answer."That summer I put together a group of six or seven people whom I trusted completely. I sent each of them a copy of The Kickstarter Handbook before we actually met. And we subsequently spent a week together analyzing numerous Kickstarter campaigns and discussing the possibility of planning our own campaign to raise the money for the film that I was researching and writing.

Over the next year, what I now called the Kickstarter Group spoke regularly every month in a telephone conference call. And we met again for a week in July 2014 to put our final plans in place. Three months later-in October and November 2014-we ran a successful 31-day Kickstarter campaign that raised $187,000 from over 30 countries for "Phase One – Production" of this film.

And because of my research and writing over the past four years, I was fully prepared to start the film almost immediately. Less than two months later, in January 2015, we filmed our first interview for this documentary with Dr. Morton Herskowitz, who was then 96 years old. Throughout 2015 my co-director Glenn Orkin and I filmed interviews and locations in six states in America-Arizona, Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New York and Pennsylvania-and in three countries in Europe: Austria, Germany and Norway. After which I ran two more crowdfunding campaigns in 2016 and 2017, which again brought in money from over 30 countries for the editing and final post-production of this documentary.

Also in 2016 and 2017, Glenn and I and our film crew did additional filming in Rangeley, Maine and we spent several days filming materials in Reich’s archives at the Countway Library of Medicine in Boston.

This documentary was officially completed in December 2017, and we screened it for the first time in New York City on January 13, 2018.

Since then, the film has had public screenings in Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany, Greece, Israel, South Africa and the United States (in California, Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Jersey and Pennsylvania).  It’s now being digitally streamed on Vimeo-on-Demand  (https://vimeo.com/ondemand/wr1897) while we try to find a permanent home for it on one of the major digital film platforms.

If you missed the film’s screenings in America, Europe and South Africa, which took place for 1½ years from January 2018 to July 2019, you can now watch the film on Vimeo-on-Demand (https://vimeo.com/ondemand/wr1897). Public screenings of this film, followed by online digital streaming, became our guiding strategy once the film was completed in December 2017. But one final detail of this strategy remains: finding a permanent home for this film on one of the major digital platforms (i.e., Amazon Prime, Hulu, iTunes, Netflix, etc.) or in a reputable academic/educational digital library. In this way the film will be secure and accessible in its entirety, uncut and unaltered, with its content and integrity intact.

We’re now working to find that permanent home for the film. So please share this link with anyone who you think might be interested in watching this film. The more viewers we have in this video-on-demand (VOD) market, the better our chances for finding a permanent home for this film. Thank you.

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If you benefited from this article, please help to preserve and promote Wilhelm Reich’s legacy by donating any amount. Your contribution is tax deductible and will be used to help orgonomy institutes including Wilhelm Reich’s museum and infant trust.

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Summer Conference at the Wilhelm Reich Museum

Summer Conference at the Wilhelm Reich Museum

July 8-12 2019, Orgonon, Rangeley, Maine


Between the years 1938 and 1945, Wilhelm Reich wrote six important texts on work democracy:

1939: The Natural Organization of Work
in Work Democracy
1941: Further Problems of Work Democracy
1942: "The Biological Miscalculation in the Human
Struggle for Freedom"
1943: "Give Responsibility to Vitally Necessary Work!" and "Work Democracy versus Politics: The Natural
Forces for the Mastery of the Emotional Pest."
1944: "Work Democracy in Action"

Attendees are encouraged to read these ahead of time. When you register prior to the conference, three will be sent to you. The others are included as the final three chapters of The Mass Psychology of Fascism. We will explore the development of Reich’s ideas but also how we can put them to use in our own lives, to get practical benefit and to help others.

CONFERENCE SCHEDULE (subject to change):

Monday 8 July
9:00 am -10:30 am – Welcome, introduction to the topic: James
Strick, PhD
10:45 am – 1:00 pm – Reich’s articles on work democracy, part 1:
Philip Bennett, PhD
2:30 pm – 4:00 pm – Sit in closed Orgone Room for visual
observations (weather permitting–we will do it on the first
sunny, low humidity day)
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm – Lakeside Theatre, Rangeley, screening of
Love, Work and Knowledge: the Life and Trials of Wilhelm Reich

Tuesday 9 July
9:00 am – 1:00 pm – Reich’s writings on work democracy, part 2:
Philip Bennett, PhD
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm – Lakeside Theatre, Rangeley, screening of Love, Work and Knowledge…

Wednesday 10 July
9:00 am – 1:00 pm – Reich writings on work democracy, part 3:
David Brahinsky, PhD
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm – International panel discussion from a variety
of different perspectives about Reich’s ideas on work democracy
(various participants from the US, Mexico, Germany, Norway)

Thursday 11 July
9:00 am – 10:30 am – Patricia Estrada, MA, Using Reich’s Principles
in a Current Organization
10:45 am – 12 noon – Thomas Riepenhausen, MA, Work Democracy
in Practice Today
12 noon – 1:00 pm – Open discussion
2:30 pm – 4:30 pm – Hike to Cascade Gorge (bring a bathing suit if
you want to swim)
7:00 pm – 9:00 pm – 2009 video interview with Mary Boyd Higgins,
Trustee of WRITF 1959-2019

Friday 12 July
9:00 am – 10:30 am – Audio tape from the Reich archives on
Reich’s use of work democratic ideas in his own organizations
10:45 am – 12 noon – Discussion of tape
12 noon – 1:00 pm – Panel discussion with all speakers

Spanish translation will be provided.

Saturday 13 July (optional)
For those who can stay through Saturday night, a concert of standards from the great American songbook will be performed by renowned jazz pianist Andy Kahn on Saturday evening July 13th.


EARLY BIRD REGISTRATION FEE (good though 20 May 2019) – $275.00
After 20 May, fee will be $325.00
Includes tuition, information packet, daily homemade breakfast and refreshments. A 25% discount is available for full-time college students who can document their status and for those traveling from outside the US and Canada. Registration may be made using check Mastercard, Visa, or American Express. Call 207-864-3443, send check to Orgonon, PO Box 687, Rangeley, Maine 04970 USA, or e-mail info@wilhelmreichtrust.org

Conference Building at Orgonon (Wilhelm Reich Museum) located on Dodge Pond Road in Rangeley, Maine

IRS regulations permit an income tax deduction for educational expenses to maintain or improve professional skills.

Hotels, motels, bed & breakfasts, lakefront cottages and other rentals, and campgrounds are available in and around Rangeley. We encourage you to make reservations early as this is the busy season. Try vrbo.com or AirBNB, or for information on the region, contact the Rangeley Chamber of Commerce: 800-685-2537 or email: mtlakes@rangeley.org

To apply for the Mary Boyd Higgins and Chester M. Raphael Scholarships, please contact us at: info@wilhelmreichtrust.org. All applications must be received by May 15, 2019.

Call us at 207-864-3443, or e-mail: info@wilhelmreichtrust.org

Passages from selected articles by Wilhelm Reich:

Work democracy implies the triumph of rational thinking, work, knowledge, and natural love over mysticism, serfdom, political chicanery, pornography, deception, disenfranchisement, and exploitation of the masses.

Whoever tells the people, "I can’t promise you anything, I can’t help you, you and you alone must bear the responsibility for your lives"–this is the one who doesn’t release them from their responsibility but rather enlightens them and charges them with it; this is the one who will have understood the true meaning of work democracy.

Work democracy is not an ideological system. Nor is it a "political" system, which could be imposed upon human society by the propaganda of a party, individual politicians, or any group sharing a common ideology. Natural work democracy is the sum total of all functions of life governed by the rational interpersonal relations that have come into being, grown and developed in a natural and organic way. What is new in work democracy is that for the first time in the history of sociology, a possible future regulation of human society is derived not from ideologies or conditions that must be created, but from natural processes that have been present and have been developing from the very beginning.

Work democracy consciously develops formal democracy, which is expressed in the mere election of political representatives and does not entail any further responsibility on the part of the electorate, into a genuine, factual, and practical democracy on an international scale. This democracy is borne by the functions of love, work and knowledge and is developed organically. It fights mysticism and the idea of the totalitarian state not through political attitudes but through practical functions of life, which obey their own laws. In short, natural work democracy is a newly discovered bio-sociologic, natural and basic function of society.

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Mary Boyd Higgins 13 October 1925 – 8 January 2019

Mary Boyd Higgins 13 October 1925 – 8 January 2019

Mary Boyd Higgins was born on 13 October 1925 into a well-to-do family in Indianapolis, Indiana.  Educated at Vassar College, she graduated in May 1946 with a degree in Theater (Dramatic Production).  In January 1947 she moved to New York City and became involved in the theater scene, with a goal of becoming an actress.  She also lived in Paris for a year, 1950-1951, and upon her return continued piano studies with a teacher in New York City.  Her piano teacher first gave her Wilhelm Reich’s The Function of the Orgasm to read, a book she felt "made a lot of sense."  Later when in some personal difficulties she called the Orgone Energy Clinic in NYC and began therapy, 1953-1956, with Dr. Chester Raphael.

After Reich’s death, his daughter Eva became the Trustee of his estate; however, after a year she stated she no longer wanted the job.  For several weeks no one stepped forward, causing a perilous legal limbo for the fledgling Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust created in Reich’s Will.  Ms. Higgins had never met Reich in person, though she had attended his 1956 trial in Portland, Maine.  But because she deeply felt the injustice of how Reich was treated, she volunteered for the job as Trustee.  Dr. Raphael at first opposed this, thinking it was far too great a responsibility.  But Higgins persisted as no one else offered, and eventually it was decided she should try it.  In later years she said, "I had no idea how huge a task I was getting into.  It’s so much more than a full-time job."  After meeting with Eva Reich, who legally transferred the role, Higgins became Trustee in March 1959—a job she continued to execute faithfully for almost 60 years.  She also said in later years, "You can see how bad things were at that point, when no one who knew Reich wanted or was willing to take this job.  So that in the end it was taken up by a total stranger."

The Trust faced many legal challenges under Higgins’ leadership.  The first was that Reich’s entire archives had been stolen by Aurora Karrer, a woman Reich was romantically involved with leading up to the time of his imprisonment and death.  Karrer flatly denied having anything that belonged to Reich; two lengthy legal battles were required to force her to return the vast majority of the material—though some items, most notably Reich’s diaries from 1922-1934, remain missing.

The FDA’s Injunction against Reich was breathtakingly sweeping in legally sanctioning the destruction of orgone energy accumulators and the burning of Reich’s soft cover scientific journals.  It did not, however, sanction the burning of Reich’s hardcover books, instead only demanding they be withdrawn from circulation until "all reference to orgone energy was deleted."  Nonetheless, when FDA officials arrived at the Orgone Institute Press warehouse in New York City in August 1956, they insisted that Reich’s employees also load the hardcover books onto a truck and throw them into the fire at the Gansevoort Street Incinerator Plant.  Tragically, Reich’s employees did not push back on this egregious violation of an Injunction whose provisions were already draconian enough.

In 1960, FDA officials discovered another New York City warehouse still contained some of the journals slated for destruction and the banned books, and they alerted Higgins of their plan to destroy these materials also.  Knowing of the previous episode, she met them at the warehouse with her lawyer.  When the FDA agents again tried to take the hardcover books along with the journals, the 34-year old Higgins said "Put those back, they don’t belong to you."  They meekly complied.  So often, all it takes for evil to happen is for good people to stand by and say nothing.

Ms. Higgins repeatedly credited several figures as crucial in helping the Trust in its early years.  One was Tom Ross, Reich’s longtime caretaker at Orgonon, from whom Higgins says she learned an enormous amount about Reich’s way of working and thinking.  More than that, Higgins credited the human warmth, hospitality and support Ross and his wife Bea offered her.  Lawyer Leonard Kolleeny served as the Trust’s legal counsel, almost entirely pro bono, for decades.  New York publisher Roger Straus knew little about Reich’s work but committed to help Higgins bring his works back into print, beginning in 1960, because of his hatred of censorship.  Dr. Chester Raphael offered her a lot of help as well, especially in editing Reich’s works for publication and in opening the Wilhelm Reich Museum—in the former Orgone Energy Observatory building.  Richard Wolfe, Rare Books Librarian at Harvard’s Countway Library of Medicine, also helped Higgins arrange the safe preservation of Reich’s archives there, beginning in 1973.  While Straus and Kolleeny knew little or nothing about Reich’s work, each was struck and inspired by the force of Higgins’ personality and the depth of her commitment to protecting Reich’s legacy, according to the instructions left in his Will.

Over the sixty years since becoming Trustee, Higgins worked long and hard to learn copyright law, museum design, and a hundred other areas of expertise.  Among her many accomplishments are:

  • Opening and maintaining the Wilhelm Reich Museum and maintaining the property at Orgonon.
  • Creating a complete catalog for Reich’s Archives—many thousands of items—and assuring their safe preservation.
  • Bringing back into print and keeping in print all of Reich’s previously destroyed and banned books.  Without her labors and the help of Farrar, Straus and Giroux, many of us might never have been able to read Reich’s work.
  • Publishing previously unpublished manuscripts from archives, and English translations of German-language works that Reich had prepared for publication but never completed (e.g. The Invasion of Compulsory Sex-Morality, The Bion Experiments, The Bioelectrical Investigation of Sexuality and Anxiety, Early Writings, v. 1, Genitality). Additionally, protecting Reich’s works from plagiarism, attempts at pirating his books, etc.
  • Creating a new journal, Orgonomic Functionalism, as the venue for publishing archival manuscripts.  In addition, organizing publication of The Reich-A.S. Neill correspondence (Record of a Friendship) and four volumes of selections from Reich’s diaries and letters: Passion of Youth, Beyond Psychology, American Odyssey, and Where’s the Truth?
  • Arranging and supervising new foreign translations of Reich’s works into more than 20 languages.
  • Initiating in August 1980 annual summer conferences devoted to different aspects of Reich’s work.  These went on continuously through 2007, then occasionally between 2008-2014.  The conferences have picked up again on an annual basis since 2015.
  • Assisting the Kickstarter campaign that launched the new documentary film by Kevin Hinchey and Glenn Orkin, "Love, Work and Knowledge: The Life and Trials of Wilhelm Reich."

When asked once if she recalled anything in her upbringing or education that might have prepared her to be such a fierce defender of Reich’s legacy—indeed to devote most of her life to that effort—Higgins replied: "Growing up, I was very aware and was always haunted about what happens to unusual, creative people, how generally they are destroyed….I sensed it personally and I read a lot of books about unusual people.  That’s something I understood very early and to this day understand.  And that played a role in my horror of what was going on with Reich, and my feeling for this country.  I was horrified by what was going on.

"And I think I brought something else to it.  I certainly didn’t bring any knowledge of science.  In fact I had avoided science…it didn’t interest me at all.  It really wasn’t until I began to study Reich that I began to realize that science and art, the humanities…were joined.  But I was capable of standing on my own.  I didn’t need a lot of people to approve of me.  And I think that has served me very well….These things don’t look like anything if you were to put them on a curriculum vita—I have nothing on my curriculum vita that would mean anything….But I have these human experiences which have enabled me to do the best I can with it.  And I think everyone, whether they know it or not, functions on that basis."

At the beginning of the New Year Mary Boyd Higgins suffered a stroke and died peacefully a few days later in the company of a dear friend on 8 January 2019.  This unique and remarkable woman will be greatly missed.

In lieu of flowers, donations may be sent to the Wilhelm Reich Infant Trust, Orgonon, PO Box 687, Rangeley, ME 04970.

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The Origin of an Oranur Reaction


I would like to emphasize that the information contained in this paper must not be, in any way, shape or form, considered and used in small or large scale operations, whatever their goal. It is only intended as material to be used with great precaution by very skilled and responsible people, under government permission, in a laboratory research setting, aimed at developing the knowledge and protocols to make the Oranur reaction more and more understandable and secure. It was never my intention to spread information that could be used for field applications, either on a small or large scale. I do not, in any way, approve of such actions, and the responsibility lies with the person who might undertake them.


The Origin of an Oranur Reaction


Roberto Maglione


In the past many philosophers and scientists hypothesized an ideal society characterized by a perfect understanding and relationship amongst political, social, cultural and scientific realities. Plato’s Res Publica, More’s De Optimo Rei Publicae Statu Deque Nova Insula Utopia, Campanella’s Civitas Solis, and Bacon’s New Atlantis are all discussing and proposing solutions to get the humans to this perfect world.

However, even though the efforts were so profound no practical solution was found to satisfy the theoretical considerations of the thinkers of the past, and the French motto, Liberté, Egalité Fraternitè, after an initial period of hopes went forgotten in the loft of human’s desires and ideas.

Adriano Olivetti, an Italian entrepreneur and politician, tried in the ‘40-50s to transform those theoretical ideas into something more practical and created in Ivrea, Italy, an industrial reality where the economic, social, scientific and cultural worlds were solidly interconnected; and where each worker might have a high level of participation to the life of the activities. This model was successful and led Olivetti’s business to extraordinarily levels of development. However, it did not survive its inventor, when Olivetti died in 1960.

Another great thinker and scientist, contemporary of Olivetti, was Reich whose scientific work was instrumental in starting a new era in the understanding of the natural phenomena. And, I do think that with the work of Reich we can really start thinking about a new political, social, scientific, and cultural change, where the theoretical considerations of the many philosophers can now find a practical application. Reich discovered a new type of energy in nature which had life-enhancing properties and that it could be available everywhere. He also found that this energy continuum, which can express as tiny energetic units, is characterized by different phases of existence, i.e., it could be in dynamic, undisturbed flowing condition; in excited and chaotically-moving conditions (called Oranur); or again in deadly and static condition (called DOR). He observed that each of these conditions had particular characteristics. Reich saw that the dynamic units heralded health both in the living and in the environment, the excited units were instead harmful to the living, and the deadly units were even more dangerous and nefarious leading to death of the living and of the environment. However, Reich did find that at a low degree of excitation these energetic units might have therapeutic properties. In addition, the Oranur state at a little higher degree of excitation could produce a motor force thus giving rise to an infinite number of technical applications. It could also transform radioactive matter into a highly-beneficial and life-enhancing matter. Recently, it has been hypothesized that this state can also be instrumental in creating higher states of consciousness.

I do believe that the intermediate excited state of these tiny energetic units is of fundamental importance for that change hypothesized by the philosophers, and that can lead us to a new type of world where the French motto may at last find its well-deserved collocation. Like a portal, or an obligatory step to take, after which a new world can be envisaged. However, I do think that this type of world already existed in the past on this planet, as I’m profoundly convinced that the many properties of these tiny energetic units were already known thousand years ago. And, Reich, simply unconsciously and unknowingly, rediscovered this knowledge, developing a science of the ether, in juxtaposition and sharp contrast to the science of the matter, today prevalent. I’m also profoundly convinced that the scientists of the time were much more skilled in managing and utilizing this ether than we are today. I discuss this point in depth in my recent book on the Shamir.

I hope that the content of this paper can contribute to peacefully taking the road that leads to that portal, beyond which we might at last find the utopian island or world that has been dramatically and obstinately looked for by so many of the most fervid minds this planet has had.



The Oranur experiment is one of the most important researches Reich carried out in the last period of his life. It is also one of the least known amongst Reich’s many works. Its main purpose was to determine a process to reduce or even completely suppress, in a relatively short time, the ionizing radiations emitted by a radioactive source. He thought that this might be obtained by exposing the radioactive material to high concentrations of orgone energy units:

“Nuclear radiation, for instance radium, is changed under the influence of concentrated orgone energy. The kind and the extent of such change is still very obscure.” (1)

“It is known that orgone energy itself changes and neutralises radio-active rays.” (2)

He planned and conducted this type of research partly because of the advent of the Korean war in order to find a response and an antidote to the threat of a possible nuclear conflict. However, some evidences of these anti-nuclear properties of orgone energy were already observed in previous experiments with radioactive materials (3):

“It was pointed out that we are on the threshold of a total war which may come to America and that it was the purpose of these meetings to study and make plans for the amplification of the orgone energy towards the prevention of the destruction which may come, and in the treatment of the effects of atomic explosions. The value of orgone energy in wound healing, burns, anemias, any condition causing blood destruction, in the alleviation of pain, in shock, its value in building up the energy level, and thereby the general resistance of the organism as well as in counteracting tissue destruction of all kinds is well known. The effects of atomic explosions are in no way different from the pathology produced by other causes. Radiation sickness is itself no new entity from the standpoint of the pathology produced, i.e. a degenerative process modified merely by the speed with which it takes effect and the numbers of persons who would be affected. It is known that orgone energy itself changes and neutralises radio-active rays. It is also fairly evident that the consistent user of the orgone accumulator would not be as subject to the severe shock and other effects of nuclear radiation as those who had not used an accumulator, in the event of an atomic explosion.”

Accordingly, Reich’s latter experiments were focused and aimed at verifying whether very small quantities of radioactive materials, when put inside high concentrations of orgone energy units might be rendered innocuous. The results of the very last experiment he carried out in this direction, called Oranur (4), led him to completely different results and conclusions, and radioactivity was found to be detrimental to high concentrations of orgone energy. Nevertheless, further researches conducted by Reich in the following years, based on the results of the Oranur experience, proved that in the end orgone energy could convert nuclear energy into a more powerful and basically benign form of energy, called Orur (5).



Reich started experimenting with radioactive materials and orgone energy concentrations as early as 1939 (6), about 12 years before the Oranur experiment (7). In one of his notes he reported that a vial of radioactive luminescent matter (zinc sulphide), that was kept in a small orgone charger for many years, lost its ionization effect some time later because of the influence of the concentrated orgone energy inside the charger (8). In addition, the zinc sulphide did maintain its luminescent properties, and continued to luminate very strongly.

Right before the start of the Oranur experiment, in the period December 15-27, 1950, he performed some continuous measurements with radioactive zinc sulphide and one microgram of radium. He did find that lead shielding with a ¼” thickness did not provide an appreciable reduction of the radioactive zinc sulphide count rate at the Geiger-Muller (GM) counter. On day 7 of this preliminary testing (December 21) he obtained 200 CPM with the radioactive zinc sulphide inside the ¼” lead shielding, and 300 CPM naked at 1 cm distance. However, Reich observed the radioactivity emitted by the material went up when it was put into an orgone energy charger (9).

Reich from these preliminary results noted that in some way a nuclear material exposed for some time to concentrated orgone energy units could lose its radioactive potency and observed a variation of its radioactive decay constant. He also noted that lead shielding did not appreciably reduce the radioactivity produced when the same material was unshielded or naked. So, Reich suggested to use in the experiment, in order to produce an Oranur field, freshly obtained radioactive sources, in that only then might they be effective, while a nuclear material which had been exposed to orgone energy concentrations for a long period of time (years) would have none or reduced effects, since it had been already influenced by the concentrated orgone energy units (10).

For the Oranur experiment Reich ordered two milligram (mg) of pure radium-226 that were never previously exposed to concentrated orgone energy fields. One mg was used in the experiment and the other one was considered as control (11). A few days before the start of the Oranur experiment Reich measured the background radioactivity in some critical points at Orgonon. On Dec 19, 1950, in the students’ laboratory (12) the radioactivity was 40-50 CPM, and similar values were recorded in other parts of the area (13). The radioactivity was monitored also in the next few days obtaining similar values while, as expected, higher values were recorded in those areas where a mild Oranur reaction was intentionally produced by the small radioactive sources used in the preliminary testing (14).

Besides, in order to check the influence of the Oranur field developed during the experiment on living organisms he placed a few hundred mice in the hall of the students’ laboratory, located 40 feet (around 12 meter) far from the external walls of the orgone room (15).

The following figures shows the layout of the facilities involved in the experiment and where the radioactive source was located (marked with C in Figure 1); and the students’ laboratory, where the orgone room was situated (Figure 2).


Figure 1 (16)
Figure 2 (17)



The experiment started on January 5, 1951 at 11.30 AM. The radioactive material, one of the two needles of 1 mg of pure radium-226, was put inside a small charger (a 1-fold orgone accumulator). The charger was then placed inside a 20-fold orgone accumulator located inside the orgone room. Just before the radioactive material was placed inside the orgone room the radioactivity was between 40 and 50 CPM everywhere (18); while in the students’ laboratory varied between 40 and 60 CPM (19). That day the experiment concluded at 4.30 PM. The original intention was to keep the needle of radium-226 continuously in the orgone room, but the sharp increase of the radioactivity in the hall of the students’ laboratory to 70-80 CPM, just after two and a half hours; and to several hundred CPM on the outside of the walls of the orgone room after five hours, forced the decision to amend the protocol and stop the exposure of the radium to the concentrated orgone field inside the orgone room (20). After the removal of the radium-226 needle, the high background counts in the students’ hall decreased to nearly normal value of 60 CPM, after half an hour of ventilation of the facility (21), while in open air outside the laboratory, the count rate was 30-50 CPM. The radium within the small charger was then stored into a garage 150 feet (around 46 meter) away from the metal room. When stored into the garage no variation of the radioactivity was observed in the experimental area (22).

According to the results of the first day of experiment, the protocol was amended and the radium-226 inside its charger was then put into the 20-fold orgone accumulator of the orgone room, from January 6 to 11, and taken out after only one hour of exposure. On January 12, the experimental one mg of radium-226 was put into the 20-fold orgone accumulator for only half-an-hour, as the experiment was interrupted. A few minutes after the radium was placed the atmosphere in the students’ laboratory became clouded and shined blue to purple through the glass of the windows (23). The small charger with the radium-226 was taken out of the orgone room and put away to half a mile (around 805 m) distance from the laboratory, within an uninhabited area (24).

The reason for the interruption of the experiment was due to the severe reactions of the people to the Oranur field created during the exposure of the radium-226 to the concentrated orgone energy inside the orgone room. They experienced severe belching, severe nausea, sensation of fainting, loss of equilibrium, clouding of consciousness, cramp to the stomach, weakness, and pressure in the forehead (25). No measurement of radioactivity was possible to do soon after the end of the experiment because of the dangerousness of the operation.

As a whole after a few months from the conclusion of the experiment, Reich made a list of the typical symptoms people exposed to an Oranur field could experience. Amongst these the most important were severe belching, malaise; nausea; pressure in head, and chest; cramps and twitching in muscles and other organs; hot and cold shivers; fatigue; pathological blood picture; increases of white cells; inflammation of the conjunctivae; dryness of throat; severe thirst; provocation of deadly symptoms; leukemic change in the blood picture; pneumonia; pleurisy; and inner bleedings (26).

Of the mice located in the students’ hall, close to the orgone room, 286 in total, 57 died during the experiment, even though the mice were never physically close to the nuclear material; 12 were killed for autopsy and medical purposes; and 217 survived during the experiment but all died in the following weeks (27).

Common symptoms the mice developed were immobilization to various degree; rough fur; cold perspiration; total body contraction; cyanotic tail, noses, lips, and ear lobs; severe thirst. Autopsy evidenced a leukemia-like blood picture and a more complex and broader picture of symptoms common to all the mice: pneumonia in the haemorrhagic or organizational stage; a severe fibrous exudate covering the pleural cavity; post-mortal greenish T-discoloration of the subcutis; severely distended veins, including the carotid vein; purple discoloration of the genital organs; grayish or cyanotic, hardened tails; cyanotic ear lobes, toes, and lips; deformed RBC (red blood cell) in the blood of the same shape as those found in leukemic mice, and a high incidence of white cells; highly enlarged spleen, up to four times its normal size; and a striking dryness of the peritoneum, and an apparent deficiency of fluid in the blood system (28).

On February 6, 1951, around three weeks after the conclusion of the experiment, radioactivity measurements were done in the student laboratory. It was found a value of 40 CPM both outside and inside, while inside the orgone room, where the experiment was physically performed, it was 30-50 CPM. The small charger containing the shielded radium-226 gave close by 20,000 CPM, while at a distance of 300 cm it was 200-300 CPM (29).

The two milligram of radium-226, each one contained in its ½” lead container, were then put inside a 4” concrete and steel wall safe and put in a building at a distance of about 1,200 ft (around 366 meter) from the students’ laboratory (30). This action was taken not because the nuclear sources were dangerous, but to avoid the possibility they could excite the orgone energy of the environment close to the laboratory to such a high degree to produce again a dangerous Oranur field (31).

At the end of March 1951, all the orgone devices at Orgonon were dismantled and moved away from the inhabited buildings. This decision was taken because it was impossible to keep assembled or even assemble again any of the orgone accumulators which have been in use before January 5, 1951. They were highly active and drove the background counts from two to four times the usual rate, to 100 CPM and more (32).

Sharaf commented on the difficulties in facing and taking the situation at Orgonon back to normal (33):

“Though the official experimentation had stopped around Jan. 20th, the dramatic events connected with its effects were still in evidence till almost the end of Feb., and they are still by no means completely absent. Eva R. almost died on Feb. 19th from sticking her hand in an OEA that had been kept shut and in the lower lab constantly. During the same week Mrs. R. and Peter’s blood pictures were very bad and they left the Ob for a few days and lived in town. Almost everyone who was in the ob that week suffered from malaise, (headaches, tiredness, inflamed eyes, and other symptoms). All the accumulators were dismantled around that time, and the metal-lined dark room, too; to this day (March 14th) it is still not possible to have an accu. (that is, an accu at all affected by the experimentation) in the ob without the persons living there suffering from dry throats and lack of air.”

Reich inferred that there was no protection whatsoever against orgone energy that was running wild when irritated by nuclear radiations, since the orgone energy units did penetrate everything, including lead and brick or stone walls of any thickness. He realized the safety measures to protect against ionizing radiations, developed by the Atomic Energy Commission, were not effective against the development of an Oranur field (34). And hence there were no means for protection against an atmospheric orgone energy running amok under the irritation exerted by nuclear energy (35):

“4. It is most likely, and even imperative to assume that quite ordinary materials such as rock, metal, and especially material arrangements which have the faculty of accumulating OR energy, continue to be active long after the originally triggering NR has been removed. This resembles induced radioactivity.
5. Structures which are capable of accumulating atmospheric OR energy, such as steel wool, metal filing cabinets or simple metal-lined boxes, become active even if they have not been directly influenced by NR radiation; it is sufficient that they come into contact with a directly affected orgone energy accumulator (36).
9. …….. Buildings which have been freed of any kind of radioactive material, and in addition, from which every single OR energy accumulating device has been removed, still drive the background counts as high as 80 or 100 CPM if regular ventilation is neglected for only half-a-day. On the other hand, fresh air removes the effects and reduces the activity to a normal of around 25 to 40 CPM (37).
14. Since NR activates OR and changes it to Oranur, Oranur continues, chainlike, to affect other OR devices; an initial trigger effect would be sufficient to start a chain of Oranur activity, as said before. We would have, then, to distinguish OR accumulators which had not been triggered by NR; they would be applied as heretofore, for total, regular, preventive irradiation, treatment of wounds, burns, etc. (38).”

On April 12 and 13, 1951, Reich monitored again the radioactivity at Orgonon with the GM counter (39). The readings obtained at distances from the 4” concrete/steel wall safe location of 600-700 ft (around 183-213 meter) were 60-80 CPM; while for higher distances the readings were normal, namely 40 CPM (caretaker’s cabin). When he measured the radioactivity at 1 cm from the safe wall (and from 30 cm from the source inside the safe) he found 10,000-20,000 CPM; while at 100 cm he found 600 CPM; and at 1,000 cm it was 100 CPM. Inside the room containing the safe the radioactivity was 6,000 CPM, at 200 cm distance from the safe; and 1,000 CPM on the maid’s room at 300 cm distance from the safe. Reich realized from the high measured values of radioactivity that the safe acted as an energy orgone accumulator, due to its construction characteristics that resembled those of an orgone accumulating device, and hence was producing an Oranur field detectable by the GM counter, of the same kind produced few months earlier in the original experiment. Besides, Reich surmised that an Oranur reaction went on all the while since February due to this arrangement (40).

Reich did not know how to manage the situation he was facing. To simply dump the whole safe into a nearby lake did not seem advisable, since the Oranur activity would most likely have affected the water of the lake. To bury it into the ground seemed equally impossible since the orgone energy from the soil would have continued to react (41).

On April 15, 1951, he repeated the measurements and he found approximately the same value of two days earlier, namely 20,000 CPM at 1 cm distance from the wall safe; 1,000 CPM at 100 cm distance; 150-200 CPM at 1,000 cm distance; and 60-80 CPM at 5,000 cm distance. In the maid’s room it was 200 CPM. In those same days (April 13-23) Reich observed also that several mice (42), kept in the room that housed the safe, showed no sign of illness, and were very healthy. Reich believed that possibly he had reached the original goal of the Oranur experiment, namely to render harmless the nuclear material through high concentration of orgone energy, and that seemingly Reich already obtained in other minor experiments in the previous years:

“This is, apparently, what we had been dealing with all through the years when small samples of NR sources were first irritating the OR energy and finally were changed into innocent though highly active material which had lost the power of “ionization” and of harming living tissue. (43)


The main pioneering job had been done; the main danger signals had been recognized: Oranur phase One and Two; the main symptoms in these intermediary steps were in the open. Behind phase One and Two, there was clearly outlined phase Three, the impotence of NR and the victory of OR energy.

The job was basically done. The rest of it was now up to the people and their representatives, the health agencies, the AEC, the national administration, the UN, the medical and physical sciences. (44)

Reich decided to open the 4” concrete/steel wall safe and to measure the radioactivity inside it, at a distance of about 40 to 50 cm from the shielded sources situated inside the safe (two mg of radium-226 plus few micrograms of other nuclear material) (45). He obtained more than 100,000 CPM, since the GM counter was not able to measure it as it was out of range. When the nuclear materials were removed from inside the safe the radioactivity inside it decreased to 30-50 CPM. When Reich removed the radium-226 from its shielding and measured immediately the radioactivity, he found that the readings were 30,000-35,000 CPM with the GM counter at 1 cm distance from the naked material (46), and around 3,000 CPM at distance of 100 cm.

Since Reich thought that he had achieved his goal with the Oranur experiment, he thus put the nuclear material into a great charger and then again into a 20-fold orgone accumulator for about two days. However, he had to take it out again because of the formation of a new severe Oranur reaction (47). He measured the radioactivity and he found 2,000 CPM outside the charger. The development of physical Oranur symptoms, such as heavy air, and malaise, nausea, and pressure in the people was felt. Symptoms that were not felt when the nuclear material was inside the safe, as a consequence of the strong shielding effect of the steel/concrete thickness, that was not available instead when using only the charger, being made of a thin layer of steel, plus a thin layer of organic material that was not enough to shield the ionizing radiations. This latter arrangement allowed the ionizing effect of the nuclear material to irritate and trigger orgone, and convert it into DOR action. Reich concluded that to reduce the DOR effect one had to put the nuclear material into heavy shielding and thus confined, into the charger. In this way, the orgone energy units would get at the nuclear material, but not the opposite, the nuclear material could not get at the orgone energy units. In order to have a (controlled) Oranur reaction Reich suggested to build a housing for the safe and to put the nuclear material into the safe and then to put the safe (containing the nuclear material) in the vicinity of the charger. In this way, the Oranur effect was secured without having the possibility of the development of a DOR field (48).

From the results of the Oranur experiment Reich concluded that the radioactivity developed and measured by the GM counter was simply due to the orgone energy units available in the environment that produced, when excited by the nuclear source, an Oranur field with an extension of 600 ft (around 183 meter) (49):

“The problem was what it was, then, if it was NOT the NR source, that had made the GM counter race so high outside and inside the safe. It could not be anything else than the atmospheric OR energy which surrounded the shielded source and the safe as well as the building housing the safe as far as 600 feet up toward the road.”

It should be highlighted here that the extension of the Oranur field of 600 ft was due to the reaction of the orgone energy units in the environment surrounding the 4” steel/cement safe to the presence of the shielded nuclear sources located inside.

On April 28, 1951, Reich measured again the radioactivity (50) at 1 cm distance and he found for the one mg of radium-226 that was used in the Oranur experiment the following average values (51):

shielded = 276,480 CPM;

naked = 81,920 CPM.

From the above data it can be observed the naked radium-226 gave around one third of the radioactivity emitted when it was confined in its lead shielding. In order to compare the above measured data, one mg of the same radium-226 that was never exposed to concentrated orgone energy fields, was ordered from New York. Before being sent it gave circa 16,000 CPM naked, and 7,000 CPM within a ½” lead shielding; while soon after arriving at Orgonon it gave circa 300,000 CPM shielded (measured by the Tracerlab autoscaler).

Reich argued that (52):

It is the OR energy in the atmosphere, surrounding the NR material, which reacts at the GM counter. It is the organismic OR energy within living bodies which continues to react to NR material for months and even years (bio-energetic radioactivity: “radiation sickness”).”

According to the above considerations, it is reasonable to think that the radium-226 was put inside the great charger naked, since a radioactivity of 2,000 CPM was measured outside the charger. Indeed, in case the radium-226 was put inside the great charger shielded a much higher value had to be measured, having found on the naked sample around 3,000 CPM at distance of 100 cm few days earlier, on April 15.

In parallel to the scientific discoveries above summarized, Reich realized also that the results of the Oranur experiment might open a totally new and unexplored field inside orgonomy and that might lead to a reconsideration of the paradigms that until then were the solid foundations of the science, religion, and society of the time:

“In the mechanistic technician of physics, the observation of the physical functions of nature split off from the emotional manifestation as “physics” here and “mysticism” or “religiousness” there. On the other hand, in the well-trained orgonomic observer, these two modes of experiencing nature, otherwise so much opposed to each other, are united into one single picture. …. The sharp boundary lines between physics and what is called “metaphysics” have broken down. The metaphysical intuition had a physical basis: “GOD” and “ETHER” are ONE (53).


All boundaries between science and religion, science and art, objective and subjective, quantity and quality, physics and psychology, astronomy and religion, god and ether, are irrevocably breaking down, being replaced by a conception of the basic unity, a basic CFP of all nature which branches out into the various kinds of human experience (54).



One of the aims of the present study is to understand whether the Oranur field, created during the original experiment, was produced by the radium-226 taken inside the small charger either naked or shielded by its ½” leaden tube. Besides, whether the specific biological reactions developed by the bio-energetic systems present at Orgonon during the experiment had some connection with the ionizing radiations transmitted through the orgone devices and the orgone room to different directions is also investigated. In calculating the amount of energy coming from the radioactive source and then absorbed by the tissues of the living organisms, a number of factors were considered. The most important of these are the proximity of the living organisms to the radioactive source, the obstacles the radiations had to pass through to reach them, and the exposure time.

Reich, when describing the Oranur experiment, never clearly reported whether the one-mg of radium-226 was put inside the charger naked or confined in its lead shielding (55). The only mention he did make about the shielding of the radioactive source was in two brief passages in the Oranur Experiment book. Those statements, however, are controversial in that it is not clear whether Reich referred to the needle of radium shielded by the layers of materials the orgone devices (small charger, 20-fold ORAC, and orgone room) were made of, or rather it was shielded by its leaden tube:

“We had the notion that the metal lining of the OR energy room itself would add some shielding. There were workers doing their jobs outside in the experimental hall at a distance of an average of some 30 feet (i.e., ca. 10 meters) and more from the shielded radium needle. (56)

“We left the needle of Ra in the charger until about 16:30h (in the afternoon of January 5, i.e., 5 hours). We had intended to keep the Ra continuously in the shielded place. (57)

Many authors, including Reich’s close collaborators, discussed the point. Some of them reported that the one-mg needle of radium-226 was shielded, while some others simply stated the one-mg needle was put inside the charger (probably without shielding). An exhaustive overview of the related literature has been done elsewhere and the reader may refer to it for more details (58).

In this study, particular attention has been given to what might have occurred during the original experiment above all along two main directions of propagation of the ionizing radiations (Figure 3). The study of the trend of the radiations attenuation from the small charger, where the radium-226 was contained, towards the mice cage (marked as M on direction A in Figure 3) aims to check whether the intensity of the ionizing rays (whether any) had some influence on the biological reactions and diseases the mice developed during the experiment and whether the subsequent deaths were correlated. Similarly, the evaluation of the intensity of the gamma rays hitting the observers outside the students’ laboratory (marked as Obs on direction B in Figure 3) aims to determine whether the symptoms Reich and his collaborators which developed during the whole experiment, might be associated to the ionizing radiations that travelled along that direction and reached the observation site.

Figure 3

The ionizing radiations radium-226 emits are alpha particles (59), with a maximum energy of 4,785 keV, and gamma-rays, with a maximum energy of 186 keV. Alpha particles have a mass and an associated electrical charge, and are characterized by very short pathlengths. The average distance a 4 MeV (60) alpha particle travels in air before coming to rest is about 3 cm, while the same energy can be stopped by a thin piece of paper, or a thin sheet of some other solid or liquid materials.

Gamma rays are electromagnetic radiations or photons and are part of the electromagnetic spectrum, like radio waves, X-rays, and light. The penetrating power is much greater than that of charged particles. These photons interact with matter in three primary ways: (1) by photoelectric absorption, (2) by Compton scattering, and (3) by pair production (61). The attenuation of the radiations emitted by a radioactive source through an absorber material occurs as a combination of the three above processes, and is given by the Lambert-Beer equation:


Where I is the emerging intensity transmitted by the absorber of thickness L, Io is the incident intensity of the gamma-ray on the same absorber, B is the build-up factor (62), and ml is the linear attenuation coefficient (expressed in cm-1). The ratio I/Io is called the gamma-ray transmission. The linear attenuation coefficient ml depends on the gamma-ray energy, the atomic number (Z) and the density (r) of the absorber material (63).

Another way to determine the attenuation of gamma-ray radiations through an absorber is to resort to the mass attenuation coefficient, m, defined as the ratio of the linear attenuation coefficient to the absorber density (ml/r). Hence, the expression of the attenuation of gamma-ray radiations, given by eq. (1) can be re-written as follows (64):


The mass attenuation coefficient is independent of the density, and it is more commonly tabulated than the linear attenuation coefficient. The measurement units of the mass attenuation coefficient are cm2/g. For energies between about 0.75 and 5 MeV, almost all materials have, on a mass basis, about the same gamma radiation attenuation properties. To a first approximation therefore, shielding properties are approximately proportional to the density of the shielding material.

Radiations could be reduced using barriers consisting of metals or materials that have the ability to either absorb the radiations and convert them to heat or reflect them. The half-value layer (HVL) is the thickness of absorbing material required to reduce the incident radiation intensity by a factor of two, and that will halve the gamma-ray intensity passing through it. The HVL is measured in cm, and decreases as the atomic number Z of the absorber increases. For all the materials the HVL increases with the energy of the gamma-rays.

By adding one or more halving thickness of the same material the intensity of the gamma rays is further reduced according to the number of halving layers added. This value is called protection factor (PF), and tells how much of the intensity of the incident gamma-ray radiation is transmitted and hits a specific target downstream of the absorber whole thickness. To this extent the PF characterizes the radiation shield of a gamma-ray incident on an absorber. In case of only one halving layer the PF is two; while if one has 4 halving layers, the PF is 16. In case the thickness of the absorber is made of 10 halving layers the PF is 1,000 and is a shield that only lets about 1/1000 of the gamma-rays radiations pass through. Generally, the expression of the PF is given by 2n, where n is the number of halving layers (65). Absorbers can be also made of different materials, each characterized by a different HVL value. In this case the total PF is given by an equivalent value determined by the individual contribution of each material.

FEMA (66) establishes that the minimum value of PF for a shelter in order a human organism can be protected by a nuclear fallout is 40. However, PF of 200 and more is recommended. The modern-day standard for PF is 1,000.

However, the risk for the health of a person is not only dependent on the radiation hitting the person, but is also a function of the exposure time. Indeed, radiation is less dangerous in the case that the time spent by the person beside the radiation source is reduced. According to the recommendations of international councils such as ICRP (67) and USNRC (68), the maximum exposure limit or effective dose (69) allowed to a person who works with ionizing radiations is 50 mSv/yr (milliSievert per year). This value however must not exceed 100 mSv for a set of 5 consecutive years. For the general public the limit is set to 1 mSv/year that is considered as a low or very low radiation dose. This value corresponds to an average allowed exposure limit per hour of 0.11 mSv (microSievert).

In case of a dose received by the whole body during one short and intense irradiation, UNSCEAR (70) has established a way of classifying exposure levels based on the thresholds above which deterministic effects, i.e. short-term biological signs or post-radiation symptoms, occur and that are felt by all individuals exposed above these thresholds. Effective doses below 200 mSv are considered to be low or weak, and below 20 mSv very low or very weak. Radiation absorbed in a medical context (excluding radiotherapy) as well as those occurring from natural sources fall into this category. Doses in this range are characterized by a lack of deterministic effects (71).

The specific activity (72) of radium-226 is given by 36.6 GBq/g (or 1 Ci/g) (73); while the dose rate for a gamma emitter point source is given by 1743.7 mSv/h/GBq and 17.43 mSv/h/GBq at a distance of 1 cm and 10 cm, respectively.

Being the quantity of radium-226 used by Reich in the Oranur experiment of 1 mg, the activity was 0.0366 GBq (or 1 mCi), and the corresponding dose rate at 1 cm and 10 cm is given by 63.8 mSv/h and 0.638 mSv/h, respectively.

In order to determine the transmitted intensity of the gamma-rays emitted by the radium-226 during the Oranur experiment at Orgonon, in January 1951, we need to know the arrangement in the premises of the orgone apparatus involved in the experiment and the materials they were made of.

The structures and the devices involved in the experiment are here below described and discussed. For each of them, it is also reported, when available, the sizes and the materials they were made of. Each layer of the materials used in the construction of the structures may be considered as an individual barrier to the propagation of the gamma rays emitted by the radium-226 situated in the small charger. As alpha particles are characterized by very short pathlengths, they are not considered in the present study as potential noxious energies in that they were totally blocked inside the small charger in which the radium-226 was contained and never reached the living systems present during the experiment. On the contrary gamma rays, being characterized by much higher pathlengths are instead considered and the possible effects on the bio-energetic systems evaluated.

  1. A leaden tube. The needle of radium-226 from time to time was kept inside a leaden protective tube of ½” thickness (74). After the conclusion of the Oranur experiment the shielded needle was put inside a 4” wall safe made of steel and cement with the aim to protect the surrounding environment from the diffusion of an Oranur field produced by the radioactive source (75).
  2. A small charger. The charger was a 1-fold ORAC (76). It contained the one mg of radium-226 during the Oranur experiment. No information about the size and the materials it was made of were reported by Reich. It can be assumed that it had characteristics similar to those of a small charger which Reich mentions, beginning in February 1951, few weeks after the conclusion of the experiment. The latter was one cubic foot in volume, and was internally lined by a metal sheet gauge 26 (77). As to the intermediate layer we may presume it was made of a plastic sheet (PET, supposed to be 1 mm thick) alternated to steel wool (about ½” or 12.7 mm thick). A compressed wood fibre board would have served as outer layer (½” or 12.7 mm thick) (78).
  3. A 20-fold ORAC. It housed the small charger during the Oranur experiment. The ORAC was 5 feet square horizontally (1.524 m) (79). No information has been reported about the height. As to the materials it was made of, it may be supposed Reich used an (galvanized) iron sheet (gauge 28, or 0.397 mm thick) as inner layer; and a compressed wood fibre board, as outer layer (½” or 12.7 mm thick). As to the materials of the intermediate layers, it may be assumed Reich used plastic sheet (PET, supposed to be 1 mm thick) alternated to steel wool (about ½” or 12.7 mm thick).
  4. The orgone room. It housed the 20-fold orgone accumulator during the Oranur experiment. The size of the orgone room was 18 ft x 18 ft (or 5.486 m x 5.486 m) (80). No information was reported by Reich about the height of the room, but is can be supposed it was about 2.2 m (deduced from the picture of the orgone room, not reported in this article). It was lined internally by an iron sheet (gauge 26 or 0.476 mm) (81); while the internal organic layer was glass fiber (½” or 12.7 mm thick) (82). It may be considered the walls of the room built by ordinary bricks (assumed to be 12.5 cm thick), while it was lined externally by a cement board (about 1 cm thick) (83).
  5. The Students laboratory. It contained the orgone room. The size was 60 ft x 70 ft (or 18.29 x 21.34 m) (84). The walls of the laboratory were made of wood (85). However, what is important to the present study is the windows of the laboratory that were the weakest point in terms of gamma-ray propagation outside it, and through which the observers saw the formation and the propagation of the blue-purple cloud in the laboratory hall during the last day of the Oranur experiment. The windows are made of glass, single paned, around 5 mm thick. Sizes of the large windows might be deduced from figure 2. Dimensions can be assumed to be around 3.7 x 2.2 m.
  6. Mice cage. It housed the mice that were exposed to the Oranur field during the experiment. It was located 48.5-49.5 ft (14.8-15.1 m) away from the radioactive source (86). No info is reported about the sizes and the materials the container was made of. It may be assumed it was a cage wire mesh.

The following figure 4 shows the arrangement of the radium-226, of the small charger, and of the 20-fold ORAC inside the orgone room.

Figure 4

The following table 1 summarizes the sizes (when available) of the devices and structures above discussed, and the materials and corresponding thicknesses they were consisting of.

Device or structure





Leaden tube




Small charger
(1-fold ORAC)

Metal (iron)

30.48 x 30.48 x 30.48


Inner layer (gauge 26)

Plastic (PET)

30.48 x 30.48 x 30.48


Organic layer

Steel wool

30.48 x 30.48 x 30.48


Inorganic layer

Wood (fibre)

30.48 x 30.48 x 30.48


Outer layer

20-fold ORAC (87)


1.524 x 1.524


Inner layer (gauge 28)

Plastic (PET)

1.524 x 1.524


Organic layer

Steel wool

1.524 x 1.524


Inorganic layer

Wood (fibre)

1.524 x 1.524


Outer layer

Orgone room


2,200 x 5,486 x 5,486


Outer layer (gauge 26)


2,200 x 5,486 x 5,486


Organic layer


2,200 x 5,486 x 5,486


Organic layer

Cement (concrete)

2,200 x 5,486 x 5,486


Outer layer

Students laboratory


3,700 x 2,200



Table 1

Table 2 reports the distance between the different devices involved in the experiment.






Radium-226 needle (leaden tube)

1-fold charger (inner layer)



1-fold charger outer layer

20-fold ORAC inner layer



20-fold ORAC outer layer

Orgone room inner layer (dir. A)



Distance in the calculations is averaged to 6.5 ft

20-fold ORAC outer layer

Orgone room inner layer (dir. B)



From Figure 4

Orgone room outer layer

Mice cage location (dir. A)



From table at page 280 of OE book

Orgone room outer layer

Students laboratory window (dir. B)



Deduced from Figures 3 and 4

Students laboratory window

Observers location (dir. B)



Deduced from Figures 3

Table 2

Table 3 shows the mass attenuation coefficient, the density, and the corresponding half-value layer (HVL) of the materials the devices and structures involved in the Oranur experiment were made of for a gamma-ray incident intensity of 0.2 MeV (when not otherwise specified). Air is included in table 3 being the attenuation of gamma-ray radiations occurring during the experiment also through it.


Mass attenuation coefficient









Common brick




Mann et al (Radiation Physics and Chemistry, 2013) (data for 0.276 MeV)

Cement (concrete)














NIST, Natindco (88)











Plastic (PET)





Steel (wool)




Singh et al (Radioprotection, 2013) (89)

Wood fibre (Celotex)




Ero et al (IAAST, 2012) (data for Melaina wood at0.265 MeV) (90)

Table 3



Applying eq. (2) to the above data we can determine the value of the total gamma-ray transmission at the two end points M and Obs (Figure 3). These values correspond to the transmitted intensity at the two above sites after the radiations had travelled through all the barriers, represented by the materials the orgone devices and the structures were made of, and through the air along the directions A and B, towards M and Obs, respectively. In doing this evaluation the following assumptions were done:

  1. The one-mg of radium-226 was shielded and put inside the small charger in its protective ½” leaden tube;
  2. The one-mg of radium-226 was unshielded and put inside the small charger naked.

In the calculations it has been considered for simplicity a value of the build-up factor B in eq. (2) of 1. This has been done as the type of shielding configuration, the type of materials, and the related thicknesses provided a very small increase of the transmitted dose rate. The only material that would have been given a little higher increase in the transmitted radiation intensity is lead with a value of the build-up factor about 1.06. However, this value does not change the order of magnitude of the transmitted dose rates at the two investigated end points, M and Obs, thus making the simplification much more than acceptable.

The total effective dose, the living organisms were subjected to during the whole Oranur experiment, has been determined according to the total exposure time or the total duration of the experiment that was 11 ½ hours, distributed as follows: Jan 5, 1951 = 5 hours (11.30-16.30); Jan 6=1 hour; Jan 7=1 hour; Jan 8=1 hour; Jan 9=1 hour; Jan 10=1 hour; Jan 11=1 hour; Jan 12= ½ hour (91).


Radium-226 shielded in its protective leaden tube

  • At the Observers site (end point Obs) the transmitted intensity of the ionizing radiations was 3.8·10-5/1000 of the original intensity emitted by the shielded radium-226. This means that Reich and his collaborators were exposed during the whole experiment to a gamma-ray intensity of about 2.4·10-3 mSv/h. A quite low value, with a corresponding PF of about 2.6·107 that is an extremely high value when compared to the maximum standard suggested today (Protection Factor, PF, of 1,000). The total effective dose Reich and the observers were subjected to during the whole experiment was about 2.8·10-2 mSv.
  • At the mice cage (end point M) the transmitted intensity of the ionizing radiations was 8.7·10-5/1000 of the original intensity emitted by the shielded radium-226. This means that the mice, kept constantly in the cage for all the duration of the experiment, were exposed to a gamma-ray intensity of about 5.5·10-3 mSv/h, which corresponds to a PF of about 1.1·107. The total effective dose the mice were subjected to during the whole experiment was about 6.4·10-2 mSv.

The above values are by far lower than those imposed by the regulations and tell that practically the site, where the mice were constantly kept, should not have been affected by any radiations coming from the shielded radium-226 in the small charger.

Radium-226 unshielded

  • At the Observers site (end point Obs) the transmitted intensity of the ionizing radiations was 3.0/1000 of the original intensity emitted by the unshielded radium-226. This means that Reich and his collaborators were exposed during the experiment to a gamma-ray intensity of about 1.9 mSv/h. This value is little higher than the hourly exposure dose limit set at 0.11 mSv/h, and corresponds to a PF of about 333 that is a little below the maximum standard value suggested today (PF of 1,000). The total effective dose, the observers were subjected to during the whole experiment, was about 22.0 mSv.
  • At the mice cage (end point M) the transmitted intensity of the ionizing radiations was 6.8/1000 of the original intensity emitted by the unshielded radium-226. This means that the mice, kept constantly on that site for all the duration of the experiment, were exposed to a gamma-ray intensity of about 4.3 mSv/h, which corresponds to a PF of about 147. The total effective dose, the mice were subjected to during the whole experiment, was about 50.0 mSv. The above values are little higher than those registered at the observation site, but however, are still very low. Indeed, if we consider the total effective dose the mice were exposed to, this value is by far lower than 20 mSv (or 20,000 mSv) which is considered by UNSCEAR a very low or very weak dose for a short duration exposure. Below this dose deterministic effects, such as short-term biological signs or post-radiation symptoms, are practically absent.

Table 4 below summarizes all the above calculated data.

One-mg Radium-226


Effective dose [mSv/h]

Total effective dose



Observers (Obs)




Mice (M)




Unshielded (naked)

Observers (OBS)




Mice (M)




Table 4

From the above analysis it is evident that the intensity of the transmitted radiations at the mice cage and at the observation point was extremely low even when we consider the case the radium-226 was put inside the small charger unshielded. UNSCEAR regulations set as upper limit an effective dose of 0.5 Sv above which deterministic reactions in the bio-energetic systems such as nausea, vomiting, etc., can occur; and of 4-4.5 Sv to get acute radiation reactions to exposure such as hematological symptoms (bone marrow damages), digestive symptoms (gastro-intestinal tract damages), neurological symptoms in the central nervous system, and death in 50% of the cases. According to the data obtained in this study, it is clear that the symptoms, the diseases, and the deaths occurred at the two end points were not the consequence at all of the gamma-ray radiations emitted by the radioactive source, being the highest intensity determined by the calculations that could hit the end points of 50.0 mSv, a value by far lower than that set of 0.5 Sv (or 500,000 mSv) in order to get deterministic reactions. Indeed, according to UNSCEAR, the symptoms experienced by Reich and his collaborators, and those observed in the mice, in addition to the deaths of some of them that occurred during the experiment, all fall into the highest categories of the effective dose one might have been exposed to, such as from medium (0.2 Sv to 2 Sv) to very high (> 10 Sv). However, even though the values at Orgonon during the Oranur experiment were lower than those set by standard, the reactions of the bio-energetic systems were very similar to those of a high radioactive exposure, as also observed by Reich (92):

“6. The deadly OR effects (DOR) act in a direction observable in leukaemia: destruction of the RBC-producing systems, bone marrow, etc.”

As a consequence, we are witnessing a controversial picture, where many people experienced during the Oranur experiment biological reactions typical from exposure to a medium effective dose; and where the mice (apart those killed for scientific purposes) had reactions (and about 20% of them died) typical from exposure to very high effective doses. But at the same time, according to the calculations, no effective doses like those set by the regulations would ever be detected at the sites where the two bio-energetic systems (mice in M, and humans in Obs) were situated.

Besides, during the whole experiment very high values of the radioactivity were recorded outside the orgone room, in the students’ hall, and in the environment outside the laboratory. Before the start of the experiment the radioactivity in the hall of the students’ laboratory was 40-50 CPM, while during the experiment values of 70-80 CPM were measured. Besides, on the outside of the walls of the orgone room several hundred CPM were detected. After the conclusion of the daily experimentation, i.e. when the radium (inside the small charger) was removed from the inside the 20-fold orgone accumulator and stored in a garage 150 feet away from the experimental site, the radioactivity dropped to 60 CPM first, and then to 30-50 CPM after airing of the premises.

No data could be instead measured by the Geiger-Muller counter inside the orgone room during the whole experiment in that the device jammed when approaching the 20-fold ORAC because of the high radioactive activity.

Again, we are witnessing a controversial situation, in which the radium-226 ionizing activity was well screened by the materials, the structures and the orgone devices were made of, in such a way not to justify the high increase of the radioactivity readings observed during the experiment. Values that then dropped to standard values typical of the background when the radium-226 was removed from its experimental location inside the 20-fold ORAC.

In addition to the above, we must also consider the formation of the blue-purple cloud in the students’ hall. Even in this case, according to the calculated values of the effective doses reported in table 4, no particular intensity could be ascribed to the gamma-ray radiations in the students’ hall for the development of a cloud of such characteristics.

As a whole and as absurdly as it could be, according to the competent authorities in the radiological fields nothing should have occurred in such experimental conditions. A conclusion that cannot at all explain the phenomena observed during the Oranur experiment. And this is above all because presently our scientific approach to the study of the natural physical phenomena is based on the Einsteinian view of the Universe. It envisages that our atmosphere is devoid of any kind of energy particles thus negating the possibility of the formation of a noxious and killing field, and of all the related phenomena from an extremely low amount of radioactive source, such as the one-mg of radium-226 could be, and furthermore in the worst scenario shielded by several layers of absorbing materials.

Indeed, the most reasonable way to explain the above phenomena is resorting to the presence of a new physical entity in the atmosphere, that was not new however to the philosophers and scientists of the past, present everywhere, with specific characteristics and whose behaviour governed by definite laws. This new physical entity might well be represented by the orgone energy units that Reich found permeating everything in nature, including living organisms, and all the cosmos. The presence of a similar energy, however, was excluded by Einstein when developing his models of the natural physical phenomena. He, indeed, hypothesized a view of our world devoid of any energetic background. However, Einstein at a certain point came to admit that his modelling could totally collapse in case the presence in the universe of an energy permeating everything was confirmed. Clark reported the reaction of Einstein to the results of Miller’s investigation carried out at Mount Wilson Observatory on the ether drift, aimed at demonstrating the presence in the Universe of a medium, the ether, through which waves could propagate, in a letter written to the American physicist Millikan in June 1925 (93):

“…. “I believe that I have really found the relationship between gravitation and electricity, assuming that the Miller experiments are based on a fundamental error,” he said. “Otherwise the whole relativity theory collapses like a house of cards.” …”

A behaviour that might highlight Einstein’s uncertainty on what he had developed, or maybe the awareness of the limitation of the theories he had conceived, be it the special theory of relativity or the theory on Brownian motion, since he had become aware of their weaknesses or limitations on being applied (94).

The following figure 5 shows the difference between the physical model of the space, and specifically, of the atmosphere, according to Einstein, and to Reich. From the figure it can be seen the model conceived by Einstein envisages the presence of air as unique component. The atmosphere is filled with the gases typical of the air, such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and other minor components but, for Einstein, no other energy of whatever kind is filling the atmosphere (95).

Reich hypothesized instead that, in addition to the above components, an energy is filling the atmosphere, and all the universe, too, in such a way to form a continuum. He found that this energy continuum was consisting of tiny units with distinct properties, and governed by specific laws.

Figure 5

One of the characteristics of these tiny units is the change of phase that is a function of some external factors they could be subjected to. Reich found that in normal condition these units are flowing undisturbed, with an undulatory movement, and are characterized by life-enhancing properties. In case these units are excited by external factors they start moving in a chaotic, irregular movements, with a higher degree of dis-homogeneity. Activation agents of this excitation might be any type of mechanical energy, electric and electromagnetic fields, X-rays and above all radioactivity. Reich considered the charged particles and the photons emitted by radioactive materials as the highest activation agents (96):

“Any kind of mechanical energy is capable of exciting the OR energy to greater activity: simple heat, sparks from an induction coil, friction, etc. The Oranur effect differs from other excitations of OR by its fierceness and its dangerous character.”

Under the influence of these physical parameters the free-flowing, undisturbed units start changing their paths, and moving in an unpredictable way. In parallel they observe a decrease of the life-enhancing properties they possess until they lose all the positive qualities and transform themselves in static, deadly, and life-negating units that Reich called deadly orgone energy (DOR) (97). This latter phenomenon occurs when the activating agents continue their excitation activity on the units for a period long enough to devoid them of all the dynamicity they possess. From this point on the units behave like deadly aggregates affecting the environment in which they form and creating a block to the movement of further dynamic units that are trying to flow through. In these conditions the living in the area are subjected to these blocks and start to die, be it inside a bio-energetic system or in the atmosphere. This gives rise either to diseases or desert-like conditions, respectively. The phenomenon however is reversible and, by appropriate conditions and processes, the DOR can be converted back again to dynamic, flowing, and life-enhancing orgone units (98).

A further and equally important characteristic of the dynamic orgone units is the formation of matter. Two or more flowing units can give rise to matter by superimposition, as Reich pointed out (99):

“1. Atomic energy (nuclear energy, NR) represents cosmic energy which is freed from matter through disintegration of the atom, which is the constituent of the universe in terms of classical and quantum physics. It is energy after matter. OR energy on the other hand, represents cosmic energy before matter, i.e., energy which has not been caught in or has not been transformed into solid matter. It is universally present, penetrates everything, surrounds, as the so-called OR energy envelope, our planet and most likely all other heavenly bodies (sun’s corona, Saturn’s ring, etc.). Cosmic OR energy, moving freely within the living organism, is called bio-energy or organismic OR energy.”

Figure 6 shows the different phases of the orgone units, and the hierarchic sequence from energetic units to matter units or particles.

Figure 6

The following figure 7 correlates the concentration of orgone energy units available in nature against the degree of excitation of the same units. In the graph a zero excitation degree (x-axis) corresponds to units freely and dynamically flowing undisturbed into the atmosphere or into living organisms; while an excitation degree of 100% corresponds to deadly and static units, that had lost all their movements. According to Einstein’s view, being no energetic units filling the universe, the possibility to excite these units is nil. As a consequence, Einstein’s view of the Universe can be represented on the graph by the origins of the two axes (marked as B in figure 7). According to Reich, being that all the Universe and our planet is filled by energetic units that can be subjected to a different degree of excitation, we might find the condition for any natural concentration of orgone units to be higher than zero (that is marked as A in figure 7). This situation corresponds to a variety of physical and biological phenomena that Reich studied and accurately discussed and reported in his books. For example, the formation of matter as well as heathy conditions in living organisms and in the environment may intervene for the dynamic and undisturbed flow conditions of the orgone units. The development of diseases in the living, as well as the occurrence of drought and aridity in the environment, may occur for a low to high degree of excitation of the orgone units. Meanwhile, death of the living in organisms (tumour, etc.) as well as desert-like conditions in the environment may intervene for extremely high excitation of the orgone units (that in this stage might have lost all their dynamicity and have transformed themselves into a static accumulation of deadly units or DOR). However, according to Reich the concentration of these orgone units can be artificially increased by using particular devices he called orgone accumulators. In this orgone-rich environment (marked as C in figure 7) the orgone units can be excited to a various degree (from nearly 0 to as high as 100) by amounts of the activating agent smaller than those required in standard conditions. Reich observed that in these operational conditions the excited orgone units might be characterized by the following functions: 1) therapeutic qualities, atmospheric healing and perhaps higher state of consciousness (100) at zero or very low degree of excitation; 2) motor force, and antigravity, at low to medium degree of excitation; and 3) Oranur sickness and death of the living for medium to high degree of excitation.

Figure 7

Reich hypothesized that the Oranur reaction produced by the excitation of the orgone units of the energetic continuum might be a sort of nuclear fission. However, he treated the argument very cautiously (101):

“11. I did not work with fission and I did not produce fission during the Oranur experimentation. It is not sure that fission actually takes place in infested material, but this might possibly be the case. Therefore, I prefer, in the interest of the great medical possibilities of OR energy research, in the interest of the people and for my personal security to report these things, and to urge emphatically that all red tape be cut through in order to look into these processes on a scale appropriate to their scope, dangers and hopes. Fullest clarity and having the cards in the open, above the table, are now crucial obligations: IF FISSION OF ORDINARY MATERIAL OCCURS, ITS DISCLOSURE WAS INCIDENTAL TO AN EXPERIMENT WHICH STARTED WITH AN ENTIRELY DIFFERENT GOAL IN MIND.”

Notwithstanding this, according to Sharaf, Reich was really convinced that the Oranur reaction, produced by the excitation of the orgone units in the orgone-rich environment of the orgone room, was a special kind of nuclear fission. However, whether this was confirmed, it might have created to Reich many legal problems (102):

4. ….. R. has written a complete report on the 1st Oranur experiment which he now plans to send to the AEC. He is particularly thrilled with the thought that the action of the atomic bomb may now be comprehensible and that the nature of disease in general may have been really approached. His work hypothesis is that in both cases it is the OE that is affected by the trigger action of in one case nuclear radiation and in the other whatever the particular noxae may be.


R. said on March 20th when he re-read the law, that legally he has a death penalty over his head, since the law states that anyone who works with nuclear radiation to create nuclear fission without the permission of the AEC is subject to the death penalty. And, he has, he says created fission through NR during the first OR experiment. He did not set out to do that, and he has created fission in a quite different sense than the AEC understands that term, but the emotional plague out to get him might not take into account such considerations. He is forced to submit the report on the experiment to the AEC before he can publish it, to safeguard himself legally. But that involves its dangers, too: The AEC could use the results in their own fashion which might be in conflict with R.’s intention not to reveal a deadly quality of OE, and (2) the AEC did not witness the experiment and does not understand the methodological background and the physical findings against which the experiment was made and in the light of which it must be examined. At the same time he cannot not report on the findings nor publish them without the AEC’s permission. He cannot keep what has happened a secret, even if he wished to, and to keep it a secret would kill off the possible great immunization and other medical benefits to be derived from it. He must take into consideration the use of ORANUR destructively by the Russians who, with their own particular kind of cleverness, might make quicker use of it than the US. Added to these great complications, he would like to substantiate his findings with further experimentation but cannot know how to proceed without endangering the workers and possibly the population. Yet he cannot expect anyone else to carry it on since no one else has the knowledge and the background to proceed intelligently with it.

Practically, he has decided to simply state the dilemma – including the death penalty – openly and clearly to the AEC, and thereby take preventive measures against any boomerang and put the responsibility on someone else’s shoulders besides his alone.”

This particular kind of nuclear fission was due to a clear and distinct state of the orgone units of the energy continuum that behaved differently from their undisturbed, dynamic state. In this case the nuclear atom activity functions as a trigger for this unconventional fission, being the target energetic units and not matter. However, Reich did not confine the quality of the orgone units to be excited by external agents only in the physical realm. He thought that if everything in nature is characterized, as basic component, by units of orgone energy aggregated in different way to form particles of matter, a reaction to these activating agents may arise also in the biological and emotional realm of the living systems, in that the units are equally excited, and running wild, inside living systems as they are in the environment. This might explain the reactions and the diseases experienced at Orgonon during the Oranur experiment and also by Reich and his collaborators, and those occurred on the mice in the cage inside the students’ hall. In case the excitation of these orgone units is extremely high death can occur, as in the case of the experimental mice in the Oranur experiment. According to Sharaf (103):

“I. During the explosive reaction of orgone energy to radium (Jan. 5th to around Jan. 13th – (an exact date of the end of the reaction is impossible to delimit), Reich was constantly fascinated – to use a favourite word of his – “enchanted” by the similarity of the cosmic orgone energy’s response (outside membranes) to the response of the same energy within membranes (emotional response) when either is made ”mad” by the provocation of malicious, deadly “radiation,” be it from radium as in what is to date the classic experiment in the physical realm or be it from other human beings in the emotional realm. Let us list those similarities briefly as Reich has discussed them during the recent weeks:
1. In both cases, the orgone energy gets “mad” and turns hateful. The orgone energy in the laboratory got “mad” at the radium and turned malicious itself in part; …
2. The response of the orgone energy increases with the number of times the disturbing “radiation” is presented. This increase takes place in a functional, non-mechanical manner, the details of which in both the physical and emotional realm remaining still to be elaborated.
a. Physical realm: The observers felt the response of OE to NR hardly at all the first day the radium was brought in the lab, more on each day, until the reaction became so severe that the experiment was temporarily halted.
3. Aroused orgone energy – in both the physical and emotional realms hits other energy systems in their weak spot(s).

a. Physical realm: There is evidence (lack of ionization, change in GM count) to show that aroused orgone energy changes and weakens nuclear radiation. Exactly how it does this and to what extent remains to be worked out. As the period of Jan. 5th to Jan. 11th amply demonstrated, concentrated, aroused atmospheric orgone energy also hits observers, and tends to hit them in their biophysical, weak spot ….” (Italics is mine, RM)

However, Reich observed that the exposure of the organisms to the excited orgone units had the characteristic to hit the weakest points and also to surface latent diseases. And after a period of no exposure and rest the organism positively reacted to this turmoil and messy state, and healed from the symptoms it had showing a good final overall health. Reich was very confident of the therapeutic qualities of small and controlled Oranur fields and he went on to hypothesize it might heal also cancer (104):

4. ….. Disease is, to this thinking, disease of the organismic orgone energy which is disturbed by and fights against the noxa. He is also very encouraged by the come-back people make after suffering from the Oranur malaise: They feel better, stronger, clearer afterward. He believes that when the question of dosage is worked out, Oranur project may yield a powerful new medical weapon – “the most powerful medical weapon there has ever been,” [Reich to Sharaf] as he once expressed it. The specificity of the reactions to ORANUR, the way each individual suffers in his particular biopathic weak spot, is one of the most fascinating aspects of the whole experiment. “I have the feeling that it gets the biopathy by the throat and drags it out and that’s what we want,” he expressed it recently. He has the feeling that the accu sparked by very minimal dosage of NR may be especially effective in cancer.”

Reich, according to the results acquired both during the January experiment and in the next few months suggested a possible way to produce a controlled Oranur field, and reduce the DOR effects so as to restrict, as much as possible, the development of the noxious and nefarious field (105):

“On the other hand, when NR material was not sufficiently shielded, it had an even chance to irritate and trigger OR energy into DOR action. …. Now it seemed clear that in order to reduce the DOR effect, one had to put the NR material into heavy shielding and thus confined, into the charger, OR would get at NR, but not NR at OR. We decided right away to build a housing for the safe to put the NR material into the safe again and to put the safe, containing NR, in the vicinity of the charger. This would secure the Oranur effect without the DOR element if we were on the right track of reasoning.
The further elaboration of this problem must wait until the second Oranur series of experimentation can be carried out.”

The following figure 8 is representing a scheme of the above suggested layout, where the radioactive material is put, shielded by its ½” leaden tube, inside the 4” steel and concrete walls safe. In turn, the safe is put close to a one-fold small charger, and both are situated inside a housing. Reich did not specify the architectural design of the latter but it is reasonable to think that it had not the characteristic of an orgone accumulating device. Such arrangement would have had the function of preventing the nuclear source transmitting the radiations outside the safe, thus avoiding the possibility to create an unwanted and uncontrolled excited orgone field in the surrounds of the triggering unit (safe and small charger) that could be directly excited by the photons emitted by the source ad transmitted outside the container. At the same time the orgone energy units concentrated inside the leaden tube and the safe could be excited by the action of the radiations of the nuclear source, and hence form the core required to start the Oranur reaction. Once the reaction was produced it could be transmitted outside the safe to the nearby orgone units with a chain-like propagation. To my best knowledge Reich never carried out such second Oranur experimentation.

Figure 8

Southgate recently replicated the Reich’s Oranur experiment by using a very small amount of radioactive material (106). He used 0.26 mg of americium-241 that corresponds to an activity of 0.9 mCi (or 33.3 kBq), a value about 1,100 times less than that used by Reich in the original experiment (about 36.6 MBq or 1 mCi) (107). The americium-241, kept in its original plastic case, was put for some weeks either inside a powerful orgone cabinet, where many smaller orgone apparatus were present, or around it at different distances. He monitored the behaviour of the Oranur field, by radioactivity measurements with a Geiger-Muller counter, and of the orgone field by a Life Energy meter.

He found the formation of an Oranur field all around the orgone cabinet with an extension of at least 18-24 ft (5.5-7.3 m) substantiated by a parallel increase of the radioactivity and orgone field readings (108). He also observed a direct relationship between the Oranur field and the intensity of the orgone field, in that higher concentrations of orgone energy units, when subjected to the action of the radioactive source, were accompanied by higher values of the radioactivity. Southgate observed also that the Oranur conditions persisted even after the removal of the americium-241 at the end of the experiment and that the cabinet and the orgone devices, contained inside the cabinet, maintained its Oranur charge for much longer periods.

It is to be noted here that Southgate did produce an Oranur field by an extremely small amount of radioactive material, with an intensity as low as 0.9 mCi. The possibility of the creation of an Oranur field from such a low radioactive source was already predicted by Reich (109):

“EVERYONE IS STRICTLY WARNED AGAINST USING AN OR ACCUMULATOR WHILE AN NR SOURCE OF THE STRENGTH OF A MILLICURIE OR AN XRAY MACHINE IS LOCATED WITHIN THE OR ENERGY FIELD. The longer the trigger effect is allowed to act upon the OR atmosphere, and the more OR accumulating devices that are present, the stronger will be the effects. Stronger effects will also result with regular repetition of the trigger action. In a highly concentrated Oranur atmosphere, the presence of even as little as a microgram or less of any NR source for even as little as a few minutes will suffice to produce severe effects.”

At this point it is more than reasonable to hypothesize that in Reich’s original Oranur experiment the increase of the radioactivity readings; the biological reactions Reich and the observers, and the experimental mice experienced; the deaths of part of the experimental mice; and the formation of the blue-purple cloud in the students’ laboratory, were all the consequence of the Oranur field originated from inside the charger and triggered by the radioactive activity of the small amount of radium-226. And all the above reactions were not the results of the ionizing radiations of the gamma-rays in those areas, in that the intensity transmitted through all the materials, the 20-fold ORAC, the orgone room, and the students’ laboratory building were made of, was so low in magnitude to be considered safe and without consequences to the health of the living organisms.

It is evident that the only function the one-mg of radium-226 had, was to trigger and create a chaotic movement of the orgone units available in the closeness of the radioactive source. It can be presumed that all the orgone units inside the small charger were excited to a very high degree by the activity of the radioactive source thus producing an uncontrolled, mad or amok, according to Reich’s wording, movements. However, it is well known that no phenomena like those observed and listed above can be produced by one-mg of radium-226 in standard conditions, namely when the concentration of orgone units is not increased by any accumulating orgone devices and is the one typical of the natural background in the atmosphere. This condition corresponds to the point along the vertical line A in figure 7 for a zero degree of excitation. In this case a tiny amount of radioactive material does excite the orgone units, but these units are available in the atmosphere in low or very low concentrations thus making not possible to reach a critical core of excited units that can be transmitted to nearby units, in a chain-like reaction. Indeed, it should be highlighted that the excitation is a typical consequence anytime the orgone units come into contact with a radioactive source, but a reaction can occur and be transmitted only in the case the concentration of the orgone units in the environment, in which the radioactive material is located, is high enough for the excited orgone units to reach a critical conditions through which the uncontrolled, and chaotic movements are transmitted in the space to nearby units thus triggering a chain-like reaction until to the point when the excited units have a less-than-critical value no longer enough to further transmit the excitation to nearby units. At this point the Oranur reaction and the associated field gradually vanishes.

As it is well known, the easiest way to obtain very high artificial concentration of orgone units is to resort to orgone-accumulating devices such as those used by Reich at Orgonon. By these devices the concentration of units in the inside is much higher than that in standard environmental conditions. When the concentration of orgone units in the environment is close to standard, background values (vertical line A in figure 7), the excitation of the orgone units by a tiny amount of a radioactive source is low and not enough to start an Oranur reaction, even though the units in the closeness of the triggering source are somewhat excited but to a lower degree than needed to trigger a chain-like reaction. However, the development of a high Oranur field does occur also at standard concentrations provided that an extraordinarily high amount of radioactive source is used as in the case of an atomic bombing explosion.

According to the above, the extension of the Oranur field is thus function of the concentration of orgone units in the environment, of the amount of activating material, i.e., the radioactive source, and of the exposure time, or in other words the triggering effects of the radioactive material might be function of the total effective dose the orgone units are exposed to. Hence, it can be postulated the degree of excitation of the orgone energy units is function of the amount and of the intensity of the alpha, and beta particles; and of the X-rays, and gamma rays emitted by the radioactive source. And, the maximum excitation should occur inside the environment where the shielded radioactive source is contained. In case of the presence of ionizing radiations downstream of a set of absorber materials (when a radioactive source is unshielded or not properly shielded), they are triggering different nuclei of highly excited orgone units that in turn are creating an additional and overlapping effect to the primary one with an unpredictable intensification of the Oranur reaction and effects.

Hence, it can be inferred that the maximum excitation of the orgone units, were subjected during the Oranur experiment at Orgonon, might have occurred either inside the leaden tube (in case the one-mg of radium-226 was shielded) or inside the small charger (whether put naked). After the orgone units started to be excited by the alpha particles and gamma rays of the radium-226, the excitation was transmitted to the nearby orgone units outside the small charger, as if the dynamic, undulatory movement of the orgone units was in some way affected and changed by the excitation of the first units. In this way dynamic orgone units were changed into Oranur orgone units even though in an area where no ionizing radiations were available, or available with a small intensity. And once the Oranur effects took place, it travelled through the air as if infesting, chain-like, one area after another. At Orgonon, such infestation has been found as far away as two miles from the place of the original effect (110). This phenomenon developed also, during the research carried out by Southgate even though to a much lesser extent. He found that the propagation of the excitation of the Oranur units extended to at least 18-24 ft. Besides, Reich found that also materials such as rocks, metals and especially material arrangements which had the faculty of accumulating orgone energy, continued to be active long after the originally triggering radioactive material has been removed. This peculiarity was confirmed also by Southgate.

If we assume that the concentrations of orgone units in the two orgone set-ups in Reich’s and Southgate’s experiment might be of the same order, the extension of the Oranur field might be considered directly proportional to the total effective dose released during each experiment.

We know that the total effective dose the one-mg of radium-226 produced at 1 cm distance during the Oranur experiment at Orgonon in 1951 was:

effective dose Ra-226 = 1,743.67 mSv/h/GBq ∙ 0.0366 GBq ∙ 11.5 h = 733.9 mSv

while the observed extension of the Oranur field that developed around the experimental 20-fold orgone accumulator was 2 miles (or 3218.7 m). On the other hand, the dose rate delivered at 1 cm distance by the 0.26 mg of americium-241 during the Southgate’s experiment was:

dose rate Am-241= 39.72 mSv/h/GBq ∙ 33.3∙10-6 GBq = 1.32 ∙10-3 mSv/h

Southgate kept the americium-241 continually either inside the orgone set-up or just outside it for 35 days (840 hours). Hence, the effective dose was:

effective dose Am-241 = 1.32 ∙10-3 mSv/h ∙ 840 h = 1.11 mSv

A value that is 733.9/1.11 = 661.2 times lower than the one that characterized the original Oranur field at Orgonon.

According to the above the extension should have been 3218.7/661.2 = 4.87 m or 16.0 ft. A value that is very close to the range of 18-24 ft experimentally determined by Southgate in his measurements. Besides, being the americium-241 used in the experiment contained in its PVC plastic casing (2-3 mm thickness), the intensity of the ionizing radiations transmitted outside it was about 87% (111). That means the radiations emitted by the amerciunm-241 were only partially shielded by the PVC case during the whole experiment.

At this point, being the total effective doses delivered in the two above experiments and the related Oranur field extensions quite comparable, and considering also the fact the americium-241 was only partially shielded by its plastic container, we can argue that the one-mg radium-226 in the original Oranur experiment was put inside its charger unshielded, or not protected by its ½” leaden tube. And this adds and strengthen the results of the literature review where it does seem Reich put the radium-226 source inside the small charger naked. This might explain the development of the toxic and nefarious Oranur field even if the radium-226 was kept inside the orgone room for a total of 11.5 hours only.

If the above considerations hold true, with all the assumptions and approximations introduced, it might be argued that a radioactive source activity of 1 Ci (corresponding to 1 g of radium-226) put naked in a similar orgone set-up might infest an area with an extension of more than 3,000 km. Besides, we may assume the movement of the Oranur reaction is occurring not only horizontally but also in all the other directions, and hence the spreading of a similar reaction might occur with a sphere-like path with a radius of at least 3,000 km. According to the above hypothesis an Oranur reaction and the associated Oranur field can propagate into the atmosphere to a distance as high as to reach a good part of the thermosphere (112). Besides, the propagation of the reaction in the underground may similarly reach extraordinarily deep depths that, however, cannot be estimated being the propagation of such reaction inside the mantle’s formations (lithosphere, asthenosphere, etc.), that are characterized by different densities and states, not known.

A recent case that might be the consequence of an Oranur reaction might be the short-term radioactive contamination of the atmosphere by ruthenium-106 (113) that had been detected in many European countries in the period from the end of September to mid-October 2017 (114). The presence of the radioactive element was observed in the atmosphere of 31 countries of the European continent at levels ranging from a few mBq/m3 to more than 140 mBq/m3. The concentration levels detected in the air in Europe were however of no consequence for human health and for the environment. The first observations were made in Russia on September 23 at Kyshtym, on September 25 at Argayash and on September 26 at Bugulma and other nearby monitoring stations. All the above stations were located in the south of Urals. It was observed that the detection of ruthenium-106 was also accompanied, in some European stations (Sweden, Czech Republic, and Austria) by the detection of ruthenium-103 (115), with a ratio ruthenium-106/ruthenium-103 of about 4,000. IRSN carried out a study in order to determine the possible location of the source, to assess the total activity released and the release duration, and to understand the process that might be at the origin of the release of ruthenium-106 (116). Based on meteorological conditions and the measurement results available in the European countries a simulation to estimate the above parameters, i.e. release zone, the quantity of ruthenium-106 released, and the period and the duration of the release was carried out by IRSN. They came to the conclusion that a terrestrial release emitted from the regions located between Volga and Ural might explain the contamination of the atmosphere detected in Europe. The activity of ruthenium-106 released was estimated to range between 100 and 300 TBq. The release would have occurred between September 25 and September 28, with a duration of no more than 24 hours. In doing an evaluation of the type of event that might have led to the large atmospheric contamination the following were considered to be involved: 1) a nuclear reactor involving irradiated fuels or targets; 2) operations on targets used in the production of sources, for instance in the medical field (activity of the order of MBq); 3) source of ruthenium-106 used in the medical field; 4) source of ruthenium-106 used in other fields other than the medical one; 5) spent fuel treatment, including production of sources from fission product solutions. Nevertheless, IRSN envisaged also as a possible explanation of the contamination unknown events related to irradiated fuel treatments. IRSN found that the most plausible hypothesis to explain the observations might be related to operations in a spent fuel treatment facility located in South Ural region.

The following figures 9 shows the corrected concentration in the atmosphere of ruthenium-106 for each monitoring station in Europe and Russia over the whole sampling period during which ruthenium was detected (117). Correction was required in order to compare ruthenium-106 activities amongst different monitoring stations. In the figure it can be observed a decreasing gradient of ruthenium-106 concentration in the atmosphere from East to West.

Figure 9

The following figure 10 shows that the most reliable area of the potential release, represented by the darker colours, might be located between Volga and Ural regions (118).

Figure 10

According to the results of the IRSN study the estimated source term (from 100 to 300 TBq that corresponds to the ejection of typically 1-4 grams of ruthenium-106) corresponded to an event involving a few cubic meters of fission product solution. However, the study discarded the hypothesis that the source term could be compatible with the activity of medical sources, such as those used in the treatment of ocular cancer, being this latter equivalent to several thousands of such sources, and hence very improbable to occur.

If the analysis, the discussion and the results related to the development of an Oranur field reported in the first part of the present article stand, it seems that the situation occurred in the last Fall in western Europe may have all the ingredients of an Oranur reaction and of an associated Oranur field produced by a high concentration of orgone energy units. Indeed, to the type of events theorised by IRSN, as a tentative explanation of the phenomenon, we may add one more by hypothesising that the radioactive field, detected in the European countries and in Russia, might have been produced by an amount of ruthenium-106 kept in an orgone accumulating set-up such as that of the same type we observed in Reich’s and Southgate’s experiments.

If we suppose the concentration of orgone units is of the same order to those discussed above, a possibility not much far distant from the reality, and the radioactive field has been produced by an Oranur reaction, the extension of the Oranur (radioactive) field might be considered directly proportional to the effective dose delivered by the amount of ruthenium-106 involved in the reaction. From figure 9 we can see that the modelling carried out by IRSN suggests an extension of a high radioactive field, that might have been produced by the Oranur reaction and where safety measures had to be taken in order to protect the population from radiation exposure, of few kilometers from the release location (between Volga and Ural regions) (119). We can estimate this high radioactive field extension ranging between 5 and 10 km. While the extension of the overall radioactive cloud that spread over West Europe can be estimated in about 3,000-3,500 km (120).

We know that at Orgonon Reich observed an extension of the Oranur field, produced by the 1 mg of radium-226 situated in the orgone-rich environment of the orgone room, of 3218.7 m with an effective dose at 1 cm of 733.9 mSv. The effective dose of ruthenium-106 that might have produced an Oranur field with an extension of about 7,500 m (average value) is given by:

3.2∙103 : 733.9 = 7.5∙103 : x

where x is the effective dose of ruthenium-106 in mSv. Determining x from the above proportion we have:

Being the gamma constant at 1 cm for the ruthenium-106 (rhodium-106) of 1381.58 rem/h/Ci or 3.77∙102 mSv/h/GBq, and the supposed duration of the reaction of about 24 hours, we can determine the released activity of ruthenium-106, as follows:

Being the specific activity for ruthenium-106 given by 1.22∙105 GBq/g (121), the amount of ruthenium-106 that triggered the Oranur reaction can be calculated as follows:

The above released activity of 0.19 GBq (or 190 MBq) is undoubtedly an extremely low value, especially when compared to the released activity of 100-300 TGq estimated by IRSN. And the calculated amount of ruthenium-106 of around 1.6 mg is perfectly compatible with what might have been provided, if my analysis is correct, by amounts of ruthenium-106 used in the medical field for radiotherapy of the eye tumour where the activity is ranging between few MBq and several tens of MBq.

The following table 5 reports a summary of the most important data related to the two Oranur experiments available in the literature (Reich, 1951; and Southgate, 2018), and those concerning the atmospheric contamination occurred in the Fall of 2017 (IRSN report, 2018). It has to be emphasized that the data concerning the 2017 atmospheric contamination have been determined by assuming that the spreading of the radioactive cloud was the result of an Oranur reaction triggered by an amount of ruthenium-106 put inside a high orgone accumulating set-up. However, confirmation of the above hypothesis might be obtained only by farther and controlled experiments performed by Research Institutes with proved skills both in nuclear and orgonomic fields. Primary and secondary Oranur fields in table 5 are referring to the fields developed around the experimental site characterized by very high radioactive readings, and by low or very low readings, respectively.


Radioactive source



Released effective dose

Oranur field

Oranur field (secondary)

Reich (1951)






Southgate (2018)






IRSN (2018)






Table 5

At this point it is reasonable to think that the ionizing radiation emitted by a radioactive source has the highest influence and degree of excitation on the orgone energy units. All the fields of science and technology that envision the use of a radioactive material might unknowingly create an Oranur reaction, and an associated Oranur field, at different degree of potency and extension in case the user or the recipient, whatever orgonotic system it may be, is characterized by a concentration of orgone energy units higher than that of the background values. The recipient may be a living organism or the same environment. In case of a human organism, all the exams and cures based on the use of a nuclear source might produce an Oranur field inside the organism with all the side-effects typical of the Oranur sickness, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, thirst, flu-like conditions, gastro-intestinal problems, etc. CT scan, carried out by using an intravenous contrast medium could be a typical example of a possible production of an Oranur reaction inside the body. Being the contrast medium absorbing X-rays that are taken and diffusely distributed in the organism, it might produce a diffused Oranur field and a collateral Oranur sickness of a degree proportional to the released activity and above all to the amount of orgone units available in the organism. And this situation may hold for all the other exams, and cures that involve the use of a tiny radioactive source that injects, either locally or diffusely, charged particles or photons in the organism.

Similarly, the use either of a small or a massive amount of a radioactive source in the environment can create an Oranur reaction and a related field that is depending on the amount of the released activity and on the quantity of orgone energy units available. In the latter case all the living beings in the environment are subjected to the same Oranur field and may develop various Oranur sicknesses whose seriousness is function of the amount of concentrated orgone units each living system is characterized by.


From what is above reported and discussed the following conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Many of the peculiarities of Reich’s Oranur reaction and of the development of an associated Oranur field has been recently confirmed by an independent research experiment (Southgate, 2018) where an Oranur field produced by a tiny radioactive source (0.26 mg of americium-241) has been detected all around the experimental site by GM counter and field meter measurements.
  2. It is plausible to assume that the radium-226 used by Reich during the Oranur experiment at Orgonon in January 1951 was put inside the small charger naked (unshielded). This can be argued both from a literature review and from the similarities with the results of Southgate’s experiment.
  3. Higher concentrations of orgone energy units, that can be found both in natural and artificially-produced conditions, can be excited to a various degree by a tiny amount of a radioactive source. Once the Oranur reaction starts it propagates to the nearby units in the space until it vanishes when the energy of the excited orgone units is no longer enough to transmit the excitation to nearby orgone units. From an analysis of the results of the Oranur experiments available in the literature, it seems the extension of the Oranur field might be directly proportional to the effective dose released by the radioactive material used in the experiment, and to the concentration of energy orgone units available in the experimental orgonotic system.
  4. The higher the concentration of orgone energy, either in an open or in a closed orgonotic system, the lower the amount of radioactive material required to obtain the same results. In case of a natural standard concentration of orgone energy units, typical of the environment, the amount of radioactive source to obtain the same results is by far higher.
  5. The Oranur sickness a living system is developing is not due to the charged particles and the photons emitted by the radioactive source that hit the system, but is given by the reaction of the orgone energy units contained in the system to the ionization action of the radiations that transform the qualities of the orgone units, originally characterized by a dynamic, undulatory and homogenous movement, into a highly chaotic and dis-homogeneous flow. This change of state, at the end, give rise to the typical sickness encountered during the reaction.
  6. Oranur field properly contained and controlled might have technological applications such as 1) reducing the decay constant of a radioactive element; 2) energy production (motor force) and antigravity; 3) cure of diseases; 4) and development of higher consciousness states, just to name a few known to date (122).
  7. The results obtained in the Oranur experiment are the prime and the best evidence that the Universe and our atmosphere is not empty but filled with a continuum consisting of energetic units or, as Reich called it, orgone energy units whose presence, however, dates back to immemorial times where philosophers and scientists mentioned and discussed it for the first time.
  8. According to the above consideration, Einstein’s view and models of the cosmos seem inadequate to represent and explain all the phenomena and the physical realities of our world and need a substantial revision. An update of those models, by introducing the effects of the presence of an energetic medium, is then more than needed.
  9. Being an Oranur reaction relatively easy and inexpensive to produce; the extension of the resulting Oranur field go beyond national boundaries; and the associated damages it can produce on living systems and on the environment very high, it should be mandatory that worldwide Radioprotection Governmental Bodies and Competent Authorities, Health Agencies, and Research Institutes must take the responsibility to update their scientific view of the natural and physical phenomena by re-evaluating Reich’s works, and carrying out strictly controlled laboratory experiments in order to explore and verify all the pros/cons of an Oranur reaction and its associated field, and take appropriate measures so that to guarantee the safety and the health of the human beings and of the environment of the whole planet.


The author wish to thank Leon Southgate for the critical review of the final manuscript.

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  1. Reich W, The Anti Nuclear Radiation Effect of Cosmic Orgone Energy, Orgone Energy Bulletin, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Vol 3, N° 1, January 1951.
  2. Reich W, General Meeting – January 3, 1951, HMS, Boston, Box 11 – Material Evidence for Court (Never Presented: Oranur & Orop desert) – Conspiracy.
  3. Reich W, General Meeting – January 3, 1951.
  4. Oranur was coined by Reich as an acronym for Orgonomic Anti Nuclear Radiation.
  5. Reich discussed the properties of the Orur or Oranur radium in detail in his last book Contact with Space (Core Pilot Press, Usa, 1957). Currently the book is published by the Wilhelm Reich Museum. A critical review of the properties of the Orur and its applications can be found in Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017, pages 323-363.
  6. Reich W, Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 274.
  7. The Oranur experiment took place at Orgonon’s laboratories, in Maine, in the first half of January, 1951.
  8. Reich W, Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 277. Reich does not describe here the characteristics of the small orgone charger he used. It can be presumed it was a small 1-fold orgone accumulator of the same type used later on to contain the radioactive source utilized in the Oranur experiment. Besides, it is known from the literature that zinc sulphide is not a radioactive chemical substance and exhibits properties of phosphorescence when struck by charged particles. According to Wilcox (The Oranur Experiment, March 30, 2002, paper available online) what Reich measured was not just plain zinc sulphide, but was some other, radioactive substance mixed in with it in order to have been radioactive. Wilcox hypothesized that what Reich referred to as "radioactive zinc sulphide" was the same concoction used in radium wristwatch dials, namely, zinc sulphide with radioactive radium mixed in, in order to make the zinc sulphide glow in the dark, and possibly with also the addition of a little bit of silver.
  9. Reich W, Ibid, pages 274-275. Here Reich does not specify whether the radioactive zinc sulphide, was kept inside the small charger naked or inside the ¼” lead shielding.
  10. Reich W, Ibid, page 336.
  11. Application for the radioisotopes procurement to Radioisotopes (RI) Branch of AEC (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) was done by telegram on December 4, 1950 by Reich (OIRL). Response to Reich by RI Branch AEC was done by letter on December 6 (application) and December 15 (procurement), 1950. Later Reich ordered two mg of radium-226 needed for the experiment to the Canadian Radium and Uranium Corp, NYC. The company responded by letter on January 3, 1951 (Reich W, Ibid, page 339). The two units arrived at Orgonon two days later. According to Eden, in the middle of December 1950 Reich applied to the AEC for 20 mCi of phosphorus-32 (P-32). The ordered nuclear material either was delayed or never arrived at Orgonon. Reich thereupon ordered two mg of pure radium from a private laboratory (he does not specify which it was) that arrived at Orgonon on January 5, 1951 (Eden J, Orgone Energy. The Answer to Atomic Suicide, Exposition Press, Inc, New York, 1972, pages 94-95). It is interesting to note here that Eden reported that on the same day of the arrival one of the two units of radium kept in its lead container was placed in a garage some distance from the laboratory. The second unit was placed in a strong orgone energy accumulator that was itself located in the orgone room without specifying whether it was shielded by its lead container as he clearly reported for the control unit (Eden J, Ibid, page 95).
  12. The students’ laboratory is the premise which contained the orgone room and where the Oranur experiment was carried out. The orgone room was a 1-fold orgone accumulator with size of 18 x 18 ft (around 5.5 x 5.5 meter).
  13. According to Reich, on the basis of many subjective as well as objective observations, the whole region of the 280 acreage at Orgonon possessed a much higher level of orgone energy than any other region, due to the continuous work that had been carried out there for many years (Reich W, Ibid, page 310). As a consequence of this, due to the radioactivity being proportional to the content of orgone energy units, the natural background at Orgonon just before the Oranur experiment was at least twice the natural background the area possessed some years earlier (before Reich started all his research activities with orgone devices), i.e. 8-15 CPM (Reich W, Ibid, page 226).
  14. Reich W, Ibid, page 275.
  15. Reich W, Ibid, table at page 280.
  16. Reich W, Ibid, figure 12 at page 279.
  17. Journal of Orgonomy, Vol 11, N° 1, May 1977, Orgonomic Publications, New York, Usa, figure at page 2.
  18. Reich W, Ibid, page 279.
  19. Reich W, Ibid, page 275.
  20. Reich W, Ibid, page 281.
  21. Reich W, Ibid, page 282.
  22. Reich W, Ibid, page 281.
  23. Reich W, Ibid, page 283.
  24. Reich W, Ibid, pages 283-284.
  25. Reich W, Ibid, pages 283-284; and 287-288.
  26. Reich W, Ibid, page 337.
  27. Reich W, Ibid, page 300.
  28. Reich W, Ibid, pages 298-299.
  29. Reich W, Ibid, page 296.
  30. In The Oranur Experiment book at page 309 Reich stated that all the nuclear materials that were used in the Oranur experiment were put inside a safe with heavy 4” walls of steel and cement and put half a mile (around 805 meter) away from the laboratory.
  31. Reich W, Ibid, pages 309 and 317.
  32. Reich W, Ibid, page 312.
  33. Sharaf M, Historical Notes. Some Notes on Oranur – March, 1951, a 7-page typed letter dated March 15, 1951, Reich’s Archive, HMS, Boston, Box 11 (Material Evidence for Court).
  34. Reich W, Ibid, page 331.
  35. Reich W, Ibid, page 292.
  36. Reich W, Ibid, page 331.
  37. Reich W, Ibid, page 332.
  38. Reich W, Ibid, page 334.
  39. Measurements were done by a Tracerlab SU-5 GM counter.
  40. Reich W, Ibid, page 317.
  41. Reich W, Ibid, page 318.
  42. These mice were not those used in the Oranur experiment three months earlier.
  43. Reich W, Ibid, page 320.
  44. Reich W, Ibid, page 321.
  45. The sizes of the inner space of the safe were 40 x 40 x 50 cm.
  46. For a same amount of radium-226 in standard environmental conditions (never been affected by exposure to high orgone charges) the reading at 1 cm naked was about 16,000 CPM.
  47. Reich W, Ibid, page 323. Reich does not specify here whether the nuclear material was put inside the great charger naked or inside its lead shielding.
  48. Reich W, Ibid, page 324.
  49. Reich W, Ibid, page 323.
  50. Measurements were done by a Tracerlab SU-5.
  51. Reich W, Ibid, data averaged from those reported in the table at page 323.
  52. Reich W, Ibid, page 325.
  53. Reich W, Ibid, page 327.
  54. Reich W, Ibid, page 328.
  55. Reich W, Ibid. See for instance reference to the experimental activities at pages 278, 281, and 283.
  56. Reich W, Ibid, page 280.
  57. Reich W, Ibid, page 281.
  58. Maglione R, the Legendary Shamir, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017, pages 114-158.
  59. An alpha particle is a nucleus of a helium atom, with the two orbiting electrons missing. It is characterized by a positive electric charge. This kind of particle loses energy quickly as soon as leaving the radioactive element. Ultimately, all alpha particles may find two electrons in the environment and become atoms of helium gas. If radium-226 is kept in a closed container the alpha-particles can combine with the electrons emitted by the metal walls of the container as a consequence of the ionization effect of the gamma-rays of the radioactive source on the metal. The phenomenon may occur when the metal, the walls of the container are made of, is available in nature in different isotopes and is unstable. In this case the alpha particles may find two electrons in the closed environment and form an atom of helium in the gas state (Gofman JW, Radiation and Human Health, Sierra Club Books, San Francisco, Usa, 1981, page 27).
  60. Radioactive Material Safety Data Sheet, Stuart Hunt & Associates, Alberta, Canada.
  61. Reilly D, Ensslin N, Smith H (Edited by), Passive Nondestructive Assay of Nuclear Materials, United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington DC, 1991, pages 31-42.
  62. The build-up factor (B) has been introduced in the classical Lambert-Beer equation to take into account conditions of poor geometry, i.e. for a broad beam or for a very thick shield, in that the classical equation of the emerging intensity (for B = 1) underestimates the intensity of the radiations transmitted by a shield thickness. The build-up factor assumes that under conditions of poor geometry a significant number of photons may be scattered by the shield into the detector, or photons that had been scattered out of the beam may be scattered back in after a second collision, so it includes both the contribution of the primary and the scattered radiations, at any point in a beam. It is always greater than 1, and have been calculated for various gamma energies and for various absorbers. In general, it is a function of the attenuation coefficient, the thickness of the shielding material L, and the energy of the gamma radiation.
  63. Reilly D, Ensslin N, Smith H, (Edited by), Ibid, pages 27-28.
  64. Reilly D, Ensslin N, Smith H, (Edited by), Ibid, page 30.
  65. Jorgustin K, Nuclear Radiation Shielding Protection, October 16, 2016. Available at https://modernsurvivalblog.com
  66. Acronym for Federal Emergency Management Agency.
  67. Acronym of International Commission on Radiological Protection.
  68. Acronym of United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission.
  69. The effective dose determines how dangerous an individual’s exposure to radiations can be. It takes into consideration not only the nature of the incoming radiation but also the sensitivities of the body parts affected. The unit of effective dose is the sievert (Sv), the same unit as is used for the equivalent dose absorbed locally by an organ, a gland or any other part of the body. Examples of effective dose are the doses resulting from a year exposure to natural radioactivity, radioactivity encountered in the workplace, radiation emitted by medical testing and finally accidental exposure to radioactivity. In an European country like Italy, the population is exposed each year to an average effective dose of about 4.5 mSv per capita. This value is the combination of different contributions such as natural radioactivity (2 mSv), of radioactivity of medical origin (1.2 mSv), and radiation linked to other human activities including nuclear (1.3 mSv). Italian regulations set at 1 mSv per year maximum admissible effective dose resulting from human activities outside the radioactivity from the above expositions.
  70. Acronym of United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.
  71. Severe exposures to high levels of radiation such as medium (0.2 Sv to 2 Sv), high (2 Sv to 10 Sv) and very high (>10 Sv) effective dose can be instead life-threatening. Absorption of a dose between 0.5 and 2 Sv will result in a light reaction involving nausea, asthenia and vomiting between 3 and 6 hours after the exposure. Somewhere between 4 and 4.5 Sv lies the so-called DL50 level, which is the point at which exposure will be fatal in 50% of cases. Patients whose entire bodies have been exposed to doses of this magnitude will exhibit Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS), a condition whose severity will depend on the dose absorbed, the exposure time, the type of radiation involved and the distribution of the radiation through the body. ARS is characterized by hematological symptoms (bone marrow damages), digestive symptoms (gastro-intestinal tract damages) and neurological symptoms in the central nervous system. Finally, exceptional measures for radioprotection of the population are taken and implemented in case of accident or radiological emergency such as in nuclear accidents. Intervention levels expressed in terms of doses are used as benchmarks for governments to decide on a case by case, the actions to put in place:
    – sheltering the population in a safe place, if the predicted effective dose exceeds 10 mSv;
    – evacuation, if the predicted effective dose exceeds 50 mSv;
    – administration of stable iodine, when the thyroid dose is likely to exceed 100 mSv.
  72. Specific activity is the activity per quantity of a radioactive source and is a physical property of that radionuclide. Activity is a quantity related to radioactivity, and is a measure of the number of disintegrations occurring per second in a particular radioactive isotope, or how many rays are emitted in that time. The units of activity are the becquerels (Bq), where 1 Bq is the activity of a substance that has one nucleus decaying per second. Generally, becquerels are small units, and kilo (kBq), mega (MBq) and giga (GBq) becquerels are more frequently used. Its related and more common unit is the Curie (abbreviated Ci) which is 3.7 x 1010 transformations per second. Since the probability of radioactive decay for a given radionuclide is a fixed physical quantity, the number of decays that occur in a given time of a specific number atoms of that radionuclide is also a fixed physical quantity. Thus, specific activity is defined as the activity per quantity of atoms of a particular radionuclide. It is usually given in units of Bq/g, but another commonly used unit of activity is the curie (Ci) allowing the definition of specific activity in Ci/g.
  73. Delacroix D, Guerre JP, Leblanc P, Hickman C, Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook, Nuclear Technology Publishing, Ashford, England, 2002, page 147.
  74. Reich W, Ibid, page 278, and page 319.
  75. Reich W, Ibid, pages 309-310.
  76. Reich W, Ibid, page 278.
  77. Reich W, Ibid, page 295. It should be pointed out here that the one-cubit-foot OR charger is not the one used to contain the experimental one-mg needle of radium-226 of the Oranur experiment. Indeed it contained a scintilloscope for alpha particles observation which was characterized by a fraction of a microgram of radium.
  78. The choice of the materials, the 1-fold ORAC would have been built, was done according to those described in the following available documentation:
    1) The Orgone Energy Accumulator – Its Scientific and Medical Use (Orgone Institute Press, 1951), which Reich suggests to refer in order to select the best materials to be used for the construction of an orgone accumulator (Oranur Experiment, page 336). At page 16 of the above booklet Reich suggests to use iron as metal material, and plastic as organic material;
    2) Construction and Use of the Orgone Accumulator (Orgone Institute Research Laboratories, Inc., 99-06 69th Avenue, Forest Hills, NY), a 2-page document available at the Reich’s archive, HMS, Boston, Box 28. In this latter document the construction plan of an accumulator, 4 ft height, and with a cross section of 5 ft2 (opening door’s side 2 ft, and width 2 ½ ft) is described. Suggested materials for the outer layer are Upson board (high-density wood fibre sheet), Beauver board (compressed wood fibre sheet), and Celotex (textured fibre sheet) with thickness between ¼” and ½”. Intermediate layer(s) materials are rockwool or oakum (a preparation of tarred fibre, generally virgin hemp or jute), and steel wool with total thickness of 1”. The inner layer material is 28 to 34 gauge iron sheet, preferably galvanized; and
    3) Orgonomic Geiger-Muller Reaction Experiment XXI – Preliminary Communication, a 12-page typed and handwritten document dated (Forest Hills) November 18, 1947, available at Reich’s Archive, HMS, Boston, Box 13. In this latter document Reich reports the construction plan of one cubit foot 3-fold orgone accumulator. The intermediate layers are built with alternating layers of steel wool and rockwool. No mention is done on the materials used for the inner and outer layers.
  79. Reich W, Ibid, page 280.
  80. Reich W, Ibid, page 279.
  81. Reich W, Ibid, page 279.
  82. In the appendix of the Oranur Experiment book (page 335) Reich reports that the orgone room can be lined with a sheet metal of iron or steel (no copper or aluminium). Between the inner iron metal lining and the outer walls he suggested to put a layer of ordinary glassfiber insulation in order to increase the effectiveness of the accumulation. Besides, the orgone room should have been made light-tight in order to make possible the observation of orgone energy in the dark. In a further document (Orgonomic Geiger-Muller Reaction Experiment XXI – Preliminary Communication, Reich’s Archive, HMS, Boston, Box 13) Reich mentions the construction of a special room, sized 15 x 15 ft whose walls should be lined inside on all six walls with sheet of iron (gauge 26-32), and with matter like Celotex outside. Reich pointed out that the thickness of the layer was not an important issue.
  83. Reich W, Ibid, page 314.
  84. Reich W, Ibid, page 279.
  85. Huthsteiner C, Personal Communication, March 29, 2018.
  86. Reich W, Ibid, page 280. In the table of distances at page 280 Reich reports the distance between the mice and the orgone room to be 40 feet. In order to determine the distance of the mice from the radium-226, to the above value it should be added the distance of the 20-fold ORAC from the orgone room (6-7 feet) (Reich, Ibid, page 280), the distance between the small charger and the 20-fold ORAC (about 2 ft), and the distance between the radium-226 and the inner layer of the small charger (about ½ ft).
  87. The height of the 20-fold ORAC is not known.
  88. Density of the glass fiber for a ½” slab thickness has been taken from the data reported for fiberglass insulation slabs produced by National Industrial Co, Tamil Nadu, India.
  89. Density for fine steel wool has been taken from
  90. Density for Celotex has been taken from Celotex TB4000 Product Data Sheet, August 2016, Celotex Saint Gobain, UK. The value of the mass attenuation coefficient (in Ero’s paper) was the one given for Melaina wood, being characterized by a density similar to that of Celotex (0.42 g/m3).
  91. Reich W, Ibid, pages 281, and 283.
  92. Reich, Ibid, page 291.
  93. Clark RW, Einstein: the Life and Times, World Publishing Co, New York, 1971, page 328.
  94. For more details on the work of Einstein and its correlation with the work of Reich’s and orgone energy see Maglione R, The Motions of Life. Was Einstein Really Modeling Brownian Motion? GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2014.
  95. Today the situation is little more complicated by the presence in the atmosphere of gases and particulates, that at the time of Einstein and Reich were not present or were available in very low percentages, such as CO2, CO, NOx, SOx, O3, VOC, CFCs, and PMs.
  96. Reich W, Ibid, page 336. To the above causes Eden added also gasoline as a secondary source of energy that could irritate the orgone units into higher and higher states which are deadly to the living. It has to be supposed that gasoline might be a representative of those families of chemical compounds that can be transformed into secondary energies with the collateral productions of chemical pollutants that are discharged into the atmosphere (Eden J, Orgone Energy. The Answer to Atomic Suicide, Exposition Press Inc, New York, 1972, page 101). Indeed, according to Eden, Reich thought that industrial particulates and noxious gases do not disperse when DOR is present in the atmosphere; and he found that a direct relationship exists between industrial pollution and DOR infestation, being the one enhances the other (Eden J, Planet in Trouble. The UFO Assault on Earth, Exposition Press Inc, New York, 1973, page 41). In further passages of the same book Eden stated that atmospheric orgone energy can be irritated out of thermal, mechanical, electrical, and nuclear energy also by chemical energy (Eden J, Ibid, pages 87 and 91).
  97. Nevertheless, Reich observed that a small degree of excitation of the orgone units had healing and life-positive qualities. This would be discussed later in the paper.
  98. Most of Reich’s last book Contact with Space (Core Pilot Press, USA, 1957) is focused on discussing the theoretical and practical possibilities of this reversal process. By use of specific apparatus Reich demonstrated that it is possible to break up epochal DOR aggregations in the atmosphere and take them back to dynamic, and flowing orgone energy units.
  99. Reich W, Ibid, page 270. More details on this issue can be found in Reich W, Ether, God and Devil. Cosmic Superimpostion (Orgone Institute Press, USA, 1947).
  100. For more details on the relationship between consciousness and orgone energy units see Southgate L, Implications of Orgone for Consciousness Research, Part 1 and Part 2, Journal of Psichiatric Orgone Therapy, January 4, 2018.
  101. Reich W. Ibid, page 332.
  102. Sharaf M, Historical Notes. Some Notes on Oranur – March, 1951, letter dated March 15, 1951, Reich’s Archive, HMS, Boston, Box 11 (Material Evidence for Court).
  103. Sharaf M, Human Orgone Energy Aroused and Angered by Human “Nuclear Energy” – The Similarities Between Aroused COE and Aroused OOE, Jan 26, Reich’s archive, HMS, Boston, Box 11 (Material Evidence for Court). A 3 and a half typed-page letter with some hand corrections. The year in which the letter was written is not reported but it can be supposed it was 1951 in that the document seems to have been written soon after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment.
  104. Sharaf M, Historical Notes. Some Notes on Oranur – March, 1951, letter dated March 15, 1951, Reich’s Archive, HMS, Boston, Box 11 (Material Evidence for Court).
  105. Reich W, Ibid, page 324.
  106. Southgate L, Preliminary Experiments with Electrical Capacitance, Temperature, Radioactivity, Luminescence and other Observations associated with Controlled Oranur in a Strong Orgone Device, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, April 19, 2018.
  107. Americium is a synthetic chemical element first produced in 1944 by Seaborg and his group at the University of California. Most americium is produced by uranium or plutonium being bombarded with neutrons in nuclear reactors. About 19 isotopes and 8 nuclear isomers are known for americium. Americium-241 has a half-life of 432.2 years and decays to Neptunium-237 emitting alpha particles of 5 different energies, mostly at 5.486 MeV (85.2%) and 5.443 MeV (12.8%). Because many of the resulting states are metastable, they also emit gamma rays with the discrete energies between 26.3 and 158.5 keV. Specific activity of americium-241 is 127 GBq/g (or 3.43 Ci/g); and dose rate due to gamma-rays emission point source is 39.717 mSv/h/GBq at 1 cm distance.
  108. Southgate observed a strong field extending about 2 foot (0.61 m), a less strong one to about 6 foot (1.83 m), and again to 24 ft (7.3 m) and 40 ft (12.2 m) or more. Besides, he inferred it might even be a weak field extending further. Southgate L, Personnel Communication, May 09, 2018.
  109. Reich W, Ibid, page 336.
  110. Reich W, Ibid, page 331. For completeness of information it should be reported that three weeks later the conclusion of the Oranur experiment, in the last week of January, an unusually high background count, according to the New York Times, was spreading from Rochester, New York (Eastern USA), to Eastern Canada. The area formed a circle of 300-600 miles (about 483-966 km) around Orgonon, considered as an approximate centre. To Reich it seemed that these high values of radioactivity were the consequence of the Oranur field created at Orgonon during the experiment and that travelled to West, for 600 to 700 miles (about 966-1,126 km) in the 21 days after the conclusion of the experiment, against the general West-East direction of the orgone energy envelope. Reich calculated that the speed by which the radioactive cloud moved was of some 30-35 miles per day (around 48-56 km per day), or little less than 1 ¼” miles per hour (about 2,010 m per hour) (Reich W, Ibid, page 293). However, no clear and definite evidence was found regarding the Oranur reaction triggered at Orgonon as the potential responsible of the radioactive cloud found in Eastern USA and Canada. A similar phenomenon was also seen by Southgate in his experimentation. He observed an increase of the extension of a mild Oranur field in the weeks after the conclusion of the experiment from 18-24 ft (about 5.5-7.3 m) to about 40-50 ft (about 12.2-15.2) (Southgate L, Personal Communication, May 04, 2018).
  111. Southgate L, Personal Communication, May 01, 2018. Calculation of the gamma-ray transmission coefficient for PVC was done considering a mass attenuation coefficient of 0.3325 cm2/g, and a density of 1.40 g/cm3.
  112. For more information about extension and characteristics of earth’s atmospheric layers see the following link https://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/sunearth/science/atmosphere-layers2.html
  113. Ruthenium-106 is a radionuclide of artificial origin. It is a fission product from the nuclear industry and can only be produced in irradiated nuclear fuels or in irradiated uranium targets. It has a radioactive half-life of 371.8 days. By disintegrating, ruthenium-106 is transformed into rhodium-106 with half-life of 30 seconds. It is a pure beta emitter but given the very short half-life of its descendant, it is generally at radioactive equilibrium with rhodium-106 which is an emitter of gamma radiation. Ruthenium-106 is used in the medical field (eye tumour treatment). The sources used in this context have activities of a few MBq to several tens of MBq.
  114. Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire (IRSN), Report on the IRSN’s Investigations Following the Widespread Detection of 106Ru in Europe Early October 2017, January 2018, available at www.irsn.fr.
  115. Ruthenium-103 can be formed either by fission reaction or as the result of the irradiation of ruthenium-102. It has a half-life of 39.3 days.
  116. IRSN, Ibid.
  117. IRSN, Ibid, figure 3 at page 5.
  118. IRSN, Ibid, figure 5 at page 11.
  119. Brumfiel G, Mysterious Radioactive Cloud over Europe Hints at Accident Farther East, The Two-Way, November 10, 2017, article available online.
  120. It is interesting to note that the ruthenium-106 radioactive cloud spread all over West Europe with a velocity of about 3,000/22 = 136 km/day. A velocity quite comparable with that observed by Reich at Orgonon after the conclusion of the Oranur experiment of 48-56 km per day, and that spread over Eastern USA, and Eastern Canada. Besides, the direction and the duration of the contamination in the atmosphere were similar in both cases, with an East-West direction and a duration of 21-22 days.
  121. Delacroix D, Guerre JP, Leblanc P, Hickman C, Radionuclide and Radiation Protection Data Handbook, Nuclear Technology Publishing, Ashford, England, 2002, page 88.
  122. All the above listed applications had been very little or not at all discussed in the present paper, and the reader might refer to the following publications for more details: Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951; Reich W, Contact with Space, Core Pilot Press, USA, 1957; Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2012; Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017; Maglione R, Reich’s Orgone Energy. A Portal towards Higher Levels of Consciouness? (in italian), In Glielmi N, Fontana M, Maglione R, Valleri T, Argomenti Reichiani, GEDI Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2007; Maglione R, Mazzocchi A, Etheric Energies and Places of Worship. The Religious Site as a Therapeutic Place. A Pilot Study on 62 Ancient Sites (in Italian), Advanced Therapies, Vol VI, N°11, 2017, Nuova Ipsa, Palermo; Milián-Sánchez V, Mocholí-Salcedo A, Milián C, Kolombet VA, Verdú G, Anomalous Effects on Radiation Detectors and Capacitance Measurements inside a Modified Faraday Cage, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 828(2016)210–228; Scholkmann F, Milian-Sanchez V, Mocholì-Salcedo A, Milian C, Kolombet VA, Verdù G, Anomalous Effects of Radioactive Decay Rates and Capacitance Values Measured inside a Modified Faraday Cage: Correlations with Space Weather, Europhysics Letters, 117, 62002, 2017; Maglione R, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? A State of the Art, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, August 27, 2017; Maglione R, Ferrari D, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? Early and Mid-term Laboratory Experiments with Orgone Apparatus, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, September 26, 2017; Maglione R, Ferrari D, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? A Hypothesis on the Y-factor, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, October 27, 2017; Southgate L, Implications of Orgone for Consciousness Research, Part 1 and Part 2, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, January 4, 2018; and Southgate L, Preliminary Experiments with Electrical Capacitance, Temperature, Radioactivity, Luminescence and other Observations associated with Controlled Oranur in a Strong Orgone Device, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, April 19, 2018.

Posted in Orgone BiophysicsComments (0)

From Freud’s Psychoanalysis to Orgone Therapy:

The Psychiatric, Medical, and Social Consequences

Orgone therapy originated from Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis and evolved into the body of knowledge that Freud himself no longer recognized as his own. Reich described the evolution of this body of knowledge in his book, Function of Orgasm. This book provides a synopsis of the development of Orgonomy from psychoanalysis so that the interested reader will recognize its scientific basis, logical development, and its importance in people’s lives.

Reich became involved with psychoanalysis in 1919 as a student at the University of Vienna. He recounted a time during an anatomy lecture when students passed around a leaflet requesting the creation of a seminar on sexology for medical students. He attended the meeting and by fall of 1919, he was elected as chairman of the seminar. In this role, it was Reich’s job to produce literature, so he interviewed a variety of well-known professors and specialists in the field. “Freud was different,” Reich wrote. “Whereas the others all played some kind of a role, Freud did not put on any airs. He spoke with me like a completely ordinary person. . . . [Although] I had been apprehensive about going to him, I went away, cheerful and happy. From that day on, I spent 14 years of intensive work in and for psychoanalysis. In the end, I was extremely disappointed in Freud. Fortunately, this disappointment did not lead to hatred and rejection. Quite the contrary,” Reich wrote. “Today I can appreciate Freud’s achievement in a far better and deeper way than I could in those days of youthful enthusiasm. I am happy to have been his student for such a long time, without having to criticize him prematurely and with complete devotion to his cause” (#1). Reich’s statement reflects his deep involvement in and devotion to the psychoanalytic movement, as well as his knowledge of the theory and techniques of psychoanalysis. His statement also reflects his devotion to and respect for Freud, its founder.

Freud’s theory and technique in psychoanalysis was based on making the unconscious roots of symptoms conscious through free association. He contended that by free associating one idea triggers another, eventually unearthing the unconscious roots of the symptoms. Freud suggested free association connect ideas to each other like links in a chain; one link connects to the next and eventually will lead to the unconscious roots of the patient’s neurotic symptoms. By unearthing these unconscious roots, he stated that the patient would improve. The technique of psychoanalysis requires that the patient lie on a couch with the analyst sitting behind the patient’s head, preferably out of the his/her sight. The analyst then gives hints or suggestions to guide the patient to a deeper level of the unconscious and provide a timely interpretation of the patient’s verbal associations. Difficulties in this process were many, most importantly, the patient’s resistance of free associating and revealing unconscious material. Freud suggested strategies to overcome this resistance; however, they did not always work.

The seeds of orgonomy and consequent departure of Reich from Freud date back to 1920 when Freud sent a student to Reich for psychoanalysis. The young man was suffering from a compulsion to ruminate and compulsion to count numbers. Reich treated this patient for several months and eventually an incest fantasy burst into his consciousness, and for the first time the patient masturbated with gratification. All of his symptoms vanished at once, but within 8 days they gradually returned. He masturbated again and the symptoms disappeared again only to return few days later. This went on for several weeks and finally Reich and his patient succeeded in identifying the root of his patient’s guilt about masturbation and by alleviating some of these irrational feelings, his condition visibly improved. After a total of 9 months, Reich terminated the treatment and the patient’s condition had significantly improved; thus, he was capable of working again. The patient remained free of symptoms over a period of 6 years during which Reich had minimal contact with him (#2).

Simultaneously, Reich was analyzing a waiter who was totally incapable of having an erection. During the third year of the patient’s analysis, Reich stated, “We arrived at the perfect reconstruction of ‘primal scene.’ He was about 2 years old when this occurred. His mother gave birth to a child and from the adjacent room, he had been able to observe every detail of the delivery. The impression of a large bloody hole between the mother’s legs became firmly ingrained in his mind. On a conscious level, there remained only the sensation of “emptiness” in his own genitals. Based on psychoanalytic knowledge of that time, I merely connected his inability to have an erection with his severely traumatic impression of the castrated female genitalia. This analysis was no doubt correct”(#3). Reich stated, “At that time I incorrectly assessed the total personality of my patient. He was a very quiet, well-mannered and well-behaved person and did everything that was asked of him. He never got excited. In the course of three years of treatment, he never once became angry or exercised criticism. Thus, according to prevailing thought, he was a fully ‘integrated, adjusted’ character with only one acute symptom (monosypmtomatic neurosis)” (#3). Reich presented this case to the older analysts and he was praised for his precise analytical work, and they considered the analysis to be successful. However, Reich wondered that if the treatment had, in fact, been successful, then why had the patient not improved? “It did not occur to any of us that it was precisely this emotional tranquility and unshakable equanimity which formed the pathological characterological basis on which erectile impotence could be maintained . . . . I terminated the analysis several months later and the patient had not been cured” (#3). Reich stated that the patient accepted the termination of treatment as he had accepted everything else in his life: with placidity, politeness, and passivity.

These contrasting cases formed the premises of two main orgonomic theories: the theory of orgasm and the theory of armoring. The theory of orgasm is illustrated in the first patient who was able to achieve orgasm and was ultimately cured. In contrast, the theory of armoring is evident in the second patient, who was unable to have an orgasm due to the makeup of his character—resistant to and armored against the flow of biological energy which energizes manifestations of rage, anger, love and sexuality. In order for a person to have orgastic potency, he must surrender to this flow, free of inhibition, and completely discharge the dammed-up sexual energy, allowing the involuntary, pleasurable convulsions of the body. These two theories, then, are inextricably bound: if one does not resolve this armoring, then one cannot develop orgastic potency.

The concept of sexual-biological energy that Freud called it libido energy and Reich named it orgone energy, has a central importance in orgonomy and will be talked about later in this article. For now however, let’s go back to describing the theory of orgasm and the theory of armoring,- the two main theories of psychiatric orgone therapy.

Reich reported several other cases and concluded that orgastic impotence is not simply one of many symptoms of neurosis; it is, in fact, the most significant symptom as well as the cause of neurosis. Reich argued, “Not a single neurotic individual possesses orgastic potency, and the majority of men and women are neurotic” (#4). However, some of Reich’s colleagues asserted that they knew a number of patients who had completely healthy sexual lives. Nonetheless, Reich claimed that if one looked more deeply at this proclaimed sexual potency, one would find it ingenuine or insincere because although these patients were capable of having erections and sexual intercourse, these sexual relations were contaminated with strange fantasies, reflecting a pathology, and these patients often could not reach orgasm or struggled with premature ejaculation, or at the time of ejaculation they would experience no pleasure and at times opposite of it disgust and discontent. Reich further elaborates on the orgastic potency of neurotic patients and states “The more precisely my patients described their sexual behaviors and experiences, the more convinced I became that all patients without exception are severely disturbed in their genital functioning. . . . It became quite clear that although they were sexually potent, such men experienced very little pleasure at the moment of ejaculation, or they experienced the exact opposite, disgust and displeasure” (#5). This reflects the fact that although these patients were erectively potent, but they were orgastic impotent. An orgastic potent person will experience the sexual orgasm as defined by Reich “Orgastic potency is the capacity to surrender to the flow of biological energy, free of any inhibitions: the capacity to discharge completely the dammed up sexual excitation through involuntary pleasurable convulsions of the body.”(#4)

While Reich’s theory of orgasm evolved from Freud’s theory of stasis neurosis (P-1), Reich’s own clinical observation and investigation and patients’ discussions of their sexual activity, his theory of “armor” grew as a result of working on patients’ resistances to treatment. He stated that all of his data and experiences with patients led him to conclude that a patient’s “personality” or “character” creates the chief obstacle in the curing of the patient.

(P-1) Stasis Neurosis: Freud’s initial theory of neurosis indicating that development of neurosis is a consequence of unrelieved sexual energy.

Discovery of the concept of the emotional and physical armoring is one of the most important discoveries in psychiatry. This claim was supported by Dr. Morton Herskowitz in a speech at the IOS spring conference in 2015 . (#6)

Dr. Morton Herskowitz

Herskowitz stated: “I think that the discovery of emotional armoring is one of the most important discoveries in the history of psychiatry. I think that it reaches places that have never been reached by therapy before. I think it does things to people that have never been done before. I don’t think it’s a cure-all for all psychiatric problems. It doesn’t help psychosis unless you work the way Reich did, which most of us can’t, and it doesn’t help Alzheimer’s and lots of disorders in psychiatry that it doesn’t deal with, but in the matters that it does deal with, it has an effect like no other therapy”. (#6)

The theory of armoring and the need to resolve it for successful treatment of the patient is evident in the aforementioned case of the waiter who did not improve even though the unconscious roots of his neurotic symptoms became conscious. As the reader may recall, the waiter discovered the unconscious root of his impotence, but he maintained his rigid attitude and passive demeanor. Consequently, he did not allow his feelings to surface. After 3 years of psychoanalysis, he accepted the results of the analysis without any protest as he had accepted everything else in his life. His character armor was intact and actively functioning throughout his psychoanalytic sessions without his or his analyst’s awareness. His character structure thus caused and maintained his neurotic symptoms.

In orgonomy, armor is defined as the organism’s defense mechanism, consisting of emotional and physical rigidity, sometimes expressed by chronic muscle spasms, and functioning as a defense against the expression of emotions, primarily anxiety, rage, and sexual excitation. (#7) Armoring develops while a child interacts with his or her environment. The anti-sexual mores and authoritarian upbringing of children, prevalent in most cultures around the word, are the main cause of armoring and thus restrict the character in children and adolescents, inhibiting
natural drives and impulses.

Schematically, the process of armoring is as follows:

From the book, “Character Analysis” by Dr. Wilhelm Reich. (#8)

The primary and natural drives are prohibited by the outer world. Under prolonged prohibition of these natural drives, the primary drive force dissociates and part of it turns against itself; consequently, psychological and physical armoring sets in. Schematically, it is depicted below.

Id = Defense and change of function

C = Armoring and structural lack of contact

From the book, “Character Analysis” by Dr. Wilhelm Reich. (#8)

Children initially protest the inhibitions that are imposed on them by crying and throwing temper tantrums, but eventually they submit to the pressure for their survival and adjust. Part of them identifies with the oppressor and eventually they become the oppressor themselves and an enemy of anyone who expresses the wishes for which they had once longed. The orgonomic model of a healthy unarmored organism is the depicted as below.

Schematic depiction of psychological structure based on orgonomic theories (core, middle layer, and outer layer). (#9)

Diagram depicting basic functions in an armored organism. The inhabitation of primary impulses produces secondary impulses and anxiety.(#10)

Once the organism becomes armored, the primary impulses that are natural—rational love, natural sexuality, rational anger and rational hate—become distorted. Armoring thus changes a person’s behavior and demeanor, compelling the person to act involuntarily, a behavior that was unfamiliar to him as a child, before the armoring had set in. He does things that he had once hated when he was still healthy and unarmored. Many of my patients have told me, “Doctor, I hated it when my parents were doing this, and I never thought that I would do the same, but I am surprised that I am now doing it to my children.”

Herskowitz (1993) discussed the changes that armoring causes in human behavior:

Armoring converts free laughter into a chuckle or twitter; it may cause a woman to speak in a little girl’s voice. It does not merely change a function by degree but by a kind. It renders behavior more predictable, more stereotyped. Armoring puts life in constraint. Armoring is most often revealed in muscular tension but it is also revealed in eyes that are glazed, in excessive body fat, etc. [Armoring] is a dynamic event and it entails the consumption of energy. It constrains us physically, emotionally, and ideationally. It is a cocoon to which we gradually become accustomed. (#11)

While the human psychological structure model in psychoanalysis is based on the psychoanalytic theories of “conscious” and “unconscious” or “id, ego, and superego”, the model in orgonomy is based on the core, middle layer, and outer layer. Reich described this model as follows:

On the surface layer of his personality, the average man is reserved, polite, compassionate, responsible, and conscientious. There would be no social tragedy of the human animal if this surface layer of the personality were directly connected with the deep, natural core. This, unfortunately, is not the case. The surface layer of social cooperation is not connected with the deep biological core of one’s selfhood: It is borne of a second, intermediate layer, consisting exclusively of cruel, sadistic, lascivious, rapacious and envious impulses. It represents the Freudian “unconscious” or “what is repressed.” To put it in the language of sex-economy 2, it represents the sum total of all so-called “secondary drives”. (#12)

Secondary drives, as mentioned earlier, are distorted and perverted byproducts of natural drives that develops as a consequence of armoring. The concept of secondary drives is specific to Orgonomy (See diagram depicting basic function in armored organism).

While psychoanalytic treatment of neurosis is based on free association and its goal is making the unconscious conscious, in psychiatric orgone therapy, the treatment is designed to dissolve the armor, liberate the energy encrusted in it, and restore the natural flow of biological energy. Dissolution of the armor brings about fundamental changes in the patient’s behavior that are quite impressive. The elimination of the armor restores the natural flow of energy throughout the body from the center to the periphery and restores the orgastic potency. The treatment technique for dissolution of character armor is thus called “character analysis”.

In character analytic technique, the most important considerations are the patient’s demeanor and behavior; whereas in psychoanalysis the focus is on the content of the patient’s statements, i.e., what the patient is saying. Once the patient becomes aware of his idiosyncratic behaviors, he will likely recognize the defensive function of that behavior. For instance, one of my patients’ was unable to open his eyes without squinting. When confronted with this specific behavior, he stated, “Doctor, I feel a great deal of shame, and that is why I am unable to open my eyes.” Another patient maintained a constant smile during most of our sessions. After I pointed out that she was smiling while describing an emotionally painful event in her life, she understood the significance of her facial expression and explained, “Doctor, I’ve hidden my feelings all my life by maintaining a constant smile.” Her smile immediately faded into sadness, tears began falling and she soon broke into sobs. (P-2)

(P-2) Sex-economy is the body of knowledge within the orgonomy which deals with the economy of the biological energy (orgone energy) in the organism

A distinction between character analytic technique and psychoanalysis is the emphasis on how a patient says something rather than what he says. Words can lie, but behaviors and attitudes do not. In psychoanalysis, for example, it is common to interpret the verbal material as the patient speaks; however, in character analysis, we do not necessarily follow that pattern because by experience we know that as long as the patient’s demeanor, behavior, and attitude remain untouched and intact (i.e., as long as the armor is in place), the therapist’s interpretation will, at best, give the patient an intellectual understanding of his symptoms but no relief from them. Thus, the symptoms will persist, as described earlier in the case of the waiter. In contrast, character analysis brings unexpected, intense changes in patients. Reich provided the following examples:

Quite spontaneously, the patients began to experience the moralistic attitude of the world around them as something alien and peculiar. No matter how tenaciously they might have defended premarital chastity beforehand, now they experience this demand as grotesque. Such demands no longer had any relevance for them; they became indifferent to them. Their attitudes toward their work changed. If they had previously worked mechanically, not demonstrating any real interest, and had considered their work a necessary evil which one takes upon oneself without giving it much thought, now they became discriminating ….

The change in the sexual sphere was just as pronounced. Patients who had felt no qualms about going to prostitutes became incapable of doing so….Wives who had patiently endured living with unloving husbands and had submitted to the sexual act out of “marital obligation” could no longer do so. They simply refused; they had had enough. (#13)

Discovery of character armor and its treatment technique character analysis has a deeper biological base. The demeanor and the behavior, the tone of speech and muscular attitude of the patient, muscular contractions etc. reflect a physical state which its manifestations are the character of the patient that we are able to observe on the surface, in the realm of psychology. Chronic muscular and physical attitude of the body inevitably brings changes to the tissues. Body and psyche in the depth are connected with each other and in orgonomy their relationship is depicted as the following schema.

From the book, “Function of Orgasm” by Dr. Wilhelm Reich. (#14)

Currently, neither medical nor psychiatric professionals deeply understand the relationship between psyche and soma partly due to their lack of familiarity with orgonomic theories. Therefore, they are unable to treat psychosomatic illnesses. Psychiatry textbooks that discuss these topics usually start with the promising idea that psyche and soma are inseparable entities, but as one continues to read, he soon discovers that the author is, in fact, discussing two distinct entities, psyche here and soma there. Consequently, current psychiatric suggestions for treating psychosomatic illnesses are vague and ultimately confusing and ineffective.

In treating psychiatric patients, doctors often encounter patients with psychological symptoms who are also suffering from physical symptoms without any detectable medical reason. For instance, patients with high levels of anxiety often suffer from shortness of breath, pressure on the chest, contraction of the throat, feeling of suffocation, gastrointestinal symptoms, and skin disorders such as rashes or itching and so on. These somatic sensations can, at times, reach delusional proportions. Because of this experience, a patient might see a number of physicians, and he may subject himself to many unnecessary tests to no avail.

One instance of psychosomatic response is describe in detail by Reich in 1933:

I treated a man who offered considerable resistance to the uncovering of his passive homosexual fantasies. This resistance was overtly expressed in the extreme stiffness in his throat and neck (“stiff neck”). A concentrated attack on his defense finally caused him to yield, though in an alarming way. For three days he was shaken by acute manifestations of vegetative shock. The pallor of his face changed rapidly from white to yellow to blue. His skin was spotted and mottled. He experienced violent pains in the neck and back of the head. His heartbeat was rapid and pounding. He had diarrhea, felt tired, and seemed to have lost control. I was uneasy. True, I had often seen similar symptoms, but never in such a violent form. Something had happened here that, while somehow a legitimate part of the work, was not immediately intelligible. Affects [emotions] had broken through somatically after the patient had relinquished his attitude of psychic defense. Apparently the stiff neck, which emphasized austere masculinity, had bound vegetative energies [bio-sexual energy] which now broke loose in an uncontrolled and chaotic manner. A person with an ordered sexual economy [healthy and natural sexual function] is not capable of such a reaction. Only continuous inhibition and damming-up of biological energy can produce it. The musculature has served the function of inhibition. When the neck muscles relaxed, powerful impulses, as if unleashed from a taut coil, broke through. (#15)

Treating a patient’s psychological symptoms by recognizing and treating corresponding somatic manifestations has been an advancement in psychiatry and psychology. This connection between the psyche and soma in humans and higher animals is controlled by the vegetative nervous system, also referred to as the autonomic nervous system, which functions automatically , involuntarily. For instance, the pulse or heartbeat in higher animals as well as in humans is controlled by the vegetative nervous system. Understanding this connection prompted Reich to transcend treating physical and psychological symptoms separately. Instead, he began to treat patients by considering both psychological and physical symptoms as an interrelated entity, an approach that he referred to as vegetotherapy. By comprehending emotional armoring and its connection to physiological conditions, orgonomists comprehend the depth of psychological symptoms that are anchored in the body. Psychological symptoms can only be fundamentally changed if the physical roots in the somatic realm are also changed. Otherwise, the changes are superficial and often only provide a patient with an intellectual understanding of symptoms that continue to persist.

The combination of character analysis and vegetotherapy is referred to as psychiatric orgone therapy. The application of vegetotherapy, described by both Reich and Herskowitz in the book of emotional armoring, brings about impressive, observable changes. Clinicians may become inclined to use a vegetotherapeutic approach more often than character-analytic approach . However, Reich advised that both be used alternately depending on the patient’s response since s/he may respond better to one approach at one point in therapy and the other at another point. (#16)

The dissolution of character armor and its corresponding muscular, physical armor, releases emotions embedded in the armor. Consequently, doctors may observe patients expressing intense emotions such as sadness, crying, anger, or fear. At times, doctors may also see unexpected episodes of laughter, often resulting from patient’s sense of relief from the armor that had constricted the patient with painful feelings of irrational fear and anxiety throughout their lives. In such episodes, one can observe a period of elation in patients whose laughter may last for an unexpected period of time. Dissolution of the armor often is accompanied with revival of distant and forgotten memories that are attached to these feelings. Dissolution of the armor ultimately improves the flow of biological energy that has otherwise been blocked or distorted. Often, these distorted impulses manifest themselves as secondary motives which were described earlier. At times, patients are aware of these strange, irrational impulses. Secondary motives evaporate and disappear by dissolution of the armor. For example, a distorted sexual impulses contaminated with sadistic impulses evaporates and disappears not because the patient continues to suppress the expression of these impulses but because the energy source of it cease to exist and consequently the impulses disappear altogether. Everyone knows that it is far superior not to have a sadistic impulse than to have one and suppress it. In essence, dissolving one’s armor enables patients to function well by expressing primary impulses without distortion. As such, these patients attain a sense of morality that is self-regulated.

While Reich provided some explanation and description of the technique psychiatric orgone therapy in The Function of Orgasm and Character Analysis, Herskowitz, Reich’s last student, describes this therapeutic approach in detail in his book Emotional Armoring. (#17)

The biological energy which often was mentioned in this article has a central importance in orgonomy. Its source is considered to be autonomic ganglions, mostly concentrated in the lower abdominal area, solar plexus, and hypogastric and lumbosacral plexus. This assumption was supported in the experiment done in 1961. (#18)

The initiation and propagation of this energy is depicted in the following diagram. (#19)

The basic functions of the vegetative nervous system. From book, “Function of Orgasm” by Wilhelm Reich. (#19)

The concept of biological energy was first postulated by Freud, who had observed human psychological functioning and could explain certain phenomena only by acknowledging the existence of an energy, which he termed libido energy. While Freud’s followers and students began to dilute or ultimately abandon this concept, Reich recognized its fundamental importance and began to expand on it; he called it orgone energy and demonstrated its’ function in the living organism. Thereafter, he designed instruments that physically accumulated this energy and manifested its effect. (P-3)

(P-3) For further knowledge in this subject the reader is referred to the books by Dr. Wilhelm Reich, “Function of Orgasm, “Cancer Biopathy”, “Ether, God, Devil”, “Bion Experiments” and so on.

The discovery of emotional and physical armoring and the theory of orgasm has far-reaching effects in medicine, psychiatry, biology and sociology, for if psychological symptoms are rooted in the body and one’s psychological state corresponds to changes and distortions in the body tissues, then one can assume that some physical illnesses are a consequence of armoring as well. In fact, contemporary physicians and psychiatrists acknowledge the relationship between the psyche and the soma, evidenced in physical disorders such as cancer, asthma, gastrointestinal and dermatological illnesses as well as immunological deficiencies. And Reich discussed this psychosomatic relationship in the book “Cancer Biopathy”.

The term biopathies refers to all disease processes caused by a basic dysfunction in the autonomic [vegetative] life apparatus. Once started, this dysfunction can manifest itself in a variety of symptomatic disease patterns. A biopathy can result in carcinoma (carcinomatous biobathy), but it can just as easily lead to angina pectoris, asthma, cardiovascular hypertension, epilepsy, catatonic or paranoid schizophrenia, anxiety neurosis, multiple sclerosis, chorea, chronic alcoholism, etc. We are still ignorant of the function that determines the direction in which a biopathy will develop. Of prime importance to us, however, is the common denominator of all these diseases: a disturbance in the natural function of the pulsation”. (#20)

Understanding emotional and physical armoring has illuminated the concept of psychosomatic illnesses, transcending the disciplines of psychology and psychiatry and entering the spheres of physiology and biology. Once the concept of emotional armoring is fully understood, we will understand its causes as well as its social and cultural ramifications. If children are to be raised as healthy individuals as ordained by nature or God, then social and cultural institutions that cause emotional armoring should ultimately be changed, for these institutions cause armoring and emotional and physical illnesses en masse.

Neurosis in the individual is not always manifested in disturbing, torturous symptoms that torments the patient inflicted with it. These individuals may live less productive lives due to anxiety, depression, obsession and compulsions, or phobias. However, distorted impulses caused by armoring can also manifest themselves as sadistic impulses that harm others. In ogonomy such impulses are referred to as an emotional plague, and those afflicted create leaders who cause catastrophes like war and genocide. Thus, recognizing and ceasing the epidemy of armoring will inevitably create social and cultural change. Preventing armoring therefore becomes an important goal of orgonomy, transcending the spheres of psychology and medicine and impacting the social and cultural domains.

Like any other institution that combats armoring and emotional plague, institutions promoting orgonomy are vulnerable to destructive attacks from both outside and from within. But this vulnerability should not dissuade us from teaching and promoting Reich’s scientific foundation of orgonomy. I end this article with Reich’s advice to his students to persist in the discovery of scientific truth without compromise:

The scientist is duty-bound to preserve the right of freely expressing his opinions under all circumstances, and not to abandon this privilege to the advocates of the suppression of life. There is so much talk about the soldier’s duty to give his life for his country and there is too little mention of the scientist’s duty to defend, under all circumstances, what has been recognized to be true, no matter the cost” (#21).

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  1. Reich, W. (1973). Function of orgasm, 2nd Edition, translated by Vincent R. Carfagno (Page 35) – Original edition was published in 1942.
  2. Ibid (Page 84).
  3. Ibid (Page 85).
  4. Ibid (Page 102).
  5. Ibid (Page 100).
  6. Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy
  7. Orgonomy Glossary Selected Writings, and Introduction of Orgonomy Chester M. Raphael M.D. 1973.
  8. Reich, Wilhelm Character Analysis 1972.Third and Enlarged Edition (Page 299) – original edition was published in 1945.
  9. Reich, Wilhelm Ether, God, and Devil (Page 120) – original edition was published in 1949.
  10. Reich, Wilhelm 1973 Function of Orgasm Second Edition (Page 294) – original edition was published in 1942.
  11. Excerpts from Dr. Herskowitz lecture in Germany December 1993. Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy. https://www.psychorgone.com.
  12. Reich, Wilhelm Mass Psychology of Fascism 1970. Third Edition Revised and Enlarged (Page XI) – original edition was published in 1946.
  13. Reich, Wilhelm 1973 Function of Orgasm Second Edition (Page 175) – original edition was published in 1942.
  14. Ibid (Page 266).
  15. Ibid (Page 269).
  16. Ibid (Page 330).
  17. Morton Herskowitz D.O. 1997 Emotion armoring, and introduction to psychiatric orgone therapy.
  18. Zamiatine, N. (1961). Electrophysiological analysis of excitation conduction through ganglia of the solar plexus. Journal of physiology of USSR. 47(6), 1-8.
  19. Reich, Wilhelm 1973 Function of Orgasm Second Edition (Page 293).
  20. Reich, Wilhelm Cancer Biopathy the Carcinomatous Shrinking “Definition of Biopathies”. 1973, (Page 151) – original edition was published in 1947.
  21. Reich, Wilhelm 1973 Function of Orgasm Introductory Survey (Page 16) – original edition was published in 1942.


Posted in Biopathies & Physical Orgone TherapyComments (2)


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?


Roberto Maglione – Dionisio Ferrari


In this paper, the last of a series of three papers on the orgone motor which will appear on the Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, measurements of electrical parameters were performed on the same two 10-fold tube capacitors, subject of the mid-term investigation (see the second paper in this series), when the local environmental orgonomic potential was artificially increased in one of the two. An increase of the tension was observed in the tube capacitor subjected to the artificial increase of the local orgonomic potential. All the experimental investigations were performed in an in-house laboratory, Sassuolo (Mo), Italy. Finally, a hypothesis on the Y-factor was then developed based both on what has been reported in the literature and on the experimental results from our in-house experiments.

On June 20, 2016, at the end of the cyclical year and after 5 years of continuous monitoring of the two tube capacitors’ behaviour(1) , we decided to verify the relationship between environmental orgonomic potential and tension (or production of electric current) at the capacitors. To this aim, two days later we artificially increased the local orgonomic potential of one of the two capacitors by adding 0.5 L of a fluid whose orgonomic potential was 520 org. The orgonomic potential of the fluid was measured by a Life Energy Meter LM4 (Heliognosis, Canada). The fluid did not have radioactive properties, and was not heated by any external source of energy for all the period of the testing. The fluid, contained in a PET bottle, was put inside the cylindrical space of the 1C/1A capacitor(2) . In this way, the total orgonomic potential, the 1C/1A capacitor was subjected to during the testing, was given by the sum of the natural environment orgonomic potential OPE (as in the previous years of testing) plus the artificial orgonomic potential, OPA, provided by the 520 org added in the inside of the cylindrical capacitor, as follows:


The fluid inside the bottle was continuously kept therein until to the end of the testing occurred on June 20, 2017. The 2C/1A capacitor did not undergo any addition of fluid or whatever other artificial increase of the local orgonomic potential, and was subjected to the natural environment orgonomic potential (OPE) only, as per the previous years of testing, and was considered as control. The following figure 1 shows the behaviour of the tension at the two capacitors, from April 21, 2016 (two months before the local orgonomic potential in the 1C/1A capacitor was artificially increased), until to June 20, 2017, considered as the end of the testing.

Figure 1 – Behaviour of the tension at the two capacitors, in the period April 21, 2016 – June 20, 2017. Artificial increase of the orgonomic potential in the 1C/1A capacitor was carried out on June 22, 2016

The following figure 2 shows the behaviour of the tension at the two capacitors, as shown in figure 1, for a shorter period, i.e. from May 21 until to October 21, 2016.

Figure 2 – Behaviour of the tension at the two capacitors in the period May, 21 – Oct 21, 2016. Artificial increase of the orgonomic potential in the 1C/1A capacitor was carried out on June 22, 2016

From the graphs in the above figures 1 and 2 it can be seen that the tension at the 1C/1A capacitor started to develop soon after the introduction of the bottle with the liquid in the inside of the capacitor and provided a value of the tension for all the Summer months; while the control capacitor remained dormant, as already observed in the previous years. In addition, the 1C/1A capacitor produced a much higher tension than that of the other capacitor all over the productive period (October 08, 2016 –June 20, 2017). Figure 3 shows the trend of the total absolute tension in the periods of the cyclical years in which the two capacitors were dormant (when no artificial increase of the local orgonomic potential was done on the 1C/1A capacitor); and that in the summer months of 2016 after the 1C/1A capacitor was subjected to the local increase of the potential.

Figure 3 – Behaviour of the total absolute tension at the two capacitors in the Summer months of the 2011-2015 period; and after increasing the orgonomic potential in the 1C/1A capacitor (June 22, 2016)

Figure 4 shows the trend of the total absolute tension for the two capacitors in the periods of activity (September/October – May/June) in the five cyclical years in the 2011-2016 period; and in 2016-2017 (October 08, 2016 –June 20, 2017).

Figure 4 – Behaviour of the total absolute tension at the two capacitors in the periods of activity in the 2011-2016 period; and in 2016-2017

From the trends shown in the above figures 3 and 4, it can be argued that the increase of the local orgonomic potential in the 1C/1A capacitor created a tension when before was always zero or very close to this value (figure 3); and likewise determined an increase of the tension in the subsequent period in which the capacitor was known to be already active in the past years (from September/October to May/June) (figure 4). It is worth (of) noting that the data regarding the summer months of 2016 (for the 1C/1A capacitor), with a total absolute tension of 32.1 mVolt, is substantially much higher than the averaged value of 1.8 mVolt in the 2011-2015 dormant period, and might leave no doubt about the importance of the fluid in locally increasing the orgonomic potential and affecting the formation of the tension at the capacitor. As to the control capacitor, no change in the total absolute tension was observed with 1.0 mVolt in 2016 when compared to an averaged value of 0.80 mVolt in the 2011-2015 period. A Student’s t-test analysis on the daily tension measured on the 1C/1A and 2C/1A capacitors in the period June 22 – October 07, 2016 provided an extremely statistically significant difference between the two groups of data (p-value = 1.70∙10-53).

The same above consideration may hold also for the period in which the two capacitors were already active. Even in this case the 1C/1A capacitor recorded the highest values (436.8 mVolt in 2016-2017) when compared to the values recorded in the previous cyclical years (averaged to 273.1 mVolt), and also when compared to the control capacitor for which it has been recorded in 2016-2017 a value of 158.7 mVolt (averaged to 246.6 mVolt in the period 2011-2016). A Student’s t-test analysis on the daily tension measured on the 1C/1A and 2C/1A capacitors in the period October 08, 2016 – June 20, 2017 provided an extremely statistically significant difference between the two groups of data (p-value = 7.78∙10-40)

Besides, if we look at the days of production of the tension for the period (June 22, 2016 – June 20, 2017) we may have a further confirmation of the influence of the local artificial increase of the orgonomic potential at the 1C/1A capacitor. Figure 5 shows the trend of the number of days of production of the tension in the five cyclical years (2011-2016), and in 2016-2017, for both the capacitors.

Figure 5 – Trend of the days of production of the tension at the two capacitors in the periods of activity in the five cyclical years 2011-2016; and in 2016-2017

From the above figure 5 it can be seen that the number of days in which a tension was measured at the 1C/1A capacitor in 2016-2017 (333 days) is higher than those of the previous cyclical years, and higher than the average value in the period 2011-2016 (226.8 days). In addition, when compared to the control capacitor, the difference is much larger as a value of 180 days (in 2016-2017), and an average value of 198.6 days in the period 2011-2016 were recorded.

As a whole, we can conclude that the artificial increase of the local orgonomic potential at the 1C/1A capacitor, by adding 520 org (0.5 L of fluid), led to an extremely statistically significant increase of the measured tension (p-value = 1.70∙10-53), when compared to that measured in the 2C/1A capacitor, in the period where the capacitor was already active. It also led to an increase in the number of days where a tension was detected, and importantly, to the formation of an extremely statistically significant tension where no or very low values were recorded (summer months). We may infer that this latter result was also the consequence of a total local orgonomic potential higher than the minimum orgonomic potential, OPAD, required by the capacitor for an orgone charge-discharge metabolism:


And it can be equally argued that the artificial increase of the orgonomic potential was also instrumental in increasing the tension in the period where the capacitor was entering its active phase in the past cyclical years.

However, even though a close relationship between local orgonomic potential and formation of a tension at the capacitor was found and verified statistically, the low daily values of the tension obtained in our laboratory testing are not able to run a small motor such as that Reich used in his experiments (that would require about 0.2-1 Watt). Even if we note the whole annual production of tension it would still be insufficient. Indeed, if we consider the small LED reported as an example in the previous calculation(3) , the artificial increase of the orgonomic potential at the 1C/1A capacitor led to an average value of the daily tension during the period of testing (June 22, 2016 – June 20, 2017) of 1.31 mVolt/day and to a total tension of 436.8 mVolt (calculated on a period of 333 days), and the small LED will remain lighted for only little more than 0.006 seconds.

As the daily tension produced was considerably insufficient to run even a small motor, Reich’s work must have utilized a different method to artificially increase the local orgonomic potential in the capacitor (or in any other orgone device) in order to produce an electrical tension high enough to run the small motor. In our experiments we used the orgonomic potential (natural first and then artificially increased) of the local orgone field freely flowing in the atmosphere, or in dynamic condition. However, no experiment was done to check the response of the orgone energy units in the situation of their being contained inside an orgone device such as an accumulator(4) . Indeed, Reich found by observing the behaviour of living organisms that all biological motions, inner as well as locomotion, appeared to be the reaction of the orgone energy to the restriction of its free motility, by making its behavior change from the fog-like (unexcited) to the pointed (excited) state of existence. Reich observed that this latter state was accompanied in the human organism by some typical phenomena. One of these was fever. In general, to Reich fever or high temperature indicated a severe reaction expressed in a rise of body temperature to certain kinds of irritation of a non-material, non-bacterial disturbance in energy equilibrium.

First investigations aimed at finding a relationship between electric currents and an excited biological energy in human organisms were carried out by Reich in 1934-38 when he settled in Norway(5) . In this period, he sought proof, through physiological experiments, of his orgasm formula. He found the skin surface of the organism carries an uniform electric charge or resting potential of around 10-40 mVolt, that is originating within the organism itself, which rarely fluctuates in the resting state or in a foggy, unexcited state of the biological energy. However, he observed that when this biological energy (that he later called orgone energy) was taken to the pointed or excited state by tickling stimuli, and thus triggering pleasurable sensations, the electrical charge at the surface increased. And this phenomenon was observed above all in certain area of the skin surface such as penis, vaginal mucosa, tongue, lips, anal mucosa, nipples, palms, earlobes, and forehead. In a case of an excited nipple the testing female subject experienced an increase of the tension in that area from the baseline value of around 45 mVolt for all the period of excitation(6) (one minute). It was also noted that the recorded potential and the vegetative current corresponded to the intensity of the pleasurable sensation. In another case, when a naked embracing couple, with the man kissing the woman’s breast, he found increases of the tension at the woman’s breast as high as 100 mVolt compared to the baseline value(7) . Reich emphasized the great importance of the small tensions detected at the skin surface during this type of experiments(8) :

“Electrical energy is only a minor, minimal manifestation of the cosmic energy. What appears at the voltmeter as the charge of the skin surface in terms of 10 to 50 millivolts, actually represents many thousands of volts in terms of OR energy as measured at the electroscope. … We are dealing with tremendous amounts of energy, compared with which a 110 or even 5000 volt tension becomes insignificant.”

Since for Reich the basic energy functions in the organism were the same as in the atmosphere, he transferred and applied the same concepts and conclusions from one realm to the other. In this way, a change from the foggy (unexcited) to the pointed (excited) form of existence, obtained by exciting the orgone energy in the atmosphere, might equally give rise to an increase of temperature. However, Reich observed that under certain circumstances even a motor force of a mechanical nature might alternatively develop. Overall, Reich found that the heat variant might be considered an alternative to the motor variant, each one produced by a specific set of circumstances(9):

“Under circumstances still greatly unknown such a change maybe be expressed in term of higher temperature. …. We may assume that the same energy change which under one set of circumstances causes mechanical motion, causes under another set of circumstances rise in temperature…. If the OR energy in its pointed, excited form finds no objects to move mechanically it will cause high temperature of gases or solid substances by inner friction. …. The clicks at the Geiger counter are doubtless expression of single OR energy points charging a vacuum, a grid of an electronic tube or moving the membrane of a mechanical sound amplifier.”

The pointed or excited state of existence of the atmospheric orgone energy was the consequence of its excitation to some factors in the environment. Such excitation might be also detected at the Geiger-Muller counter with higher counts. Reich thought that factors such as the spreading of atomic radiations during an atomic explosion; or also DOR rising from the atmospheric energy when its orgone energy envelope was dying, might be considered factors that could lead to an excitation of the orgone energy in the atmosphere(10) .

When an atomic bomb explodes, a huge amount of nuclear material (NU) suddenly irritates in concentrated form an unprepared, unconcentrated atmospheric Life Energy. On the other hand, when Oranur is operating a very small amount is irritating a highly concentrated Life Energy.

In the first case the OR energy falls victim to prostration and decay. In the second case, the OR energy reacts after a brief period of consternation or paralysis with a fierce motor force.”

According to Reich, the high background counts beyond a narrow area around the point of an atomic explosion were thus quite understandable. However, in the case of an Oranur reaction, produced by a small amount of a nuclear material with low counts in an orgone-rich environment, many hundred thousand counts per minute could be instead detected in the surrounding area. And in term of orgonomic potentials Reich found(11) :

“(2) “Decrease” and “Increase” of potential could be interpreted in terms of functional physics simply as a change in the form of the atmospheric energy from the foglike (unexcited, low) to the pointed (excited, high) state of existence and vice versa, Only the “pointed” state of OR registers on the GM counter.


(4) The change from the “cloudy” to the “pointed” state of existence, or activation of OR was now possible by simply impeding its freedom of “lazy” motion or by direct irritation such as friction, sparking secondary coil systems, nuclear material, heat, etc.”

It is interesting to note in the above quoting that nuclear material has been identified by Reich as one of the substances able to create both a pointed or excited (Oranur) state of the atmospheric orgone energy, and to simultaneously increase the (local) orgonomic potential(12) . Reich went further and laid down a very basic rule concerning the orgone motor force by relating the excited orgone energy units, when exposed to an exciting agent, to the corresponding radioactivity readings(13) :

“The luminating points (see “Oranur Experiment, First Report,” p. 195 and Fig. 8, p. 42 above) are mechanical discharges and thus constitute the source of a motor force. The action of the OR motor belongs here: An even sequence of impulses, registered on the GM counter, at a rate of at least 3,000 per minute, sets a motor into motion (see “Orgone Energy Bulletin,“ 1948).”

Constable synthetized very well the common functioning of the excited orgone energy units concentrated either into a human organism or into an artificial container such as an orgone device(14) :

“Many qualified individuals known to me personally, including Bob McCullough, saw the motor running many times. The device was essentially a biomechanical reproduction – in reverse – of the situation that exists with the millivolt galvanic charges appearing at the human skin from a primary bioenergetic power source sufficient to propel and convulse a 200 pound human being. From a half volt input (500 millivolts), Reich could run a 25 volt motor with the power developed by the accumulator from the primary energy continuum.

Here is the beginning of a new type of propulsion, obviously stemming from and applicable to space.”

From the above, it appears that the excited orgone energy units in an orgonotic system might increase the local orgonomic potential and in turn increase the tension and the electric activity inside the same orgonotic system, whatever it might be(15) .

Maglione very recently, by resorting to historical-religious accounts, did a comparative study of the peculiarities and performances of the Ark of the Covenant, used by Moses during the Exodus, and the Reich orgone accumulator(16) . He found an extraordinary similarity between the phenomena produced by the Ark, mainly as a war machine, and those produced by the excited orgone energy during the Oranur experiment at Orgonon in 1951. He hypothesized that a radioactive material, possibly radium that he identified in the shamir, was put inside the Ark to cause those phenomena. The tremendous electrical discharges of the Ark, as described in the Old Testament and in other related texts, killed many people, amongst them Nadab and Abihu, High Priest Aaron’s sons. These deaths often occurred concomitantly to an Oranur reaction which might be considered a by-product of the radioactive material which was at times kept in the interior of the Ark. Because the Ark can be considered an orgone device and also an electric capacitor(17) , Maglione estimated that, in order that the people being in front of the Ark might be reached and killed by the discharges emitted by the Ark, a tension at the two electrodes of more than 260,000 Volt might have been required. A corresponding value of the radioactivity, in the range 8,000-15,000 counts per minute, was also estimated to occur in the environment near the Ark, as a prime factor of the very high tension produced. Maglione wondered whether the minimum value of radioactivity of 3,000 counts per minute, defined by Reich necessary to set into motion an orgone motor, might have some connection with the higher estimated values of radioactivity found in the tent of meeting, at the time of the Exodus, and also with the incredibly high value of tension the radioactive material put inside the Ark might have produced. Maglione emphasized, however, that the estimated values of radioactivity were those typical in the vicinity of the Ark; while those inside the Ark cannot be estimated. Nevertheless, it may be supposed, with a good approximation that the radioactivity inside the Ark might have been extraordinarily high. The spreading of the radioactive (Oranur) field outside the Tabernacle was limited or perhaps avoided mainly by burning incense (a mixture of five different substances) inside the Holy of Holies where the Ark was located; while sacrifices, festivals, etc., may have had the function to further protect the Jewish people dwelling in the camp in particular circumstances, as hypothesized by Isaacs in his impressive etymological studies on the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle(18) . Maglione concluded that(19) :

… the tension at the Ark might have been produced by a radioactive material, possibly the shamir that was kept and confined inside a leaden tube thus exciting the high concentration of orgone energy inside the Ark.”

In addition, the tension produced by the Ark in those operational conditions might have been continuous and readily usable, and hence the goal of the nuclear material might have simply been that of creating a pointed (or excited) state of existence of the high concentration of orgone energy units inside the Ark, through a controlled Oranur reaction, with the aim of increasing the orgonomic potential to a very high degree with the consequent formation of a high tension at the two electrodes of the Ark that might be converted into work (or, according to the need, into a terrifying killing machine) by exploiting the electrical charges produced. According to Maglione, it appears, therefore, that the system Ark-shamir might possess all the requirements to be a current generator and be supposed as a precursor of the Reich orgone motor.

As a whole, the above might be the same way Reich followed to develop an elevated motor force from orgone energy units concentrations, i. e. to artificially increase the orgonomic potential. He would have done this in order to produce a continuous orgone charge-discharge metabolism, and hence to obtain tensions higher than those produced by the natural orgonomic field; and also higher than those produced by resorting to other artificial methods, such as the use of a small battery (electricity), or like those we considered in our laboratory experiments such as fluid substances.

Finally, the function Y, that Reich never revealed, can be well related to orgonomic phenomena, instead of purely wiring arrangements or circuits, as proposed by Correa and Correa in his publications concerning the development of the aether motor(20). We rather agree with the opinion of Sharaf’s, one the eye witnesses of the orgone motor in action at the time Reich developed the first prototypes, as interviewed by Mann(21) :

“One “ingredient” in the apparatus was kept secret and labelled in the article describing the experiment, simply as Y. Speaking in February, 1971, with psychologist Dr. Myron Sharaf, one of the five witnesses of this test, I was given to believe, it was a small electric battery. How this fact would affect a scientific evaluation of this “new force” I am unable to say.”

or by Reiter(22) :

“First of all, we do not know the nature of the mysterious “Y function” which Dr. Reich apparently used to make his KS-9154 spin effectively. In a conversation about 1989, one of Dr. Reich’s former assistants, Myron Sharaf, insisted that while he did not know what the “Y” was, he certainly felt that it was a physical component or “thing” rather than a wiring scheme or connection geometry”

The authors would agree with Sharaf in that it appears that the orgonomic potential of the environment, which the orgone device is permeated by; and above all that available inside the orgone device would be of extreme importance and instrumental in producing electricity. And this latter orgonomic potential might have been increased by Reich at the time, when demonstrating the motor force in action, by exciting the concentrated orgone energy units inside the orgone accumulator by a small battery. An increase high enough to run a motor and safe enough not to create a dangerous Oranur field around it. As we have seen in our laboratory experiments, tension or electricity can be considered a secondary expression of the primary cosmic orgone energy ocean. As a consequence, the orgone device might act as a converter of the movement of the orgone energy units into a tension and an electrical current, provided that the orgonomic potential of the environment in which the device is immersed, is higher than the minimum orgonomic potential characteristic of the orgonotic system. And, as we have also observed, higher and continuous tensions can be only obtained by increasing the local orgonomic potential to values higher than the maximum orgonomic potential typical of the orgone device. Transformation might take place when the orgone energy units, permeating and filling the orgone apparatus, undergo a change from the frequencies typical of the orgone energy units, to those typical of the electric field as determined by Todeschini(23) . And this phenomenon is much more evident when the orgone units are excited by an exciting agent such as electricity or radioactivity. The above might match with what Reich wrote in a letter to Arthur Garfield Hays, a New York patent attorney, on June 25, 1948(24) :

“After 10 months of strenuous and hard work, I finally succeeded yesterday, on June 24th, 1948, at 1:10 p.m., to set a motor in motion by means of the rotary forces contained in cosmic orgone energy. It will take some time until this function will be “cleaned”, but in the meantime it will be necessary:

1. To secure my legal priority

2. To secure a patent

3. To inform the responsible authorities of the U.S. Government of this accomplishment and to take all other necessary steps to develop the orgone energy motor.

I would like to outline its basic functions:

The universe, and with it the orgone envelope [Reich refers to the energy surrounding the planet] of the earth planet, contains very powerful energy impulses, due to cosmic orgone energy. These impulses are caught by certain devices and are transmitted through an electronic system, without the use of any high voltage, to a motor which transforms the rapidly successive cosmic energy impulses into an electro-magnetic motor reaction. The motor can, of course, be connected with a dynemeter or some other device which could do work.”

All in all, we might hypothesize the function Y, Reich was referring to, when developing the prototypes of the orgone motor, might be identified in the behaviour of the orgonomic potential available in the interior of the orgonotic system. This is in turn proportional to the local environmental orgonomic potential in which the orgonotic system is located. The former factor must be characterized by values by far exceeding the maximum orgonomic potential typical of the orgonotic system in order to obtain a motor force and to get a motor to run. Finally, a very high increase of the natural orgonomic potential can occur artificially by taking the orgone energy units in the interior of the orgone device to a high degree of excitation through a controlled Oranur reaction.


We observed, by experimenting on tube capacitors, built according to the design elaborated by Reich, the spontaneous formation of a tension and the generation of an electric current. This phenomenon is similar to that occurring inside the generator of an electric power station, or in photovoltaic installations, even though with different modalities. In these cases, the generator requires a supply of mechanical energy, while the photovoltaic installation a radiant energy (electromagnetic or from particles) from the sun; and both energies in turn are converted into electric energy. In the tube capacitors, we did not supply any type of mechanical nor radiant energy, and it was still observed that the formation of a tension and the production of electric energy occurred through the natural pulsation of the natural atmospheric orgone energy field in which the capacitors were immersed. The capacitors behave like an artificial converter of environmental (or atmospheric) orgone energy into electric current, provided that the orgonomic potential of the environment is high enough to produce a charge-discharge metabolism of the orgone energy units stored by the capacitors. In addition, for an orgonomic potential higher than the maximum orgonomic potential, characteristic of the orgonotic system (in our case the capacitors), the orgone charge-discharge metabolism is continuous, and consequently also the formation of tension and the generation of electricity is continuous. We observed also that by increasing artificially the orgonomic potential at one capacitor (by adding a definite volume of fluid inside the tube capacitor) formation of a tension (when previously it was zero), and an increase of the tension (when previously it was already available but lower) was observed, while in the control capacitor no variation was recorded. The lull in activity during the summer months might indicate that the changes in the tension were not due to electrostatic effects.
Besides, very high orgonomic potentials can be obtained artificially by exciting the orgone energy units in which the orgonotic system is immersed; or above all those units contained inside the same orgonotic system by means of various methods. A principle method may be the tiny radioactive sources suggested by Reich, thus producing tensions high enough to run a motor.

And the Y-factor, Reich never divulged, might be simply related to the behaviour of the orgonomic potential given by the orgone energy units available in the interior of an orgonotic system (orgone device) that can be made to change from a foggy or unexcited state of existence (natural environment orgonomic potential) to a pointed or excited state of existence (artificially increased orgonomic potential). As a consequence, the orgonotic system (orgone device) might produce electrical energy that can be converted into work.


The authors wish to thank Leon Southgate for the critical review of the final manuscript.

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(1). Maglione R, Ferrari D, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route Towards the Reich Orgone Motor? Early and Mid-term Laboratory Experiments with Orgone Apparatus, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, September 26, 2017.

(2). Just to remind the reader that the 1C/1A capacitors was made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil, while the other capacitor, the 2C/1A, consisted of 10 alternated layers of two paper sheets and one of aluminum foil. Storage capacity of the 2 capacitors was 182 nFarad and 103 nFarad for the 1C/1A, and 2C/1A, respectively.

(3).Maglione R, Ferrari D, Ibid, September 26, 2017.

(4).Reich did mention that containment was one of the conditions to a stronger orgone motor effect:

“It became clear, furthermore, that one has to keep the Geiger counter tube within a narrow accumulator in order to charge it up.” (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 217).

(5).Reich W, The Bioelectrical Investigation of Sexuality and Anxiety, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1983.

(6). Reich W, Ibid, page 92 and 144.

(7). Reich W, Ibid, page 112 and 113; and 159.

(8). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 197.

(9). Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 218.

(10).Reich W, Ibid, page 219.

(11).Reich W, Ibid, pages 45 and 46.

(12). The interest of Reich in radioactive materials, and particularly radium, and their interaction with orgone energy concentrations dates back to the end of the ‘30s, when doing experiments with bionous solutions:

“When, in January 1939, I discovered the orgone radiation in the SAPA bions (Cf. THE DISCOVERY OF THE ORGONE, Vol. II, pp. 70-77, 1948), some problems confronted me …. The smooth, steady glow of radium on the dials of wrist watches was extinguished when I sat in the darkroom, and was replaced by a vivid bluish-green flickering.” (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 201)


“For instance, in 1939, when the orgone energy in SAPA bions was first discovered, I was struck by the following fact: When a glass plate was coated with radium and showed the well-known smooth glow, and was then put into the orgone accumulator, this glow first disappeared and was replaced by a vivid flimmering which, according to my observation, was due to the effect of the orgone.” (Reich W, A Motor Force in Orgone Energy. Preliminary Communication, Orgone Energy Bulletin, 1(1), Orgone Institute Press, January 1949, New York, pages 7 and 8)


“I have a small Roentgen tube in my laboratory, but I have never studied any radioactive substances very thoroughly, except their scintillation effects, etc.” (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 205)

However, it seems rather clear that Reich did experiments with radioactive materials before the Oranur experiment, in that he states, in May 1950, nuclear energy was one of the most important methods to excite orgone energy units. This would imply that Reich in the previous years might have carried out systematic tests with radioactive sources (Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, pages 199 and 200):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).


May, 1950.”

(13). Reich W, Contact with Space, Oranur Second Report (1951-1956), Core Pilot Press, New York, 1957, page 44.

(14). Constable TJ, The Cosmic Pulse of Life. The Revolutionary Biological Power Behind UFOs, Neville Spearman Limited, Sudbury, UK, 1976, page 325.

(15). For completeness of information we must say that the manuscript available at the Wilhelm Reich Archive (Countway Library of Medicine, Boston, Usa), in Box 17, under the title The Misinterpreted OR Motor-Model – 1956, includes no useful information to understand the true nature of the orgone motor and of the Y-factor. The document consists of two short reports focusing on, and discussing the Crook’s radiometer and its functioning according to the laws of Orgonomy.

(16). Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017.

(17). It can be outlined here that the Ark of the Covenant is constructively similar to a Leyden jar, and both can be assimilated to an orgone accumulator, and to a Zamboni’s dry pile, even though made of different basic metallic and non-metallic materials. In addition, to our best knowledge, no experiment and measurements, to check whether a reproduction or even a small-scale model of the Ark of the Covenant, might produce electric currents, have (not) never been carried out and are not available in the literature.

(18). Isaacs R, Talking With God: The Radioactive Ark of the Testimony. Communication Through It. Protection from It, Sacred Closet Books, Chicago, 2010.

(19). Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017, page 348.

(20). Correa PN, Correa AN, Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,053,576, May 30, 2006; and Energy Conversion Systems, Patent US 7,235,945, June 26, 2007.

(21). Mann WE, Orgone Reich and Eros. Wilhelm Reich’s Theory of Life Energy, Simon and Schuster, New York, 1973, page 221.

(22). Reiter AN, Examination of the Western Electric KS-9154 Motor, Pulse of the Planet #5, Natural Energy Works, Ashland, 2002.

(23). For details on the work of Todeschini on this point see Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, Milan, 2017, pages 25-41

(24). Reich W, Where’s the Truth? Letters and Journals 1948-1957, edited by Mary B Higgins, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, NY 2012, page 14.


Roberto Maglione – 1 Scholar, and author in orgonomy. Italy www.orgonenergy.org

Degree in Mining Engineering.

Dionisio Ferrari – Electronic technician specialized in electroacoustics. Scholar in orgonomy, and manufacturer of orgone accumulators. www.dionisioferrari.it


Posted in Orgone BiophysicsComments (3)


The route towards the REICH orgone motor?
Early and mid-term laboratory experiments
with orgone apparatus
Roberto Maglione – Dionisio Ferrari


In this paper, the second of a series of three papers on the orgone motor which will appear on the Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, early measurements of electrical parameters both on 10-fold orgone accumulators, and on 10-fold tube capacitors are reported. A subsequent 5-year (mid-term) investigation on two 10-fold tube capacitors, with the organic layer of each capacitor characterized by a different thickness of the organic material, is also described. Spontaneous formation of tension of some mVolt, not attributable to traditional models of physics, was found in all the investigated orgone apparatuses. In the mid-term investigation, a cyclical trend of the tension versus the years was also observed. Data analysis is also included in the paper. All the experimental investigations were performed in an in-house laboratory, Sassuolo (Mo), Italy.

To our best knowledge Reich never did publications in which he reported results of experiments aimed at verifying the formation of a tension and the production of electric currents inside orgone accumulators or orgone apparatus, in general. He found, by using an electroscope, that the measuring device behaved differently inside and outside an accumulator indicating that a difference of electrostatic charge could exist between the interior of the accumulator and the environment outside it. However, he never tried to quantify and measure the presence of an electric tension on two opposite metallic sides of the apparatuses by a voltmeter (1). Even in the years after Reich’s death no study was performed aimed at finding whether an orgone accumulator or any other orgone apparatus could produce an electric current. 
With this aim in mind, we carried out in the last years laboratory experiments with the purpose of determining the presence of a tension and of electric currents in orgone apparatus, and above all, in orgone accumulators and tube capacitors made of alternated layers of metallic and non-metallic materials. This arrangement is typical of a Reich orgone accumulator and blanket, but it resembles and displays also a marked similarity with those used by Zamboni, more than two centuries ago in his dry piles (2).
First investigations were conducted both inside and outside orgone accumulators built of different organic and inorganic materials. To measure the presence of a tension and of electric currents in an open 10-fold accumulator, made of alternated layers of steel wool (grade 0000) and plastic sheet, two grips each fixing a plate made of paper sheet, galvanized iron sheet, and wood were used. The plates were placed either on the internal side or on the external side of the accumulator. They were connected to a low capacity capacitor (4.7 mFarad) made of plastic film, which in turn was connected to a millivoltmeter. A JFET amplifier able to increase the input impedance to 50 MOhm was also used.  However, no tension was detected with this experimental arrangement in any of the tested orgone accumulators.
Figure 1 shows the experimental set-up with the grips and the plates used during the measurements placed either inside (figure on the left) or outside (figure on the right) of the orgone accumulator.


Figure 1 – Plates put either inside (left) or outside (right) the 10-fold orgone accumulator

The two plates were then placed both inside and outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (figure 2), and measurements were performed with no capacitor in the circuit. Tensions as high as 10 mVolt were observed in these last measurements.

Figure 2 – Plates on both the sides of the 10-fold orgone accumulator

In this latter case the measured tension could not sustain an electric current since the generated current was so low that could be read by the measuring device only after some hours of accumulation and was dissipated by a single application of the measuring device. Further experiments involved fixed tube capacitors made of alternated layers of paper sheet and aluminum foil. The number of paper sheets the fixed capacitors were constructed was higher than those of the aluminum foils since the structure started and ended with the paper. The paper used was of the 80 g/m2 type, while the aluminium foil had a thickness of 0.02 mm. Aluminum foils were connected in alternated parallel, and folded at both ends to allow electrical connection. Height of the two tube capacitors was 18 cm, and internal diameter was 7 cm. Figure 3 shows a scheme of the tube capacitor (left) and of the final unit (right).


Figure 3 – Tube capacitor. Scheme (left) and capacitor final view (right)

Two similar capacitors made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (with the paper at both ends) were put one inside a 10-fold orgone accumulator (constructed with alternated layers of plastic and steel wool), and the second one outside at a distance of around 3 metres from the accumulator. Both capacitors were kept at the same height from the floor. The average charge storage capacity of the capacitors was 150 nFarad. Figure 4 shows the scheme of the circuit used in the measurements, and the experimental set-up related to the capacitor inside the 10-fold accumulator.


Figure 4 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left) and capacitor inside the 10-fold orgone accumulator (right)

The circuit in figure 4 was equipped with a selector that alternately connected the two capacitors during the measurements. When no measure was performed it was set in the central position so as to disconnect the capacitors from the circuit, and thus enabling the charging of the plates. Measurements were carried out as follows:

  1. A capacitor was connected to the circuit via the selector, and a first reading of the tension was done. This value provided the maximum charge of the system;
  2. A second reading was made after 30 seconds which gave the tension related to the current continuously generated on the internal resistance of the instrument;
  3. A third reading was made after 3-5 minutes in order to verify the stability of the previous measurement made at 30 seconds;
  4. The procedure was then repeated on the other capacitor.

In a 12-day run, performed in December 2010, readings of the instantaneous tension, and that after 30 seconds, proved that the values measured inside the orgone accumulator were on average lower than those obtained for the capacitor that was located outside. The following figures 5 and 6 show the behaviour of the average hourly tension as measured at 30 seconds on the capacitors located either inside or outside the 10-fold orgone accumulator, as against the weather conditions (clear and bad weather).

Figure 5 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor inside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)
Figure 6 – Behaviour of average hourly tension versus weather (capacitor outside orgone accumulator, measurements after 30 seconds)

From the above figures it can be noted that the behaviour of the average hourly tension after 30 seconds is smoother for the capacitor kept inside the orgone accumulator, with no appreciable change versus the variation of weather conditions. On the other hand the average hourly tension measured on the capacitor located outside the accumulator shows a more erratic behaviour for both clear and bad weather conditions, and in some cases with negative values when the tension was measured during bad weather. Average hourly tension for the capacitor located inside the accumulator was 0.51 mVolt and 0.37 mVolt for clear weather, and bad weather conditions, respectively; while for the capacitor located outside the orgone accumulator average tension was 1.28 mVolt and -0.18 mVolt, for clear weather and bad weather conditions, respectively. In case, we consider the module of the tension on the capacitor located outside the accumulator (no need to make this conversion for the capacitor inside the orgone accumulator) we obtain 1.30 mVolt, and 0.44 mVolt for clear weather and bad weather, respectively. A Student’s t-test, carried out on the values of the average hourly tension measured at the tube capacitors inside and outside the orgone accumulator during clear weather, showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups of data (p-value = 0.0024). Because of the unequal size of the two samples, Welch’s t-test was instead used to analyse the two groups of values measured during bad weather. A statistically significant difference was also found for these two groups (p-value = 0.0456) (3). No relationship between tension and time of day was instead found, though an increase of the tension in the early morning and in the afternoon for the curve of the capacitor outside the orgone accumulator related to clear weather can be observed, completely resembling the curve obtained with the measurements carried out by Reich with the electroscope (4).

Mid-term laboratory experiments with fixed tube capacitors

In a further series of experiments different types of tube capacitors were tested. They were characterized by a different ratio of the organic/inorganic materials. Measurements were done on 10-fold capacitors where the ratio of the paper sheet to the aluminum foil was 1C/1A, 2C/1A, 3C/1A, 4C/1A, and 1C/2A, where C stands for paper sheet and A for aluminum foil, while the figure gives the number of sheets or foils used in each layer. Capacitors with charge storage capacity from 70 nFarad (4C/1A) to 182 nFarad (1C/1A) were tested. The capacitors were put in the laboratory where neither orgone devices nor electromagnetic appliances were present. They were located a few centimetres apart from each other so as to minimize any possible influences of electrostatic field variations due to air movements inside the laboratory, or electrostatic phenomena accidentally produced. Figure 7 shows the electrical circuit used in this first series of measurements (left), and a view of two of the tested capacitors connected by electrical wires to the measuring instrument (right).


Figure 7 –Scheme of the measurement circuit (left), and view of the capacitors (right)

The resistance of 1 MOhm directly applied to the capacitors did not allow a charge build-up between the plates, whose variations against time could have been difficult to evaluate. This arrangement made the two capacitors behave as current generators. The measured tension corresponded therefore to the instantaneous power generated when the measurement was made. Figure 8 reports the behaviour of the average measured daily tension of two of the capacitors under study monitored for a period of 5 continuous years. One of the capacitors was made of 10 alternated layers of one paper sheet and one aluminum foil (1C/1A), while the other capacitor consisted of 10 alternated layers of two paper sheets and one of aluminum foil (2C/1A). Storage capacity of the 2 capacitors was 182 nFarad and 103 nFarad for the 1C/1A, and 2C/1A, respectively. Measurements were made daily from June 21, 2011 to June 20, 2016 with at least one set of measures performed in the morning (around from 7 to 8). In many cases a measure in the afternoon was also performed. In this latter case values were averaged to obtain only one daily value. In addition, measurements of the tension in different times of the day were sometimes carried out on the two capacitors. It was observed the measurement carried out in the morning might be very well representative of the averaged values of the tension measured during the whole day, even though it was noted that the tension continuously varied during the day with an oscillation difficult to predict.

Figure 8 – Behaviour of average measured daily tension versus time (June 21, 2011-June 20, 2016)

From the results in the above figure it can be observed that the two capacitors were characterized by a cyclical behaviour, resembling a bell-shaped curve, where the average daily tension is increasing from zero to reach maximum values depending on the capacitor, and then decreasing again to zero. A period of some months in which they were dormant can also be observed for both the capacitors. An inversion of the polarity was also noticed, above all for the 1C/1A capacitor, and only occasionally for the other capacitor.

From the measured data we noted that the generation of current seemed not to be the consequence of capture of photon corpuscles of an electromagnetic nature. In addition, the tested capacitors did not produce any tension over a period of a few months, and then started up again, thus appearing to negate the hypothesis that the tension might be produced by electrochemical phenomena, or as a result of a capture of electrostatic nature. Data analysis was performed on the absolute values of the (average) daily tension. This was done since the target of the present study was to evaluate the production of electric current and power, and these physical parameters are not dependent on the type of the polarity of the tension the capacitors possessed. When the tension on the capacitors changes sign the electrons are changing or reversing direction of flow. In this way, the instrument does not measure a production of charges but only the flow of electrons that an external energy put in motion in producing an electric current. Accordingly, if we consider the generation of electric power or energy only, the polarity of the tension, and the resulting direction of flow of the electrons, is not a decisive parameter, and hence resorting to the module or the absolute value of the tension fits the purpose of our study. Since, from the measured data shown in figure 8, it was seen that a cyclical, bell-shaped trend characterized the behaviour of the data versus time, with a break of some months in which the two capacitors were dormant between each cycle, it was decided to analyse the data according to a cyclical period of 12 months, i.e. from June 21 of one year to June 20 of the next year. This was done to give continuity to the period in which the capacitors were producing a tension and generating an electric current, so as not to interrupt this trend at the end of the civil year, i.e. from January 1 to December 31. Accordingly, the results of the analysed data are reported in a five 12-month period format, each one starting on June 21 and ending on June 20 next year, and precisely 2011-2012; 2012-2013; 2013-2014; 2014-2015; and 2015-2016.

Following figure 9 shows the trend of the absolute value of the daily tension of both capacitors averaged for the 5-year period.

Figure 9 – Absolute daily tension averaged for the 5-year period

Figure 10 shows the behaviour of the total absolute tension accumulated in each monitored cyclical period, i.e. from June 21 to June 20 next year, for each capacitor. From this figure it can be observed the increasing value of the total tension against the time, mainly for the 1C/1A capacitor. Total tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 84.7 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 215.4 and 367.8 mVolt (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase, characterized by a more irregular trend, from 26.8 mVolt (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 143.2 and 506.8 mV (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 10 – Behaviour of total absolute tension versus time

Figure 11 shows the behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus time as measured on both the capacitors. This value has been obtained by dividing the total absolute tension, for each cyclical period, to the corresponding number of days in which the tension was recorded. From the figure it can be seen the trend of the average daily absolute tension is similar to that of the total absolute tension (in figure 10), with a more constant and smoother behaviour for the 1C/1A capacitor. Average daily absolute tension for the 1C/1A capacitor increased from 0.38 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 1.13 and 1.67 mVolt/day (in the following periods); while for the 2C/1A capacitor an increase from 0.18 mVolt/day (in the 2011-2012 period) to values in the range between 0.76 and 2.41 mVolt/day (in the following periods) can be noticed.

Figure 11 – Behaviour of average daily absolute tension versus time

Figure 12 shows the number of days where the capacitors were active and were producing a tension. It can be seen from the figure the trend is a little higher for the 1C/1A capacitor; and a slight increasing trend versus time can be observed for both the capacitors. Production time ranges from 191 to 269 days for the 1C/1A capacitor (average 226.8 days); and from 150 to 236 days for the 2C/1A capacitor (average 198.6 days).

Figure 12 – Behaviour of production days versus time

The increasing trend in the production days of the tension might be related to a saturation the capacitors were subjected, in the first period of functioning, to the orgone energy available in the outside atmospheric orgonomic field. Progression of the production days during the years might be due also to environmental causes or to the aging of the capacitors. Table 1 through 3 show the values of the total absolute tension, average daily absolute tension, and production days versus weather conditions during measurements, for each monitored cyclical period.






























































Table 1 – Data related to the total absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements






























































Table 2- Data related to the average daily absolute tension versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements






























































Table 3 – Data related to the production days versus time, according to weather conditions during measurements

From an analysis of the above data versus weather conditions the following observations can be drawn.

  1. The total, and the average daily absolute tension during clear, overcast/rainy, and snowy weather for each cyclical period are following the same trend previously observed for the whole set of data, independently from the weather conditions. Following figure 13 shows the trend regarding the total absolute tension versus time recorded during clear weather for both capacitors.
  2. Figure 13 – Behaviour of the total absolute tension versus time during clear weather for both capacitors

  3. There is no substantial difference from the values recorded during different type of weather, as instead one might expect for orgone apparatus, mainly between clear weather and overcast/rainy weather, where the former values in general are higher. A statistical analysis performed by the Student’s t-test on the total absolute tension samples representing clear and overcast/rainy weather for the two tube capacitors confirmed this assumption, as no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups of data, with p-value = 0.6137, and p-value = 0.9966 for the 1C/1A and 1C/2A capacitor, respectively. In some cases we also noticed that the values obtained during overcast/rainy weather were even higher than those recorded during clear weather. In addition, the difference in the construction characteristics of the two capacitors did not affect the data measured during different weather conditions, and no large differences were found between the performances of the two capacitors. Figure 14 shows the trend of the average daily absolute tension for the whole period of measurements, i.e. 2011-2016, for both the capacitors. From the figure a very small increase in the values related to overcast/rain, and snowy weather can be observed when compared to those related to clear weather for both capacitors.
Figure 14 – Behaviour of the average daily absolute tension versus weather conditions for the whole period of monitoring

As we already described above, in our laboratory arrangements we measured a current of electrons, as well as the tension that produced such electric current, by making the electrons flow in a resistance. This in turn gave us a measure of the maximum instantaneous power provided by the tube capacitors. In other words, the tension (the polarity does not matter when making a determination of the generated power), that we read at the measuring instrument and that is shown on the graphs of figure 8, makes a current to flow inside a 1 MOhm resistance, to whom the capacitors are connected. The flow of electrons develops an instantaneous electric power or energy per unit of time that can be calculated by the following equation:

P = V∙I                                                                                                            (1)

Where has been set:

P       = electric power, in Watt or Joule∙second-1
V       = tension (module) at the capacitor, in Volt
I        = current intensity in the external circuit, in Ampere

The electric current generated is given by:

aa                                                                                                  (2)

Being the tube capacitors closed on a 1 MOhm resistance, and the tension 1.29 mV (the one that corresponds to the average daily value for the 1C/1A capacitor in the 2015-2016 period, see table 2), and substituting the above values in eq. (2), we have:

I = 1.29∙10-3/106 = 1.29∙10-9 Ampere

and hence the electric power from eq. (1) is:

P = 1.29∙10-3∙1.29∙10-9 = 1.66∙10-12 Watt,

Considering this value constant over 24 hours, the energy produced is given by:

E = P∙t                                                                                                 (3)

And substituting the numerical values in the above eq. (3), we have:  

E = 1.66∙10-12 ∙24 = 39.8∙10-12 Watt∙hour


E = 39.8∙10-12∙3,600 = 143.3∙10-9 Joule

Being the production of the energy extended to a period of 269 days (for the period 2015-2016 in table 3), the energy produced in this period of time (a cyclical year) is:

Etot = 39.8∙10-12∙269 days = 10.7∙10-9 Watt∙hour


Etot = 143.3∙10-9∙269 = 38.5∙10-6 Joule

If we consider a small led that requires 8∙10-3 Watt to run, we can calculate the time it is remaining lighted, as follows:


An energy, the one produced by the 1C/1A capacitor in the cyclical period 2015-2016, able to turn on a small led for about 0.005 seconds. Assumption done in making the above calculation is that the instantaneous measure carried out in the morning and (when available) in the afternoon (and then averaged) can correspond to the daily average value. A value, as we have already discussed, that is not dependent on the polarity of the tension on the tube capacitor.


From the data reported in the previous section, obtained from daily measurements of the tension on two tube capacitors, built according to Reich and Zamboni standards (alternated layers of organic and inorganic materials), it can be observed the tension follows a cyclical bell-shaped trend with values generally less than 1 mVolt at the beginning and at the end periods of the bell-shaped curve, and of some mVolt at the top of the curve. This trend is practically constant versus time, i.e. the size and the peak values of the bell-shaped curve are quite similar from the first cyclical period (June 21, 2011 – June 20, 2012) to the last cyclical period monitored (June 21, 2015 – June 20, 2016), with the exception of that in the 2014-2015 period, where a little more pronounced curve was observed. The beginning of the bell-shaped curve tension for both capacitors occurs in late September/October, while the end occurs in May/July, as showed in table 4. The table shows also when the highest values (peaks) of the measured daily tension occurred in both the capacitors. In brackets the corresponding values of the measured tension in mVolt are also reported. In general, peaks of the tension were observed to occur in the period January/March.















Oct 25, 11

Oct 31, 11

Feb 24, 12

Feb 22, 12

Jun 03, 12

May 08, 12


Oct 03, 12

Oct 09, 12

Jan 11, 13

Mar 09, 13

Jun 21, 13

Jun 03, 13


Oct 05, 13

Sep 27, 13

Jan 22, 14

Mar 14 ,14

Jun 21, 14

Jun 22, 14


Oct 01, 14

Oct 01, 14

Feb 17, 15

Jan 16, 15

Jul 20, 15

Jun 28, 15


Sep 13, 15

Sep 13, 15

Mar 01, 16

Dec 25, 15

Jun 17, 16

Jun 17, 16

Table 4 – Main characteristics of the daily tension bell-shaped curve (onset, peak, and end) versus time. Values in brackets show the tension (in mVolt) at the onset, peak, and end days, respectively

Figure 15 shows the trend of the daily tension of the capacitors (for the whole monitored period, 2011-2016) at the start, peak, and end days. From the figure it can be clearly seen when the capacitors were active and where peaks or maximum values occurred.

Figure 15 – Trend of the daily tension on the two capacitors at the start (onset), peak, and end days

This cyclical or pulsatory behaviour of the capacitors, that starts in late September/October and ends in May/July (and peaking in January/March) might be correlated to the general pulsatory movement of the atmospheric orgone energy envelope, that is expanding and contracting during the year, and more specifically is contracting during the winter months, and expanding during the summer months. This behaviour in turn reflects in a more concentrated amount of orgone energy units at the Earth’s surface, with a higher orgonomic potential than that available in the summer months, where the concentration of orgone energy units at the surface, and the related orgonomic potential is lower.

The pulsatory phenomenon of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth was originally observed and hypothesized by Reich (5):

“The OR energy envelope expands and reaches far out into space in good weather; on the other hand, it withdraws and concentrates at the surface of the globe before the onset of bad weather.
The total contraction and expansion of the atmospheric OR energy envelope in certain regions is best expressed in the functions of nature which we observe in spring and autumn. Most of the phenomena we encounter on our wanderings through the countryside during these two periods fall into a comprehensive setting if we see them in the light of a contracting and expanding OR energy envelope of the Earth. .. .. The OR energy contracts and expands as a total energy SYSTEM. …..



Tendency toward:

Tendency toward:





“cold,” freezing

“heat,” expansion

autumn, winter

spring, summer

strong potential differences

even distribution of OR energy”

The pulsatory movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth have been independently confirmed in the past by the studies carried out by Baker and Maglione. They observed an annual variation of the monthly average values of the final deflection of the electroscope leaf, and of the radioactivity (as measured by a Geiger-Muller counter) inside orgone accumulators, respectively.

Figure 16 shows the trend of the annual variation of the monthly average of the radioactivity readings (red square), as measured by Maglione inside a 5-fold orgone accumulator in the period from November 2007 and October 2011; and of the monthly average of the electroscope (final) deflection (blue square), as reported by Baker (figure 1 in the original paper (6) ), for a period extending from August 1975 to August 1976 (7).

Figure 16 – Annual variation of the radioactive (after Maglione), and electroscopic (after Baker) fields inside orgone accumulators

From the above figure it can be observed that the annual trend of the radioactive field, and of the electroscopic charge are strikingly parallel; with minimum values in the summer time (and both bottoming out in September), and both peaking in the winter months. This result might provide a direct indication of the response of orgone accumulators to the outside concentration of the atmospheric orgone energy, which is lower in the Summer, and higher during the Winter. This might be the consequence and a confirmation of the annual contraction/expansion movement of the orgone energy envelope of the Earth, which concentrates more orgone energy (units) on the Earth’s surface during the wintry contracted state, and less during the expanded state typical of the summer months, being electroscope charge activity and radioactivity secondary states or expressions of the same primary orgone energy field at the Earth’s surface, and hence direct indicators of the behaviour of the primary orgone energy field (8).

By comparing the average annual trend of the tension at the capacitors to the annual trends from the studies of Baker’s and Maglione’s, a striking similarity can be observed in that the peaks of the tube capacitors tensions occur (from January to March) approximatively in the same period of time of the maximum variation observed for the electroscope final leaf deflection (and hence of the electroscope charge) (from November to March), and for the radioactivity (from December to February).

We might therefore deduce that the tension (and hence the associated generation of electrical current) at the tube capacitors might be a function of the pulsatory behaviour of the local energy orgone field at the Earth’s surface, at least as far as the peak values of the tension is concerned. Indeed, we did not observe a minimum value or a bottoming out of the tension at the tube capacitors in the summer months, as instead was observed for the electroscope and the Geiger-Muller counter trends. In this spell there was no electric tension, and hence no electrical currents generated by the capacitors.

To explain this, we may resort to the orgasm formula Reich conceived when studying the behaviour of human beings, and subsequently when studying the natural phenomena. Reich saw the orgasm formula can be applied, not only to the behaviour of human beings, but also to any orgonotic system in nature. According to Reich, we have (9):

tension → charge → discharge → relaxation

During the tension and charge phases the orgonotic system undergoes a build-up and an increase of its orgonomic potential by accumulating orgone energy from the surrounding environment, until the system reaches the maximum orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity, or the maximum capacity to hold (or store) orgone energy units. When the system can no longer sustain a further accumulation of orgone energy units it discharges completely the orgone energy accumulated and its orgonomic potential comes back to that of the original conditions of the system. This phenomenon can occur during the orgasm, or in other instances such as during the formation of a cloud system through the local accumulation of the surrounding atmospheric orgone energy. When the cloud system reaches the maximum holding capacity, and can no longer sustain further accumulation of orgone energy it discharges the energy absorbed via rain and lightning (mechanical potential). In doing so, the cloud system disappears (relaxation phase) and the orgonomic potential of the system is back to the original atmospheric orgonomic potential. Thus, Reich found out that an orgone energy metabolism would exist and be at work in the living organism as well as in orgone apparatuses or in any other orgonotic system.

The following scheme in figure 17 represents the orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system.

Figure 17 – Orgasm formula for a generic orgonotic system

The tube capacitors can be considered artificial orgonotic systems, characterized by a well-defined orgonotic capacity, or by a well-defined maximum capacity to hold or store orgone energy units. By its nature a tube capacitor accumulates and holds the orgone energy available in the environment in which it is located (in our case that of the Earth’s surface at a particular latitude and longitude) inside the alternated organic/inorganic layers that is made of. As long as the environmental orgonomic potential, in which the capacitor is immersed, is lower (line A1D1 in figure 18) than the minimum orgonomic potential (line AD in figure 18), above which the orgone charge-discharge metabolism in the capacitor starts, no orgone charge-discharge cycle can occur. But, when the minimum orgonomic potential of the environment is exceeding this value, the capacitor observes a charge-discharge metabolism even though not continuous, occurring from time to time. And this discharge is evidenced by the formation of an electrical tension at the capacitor, and of an associated generation of electrical current, as we observe at the beginning of the bell-shaped trend of the tension (the period September-October in figures 8 and 9). However, when the orgonomic potential, in which the tube capacitor is found, is continuously increasing (line B1C1 in figure 18) and all the time is higher than that that characterizes the maximum holding capacity of the capacitor (line BC in figure 18), a continuous orgone energy accumulation followed by a continuous discharge of the capacitor via electrical tension and current may be seen (in the period November-April) (figures 8 and 9). This phenomenon is going on until when the environmental orgonomic potential decreases again to a value lower than that peculiar of the capacitor (line BC). At this point in the capacitor a discontinuous orgone charge-discharge metabolism starts again (as we observe at the end of the bell-shaped curve, in the period May-June in figures 8 and 9), until when the orgonomic potential of the environment (line A1D1) decreases again below the minimum required for the capacitors to charge and discharge (line AD) and the orgone metabolism ceases and charge-discharge no longer occurs (period from June to September in figures 8 and 9). As a consequence also the tension and the production of electricity ceases.

The following scheme in figure 18 represents the above situation, where line A1D1 represents the minimum orgonomic potential reached by the environment in which the capacitor is immersed and no orgone metabolism by the capacitor does exist (in our case during summer months); and line B1C1 represents the maximum orgonomic potential reached by the same environment (during the wintry period), characterized by a continuous charge-discharge metabolism of orgone energy of the capacitor. Intermediate positions of the orgonomic potential of the environment occurs during the other months of the year according to the pulsatory nature of the local atmospheric environment.

Figure 18 – Orgasm formula applied to a tube capacitor immersed in an atmospheric orgone energy field

The above pulsatory behaviour typical of the atmosphere (from A1D1 to B1C1, and back to A1D1 again) is what might have affected the performance of the two tube capacitors during the whole year, and particularly in the period from September/October to May/June where a flow of electric current was observed, as a consequence of the orgone energy metabolism, first discontinuously (from AD to BC); then continuously (from BC to B1C1 and back again to BC); and then discontinuously again (from BC to AD). This phenomenon is cyclic and is repeating every year according to the cyclical contraction/expansion behaviour of the local orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface.

Being OPE, the orgonomic potential of the environment, in which the tube capacitor was immersed, and TC the tension at the tube capacitor, it can be hence understood that:

TC α OPE                                           for OPE ≥ OPAD,


TC = 0                                                   for OPE < OPAD

and more specifically:

TC > 0 (discontinuous)            for OPAD ≤ OPE ≤ OPBC,

TC > 0 (continuous)     for OPE  > OPBC,

where OPBC is the critical environment orgonomic potential that corresponds to the maximum orgonotic capacity level of the capacitor to hold or accumulate orgone energy units; while OPAD is the minimum orgonomic potential that still guarantees a charge and discharge of the capacitors.
In particular, if between the two orgonomic potentials OPAD and OPBC the charge-discharge metabolism is not continuous and requires some time for the capacitors to recharge and discharge again; the charge-discharge metabolism for values of the environment orgonomic potential OPE higher than OPBC seems to be instantaneous and continuous.
It must be outlined here that the value of TC might be considered also a function of the construction characteristic of the tube capacitors, i.e., materials used, sizes, etc. As a consequence, in the same experimental conditions tube capacitors with different construction characteristics might behave in a different way.

If we consider the trend of the radioactivity and of the electroscope leaf deflection, as shown in figure 19, we can observe that the capacitors are active (namely producing a tension and generating an associated electric current) for values of the monthly radioactivity higher than around 22.2 counts per minute (CPM), and for values of the monthly electroscope leaf deflection higher than around 19.0 degree; while for values of the monthly radioactivity lower than around 22.2 counts per minute (red dotted area), and for values of the electroscope monthly deflection lower than around 19.0 degree (blue dotted area), the two tube capacitors are dormant.

Figure 19 – Radioactivity (red dotted area), and electroscope leaf deflection (blue dotted area) range in which the two tube capacitors were unresponsive

The three cyclical trends (those regarding the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf deflection, and that regarding the electric tension) are comparable since the local orgone energy field pulsation is behaving approximately in the same way being the sites, in which the measurements were performed, located at around the same latitude. As a consequence, expansion and contraction movements of the orgone energy envelope at the Earth’s surface might be considered to follow the same path even though the sites of the measurements are quite distant, above all that one regarding the electroscope measurements (carried out by Baker in Eastern Pennsylvania) (10) .
It is clear from the above graphs that the tension (and the associated electrical current) at the tube capacitors, as well as the radioactivity and the electroscope leaf, were affected by a similar orgonomic potential of the local environment orgone energy.

The blue and red continuous lines in figures 19 are different expressions of the same environmental orgone energy pulsatory movement that in figure 18 is represented to move from A1D1 to B1C1 and back again to A1D1. While the line AD represents the critical (minimum) value of the environment orgone energy (corresponding to the red and blue dotted lines in figure 19) below which the tube capacitor is inactive (or dormant) and does not produce any secondary physical effects; while above which electric tension and current is detected.  

All in all, it would appear that the tube capacitors only gather a tension and an electrical charge when the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, in which they are immersed, is higher than the minimum orgonomic potential required by the orgone accumulating-type devices to produce a charge-discharge metabolism. In case the natural orgonomic potential of the environment exceeds the maximum orgonomic potential (or the maximum orgonotic capacity to hold an orgone charge) characteristic of the tube capacitors the charge-discharge metabolism is continuous.

According to what has been discussed above, for a given tube capacitor reduction of the dormant period, and increase of the tension and of the associated electrical current in periods of activity, it can only be done artificially by increasing the natural orgonomic potential of the environment, OPE, in which the capacitor is immersed. Increasing OPE from A1D1 to an orgonomic potential higher than OPBC, for instance A2D2 (see figure 20), in periods of no activity (when the capacitor is dormant), means having the generation of an electric tension at the tube capacitor for all the period where the orgonomic potential is artificially maintained at A2D2. In addition, increasing the maximum naturally-available OPE to values higher than B1C1, i.e. B2C2 (see figure 20), allows to have higher values of the tension from the tube capacitor even in periods where the capacitor is already producing a tension, being the response of the capacitor directly proportional to the orgonomic potential in which it is immersed. In addition, for OPE ≥ OPBC there should not be a charge-discharge phase but only one continuous phase that includes simultaneous charge and discharge, as observed in the winter months where the production of electricity was continuous all over the period.

Figure 20 – Behaviour of the local environment orgonomic potential when artificially increased

From accounts of witnesses of the orgone motor, it emerged that Reich, in one of his prototypes, connected the Western Electric KS-9154 motor to an orgone accumulator in order to get it run (11). As we saw in our earlier laboratory experiments a very small tension and current may be available from a small orgone accumulator, and hence different types of arrangements or possibly procedures might have been used by Reich to produce a tension sufficient to run the motor. In addition, demonstration of the functioning of the orgone motor occurred during the First International Conference, that was held at Orgonon between the end of August and beginning of September, 1948, in a period where we observed the tube capacitors we tested in our laboratory in Italy were still dormant and producing no electricity. We might assume that also during the demonstration done by Reich the orgone accumulator, connected to the motor, were not producing any amount of electricity in the case that it resorted only to the natural orgonomic potential of the environment. Hence, the electricity required to run the motor must have been produced in some other ways. We know from the accounts of his collaborators that Reich might have excited the orgone energy units contained inside the orgone accumulator by a small amount of electricity (12) (a half Volt battery). In our view, this can be understood as a way to artificially increase the orgonomic potential of the concentrated orgone energy to a level high enough to produce the electricity required to start and run the motor. However, it is not clear for how long the motor run when the battery was disconnected from the arrangement, and functioned because of the action of the excited concentrated orgone units only, being reasonable to think that after disconnection the excitation of the orgone units decreased until it disappeared after a certain period of time. No information has ever been reported on this point in the literature either by Reich nor by his collaborators. Possibly, the aim of the above arrangement was only to demonstrate the mechanical qualities of the orgone units when excited. And, Reich might have devised a different and also cheaper way to produce a more continuous and higher excitation of the orgone energy such as that of using a small source of radioactive material as suggested in the Oranur Experiment book (13):

“5. The formation of concentrations to single distinct units follows upon excitation of the OR energy ocean in various ways: presence of other orgonotic systems, electromagnetic sparks, metallic obstacles, and, foremost nuclear energy (cf. p. 267 ff.).”

A further very important point is related to the fact the orgone motor was behaving like a hysterical woman, as reported by Baker (14), and by his second wife Ilse Ollendorf (15). The running of the orgone motor was noisy, and a clean-up was required for a good functioning. Reich might have well referred to the inversion of polarity of the tension produced by the orgone devices, as we observed in our capacitors, and that are described by the trend of the tension in figure 8. We do not know the exact reason of this phenomenon. We observed it is related to the construction characteristics of the capacitor but we can also suppose it could be related to the environment orgonomic potential itself. However, inversion of polarity either continuous and progressive, as that shown by the 1C/1A capacitor, or occasional, were not due to the tube capacitors position since they neither touched nor got close to each other. In addition, the measuring device was located in a different room and no effect might have been produced by on the polarity. In any case this might be the proof that the electric current is not generated neither by electrochemical phenomena (due to the paper foils of the capacitor that touch the aluminum foils) nor by contact between metals.

The tube capacitor 2C/1A with the lower capacity value (103 nFarad) seems to show a more stable polarity of the generated tension. This may be due to the higher thickness of the organic layers of the capacitor (in this case paper) or the higher mass. The tube capacitor with the higher capacity (1C/1A with 182 nFarad) is consisting of one sheet of paper alternated to one foil of aluminum layer and hence is characterized by half the thickness and mass of organic material (paper). Hence, it can be argued that better and more stable performances might be due to the higher amount of organic material used to build the capacitors.

The phenomenon of the inversion of polarity was also observed by Zamboni during the development of his dry piles (16):

“Una pila di questo genere ch’era riuscita molto energica la mattina, si vedea alle volte illanguidir sulla sera: cinquanta coppie di una carta non davano in certi giorni la tensione, data nello stesso momento dalle sole dieci di un’altra: l’aria umida egualmente che la secca, parea dare la vita ad alcune, ad altre la morte; e quel che è più, vedeasi persino rovesciarsi in alcune la polarità elettrica, e dove jeri aveano il polo negativo sulla faccia metallica, e il positivo nel rovescio, oggi tutto al contrario….”

“A battery of this kind might show a good tension in the morning, which might vanish in the evening: fifty couples of one type of paper did not give on some days the tension produced at the same moment by ten (couples) of another (paper): wet air, as well as dry air, seemed to give life to some, and death to others; and in some cases electric polarity was found to reverse, and where the day before we had the negative pole on the metallic side, and the positive one on the other side, the day after we observed the opposite ….”

It is possible that the erratic behaviour of the arrangements of Zamboni’s dry piles is the same phenomenon we observed in the functioning of our tube capacitors, and that Reich observed in his orgone motor when run by excited orgone energy alone. An erratic behaviour that resembled the hysterical woman-like behaviour.   
Zamboni solved the point by introducing in his piles alternated layers of silver paper disk (a paper with a thin layer of tin or a copper-zinc alloy on one side) and gilded paper disk (a paper smeared with manganese oxide or copper powder on one side). He saw that by introducing this arrangement the polarity of the tension, that was seen to be affected by variations of the weather and the time of day, stabilized.

In this paper we described the spontaneous formation of few mVolt of tension in orgone accumulating-type devices. This tension and the related charge fluctuate in annual cycles. Tension and electrical charge do not appear to be explained by electrostatic, electromagnetic, and chemical reactions.
In the next and last paper the results obtained by artificially increasing the local orgonomic potential in one of the two tube capacitors will be discussed. A hypothesis about the Y-factor will be also developed and included in the paper.


(1). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 83-125.

(2). Maglione R, The Legendary Shamir, Gedi Gruppo Editoriale, 2017, Milan, pages 43-65.

(3). In all instances a p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

(4). Reich W, The Cancer Biopathy, Orgone Institute Press, New York, 1948, pages 132-142. See also Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, pages 88 and 89.

(5). Reich W, OROP Desert. Part 1: Spaceships, DOR and Drought. Chapter 1. Expansion and Contraction in the Atmospheric OR Energy, Cosmic Orgone Engineering, Orgone Institute Press, Maine, Usa, Vol. VI, N° 14, July 1954, pages 1 (top), and 5-7 (bottom).

(6). Baker CF, The Electroscope IV: Atmospheric Pulsation, Journal of Orgonomy, 11(1):35-48, 1977.

(7). Maglione R, Methods and Procedures in Biophysical Orgonometry, Gruppo Editoriale l’Espresso, Milan, April 2012, page 137.

(8). Maglione R, Ibid, 2012.

(9). Reich W, The Function of the Orgasm, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York, 1973.

(10). Latitude and longitude of the sites where Baker did electroscopic measurements (Ambler, Pennsylvania), Maglione did radioactivity measurements (Vercelli, Italy), and those of the present study (Sassuolo, Italy) were, respectively: Ambler, Pennsylvania, latitude 40° 09’ 18” N (40.1545535),  longitude 75° 13’ 13” W (-75.2215651); Vercelli, Italy, 45° 19′ 0" N (45.3166667), longitude 8° 25′ 0" E (8.4166667); and Sassuolo, Italy, latitude 44° 40′ 0" N (44.6666667), longitude 10° 55′ 0" E (10.9166667). As to the site in which Baker carried out his measurements we assumed they were performed in Ambler, Pennsylvania, the location where usually Baker conducted all his scientific activities. In the paper, published on the Journal of Orgonomy regarding his research experience (Vol. 11(1), 1977), Baker reported the measurements were performed in Eastern Pennsylvania, without giving more specific details on the site.

(11). Maglione R, Electric Currents in Orgone Devices. The Route towards the Reich Orgone Motor? A State of the Art, Journal of Psychiatric Orgone Therapy, August 27, 2017.

(12). Maglione R, Ibid, August 27, 2017.

(13). Reich W, The Oranur Experiment: First Report (1947-1951), The Wilhelm Reich Foundation, Rangeley, Maine, 1951, page 199.

(14). Baker EF, My Eleven Years with Reich, ACO Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 2001, pages 32 and 33.

(15). Ollendorf I, Wilhelm Reich. A Personal Biography, St Martin’s, New York, 1969, page 117.

(16). Zamboni G, Lettera all’Accademia Reale delle Scienze di Monaco dell’Abate Giuseppe Zamboni Sopra i Miglioramenti da Lui Fatti alla Sua Pila Elettrica, Tipografia Ramanzini, Verona, 1816.


The authors wish to thank Leon Southgate for the critical review of the final manuscript.


Roberto Maglione – 1 Scholar, and author in orgonomy. Italy www.orgonenergy.org

Degree in Mining Engineering.

Dionisio Ferrari – Electronic technician specialized in electroacoustics. Scholar in orgonomy, and manufacturer of orgone accumulators. www.dionisioferrari.it


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